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MeSH Review

Africa South of the Sahara

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Disease relevance of Africa South of the Sahara


High impact information on Africa South of the Sahara

  • Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum are the major causes of human malaria, except in sub-Saharan Africa where people lack the Duffy blood group antigen, the erythrocyte receptor for P. vivax [6].
  • New phylogenies were recently proposed by White and Harris, who recognized 7 genera and 16 species of fossil and extant suids from sub-Saharan Africa. This scheme is regarded here as oversimplified and an alternative is suggested, in which 9 genera and 21 species are recognized [7].
  • Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis in sub-Saharan Africa [8].
  • INTERPRETATION: This study identifies bathing in contaminated surface water as a major risk factor for cholera in sub-Saharan Africa, and suggests that improving the quality of drinking water alone will have only limited impact on the transmission of the disease in the Great Rift Valley Lake region [9].
  • The lactase-persistence phenotype is found at low frequencies in the majority of populations in sub-Saharan Africa that have been tested, but, in some populations, particularly pastoral groups, it is significantly more frequent [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Africa South of the Sahara


Biological context of Africa South of the Sahara


Associations of Africa South of the Sahara with chemical compounds


Gene context of Africa South of the Sahara

  • Cervical cancer is thus considered an important clinical problem in sub-Saharan AFRICA: Recent studies have suggested that epithelial tumors may be regulated by cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme products [26].
  • In contrast, there is evidence that for some intracellular parasites MBL deficiency may be protective and this might explain the high frequency of MBL mutations in sub-Saharan Africa and South America. Increasingly, there is evidence that the association between MBL levels and disease is complex [27].
  • These data indicate that the birth incidence of FA in this population is higher than 1 in 40 000, which is much higher than previously supposed, and suggest that the FANCG deletion is an ancient founder mutation in Bantu-speaking populations of sub-Saharan Africa. Diagnostic screening is now possible by means of a simple DNA test [28].
  • The G6PD A- allele, which is common in sub-Saharan Africa, is associated with deficient enzyme activity and protection from severe malaria [29].
  • Four of the seven systems (F13A, ORM1, AHSG, C6) have not been studied previously in sub-Saharan Africa, and one system (C7) has never been examined in any population of African ancestry [30].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Africa South of the Sahara


  1. Iron overload in Africa. Interaction between a gene and dietary iron content. Gordeuk, V., Mukiibi, J., Hasstedt, S.J., Samowitz, W., Edwards, C.Q., West, G., Ndambire, S., Emmanual, J., Nkanza, N., Chapanduka, Z. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Cost-effectiveness of zidovudine to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Mansergh, G., Haddix, A.C., Steketee, R.W., Simonds, R.J. JAMA (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Long-term malaria prophylaxis with weekly mefloquine. Lobel, H.O., Miani, M., Eng, T., Bernard, K.W., Hightower, A.W., Campbell, C.C. Lancet (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase: a target for drugs in African trypanosomes. Hanau, S., Rinaldi, E., Dallocchio, F., Gilbert, I.H., Dardonville, C., Adams, M.J., Gover, S., Barrett, M.P. Current medicinal chemistry. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Characterization of V3 sequence heterogeneity in subtype C human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates from Malawi: underrepresentation of X4 variants. Ping, L.H., Nelson, J.A., Hoffman, I.F., Schock, J., Lamers, S.L., Goodman, M., Vernazza, P., Kazembe, P., Maida, M., Zimba, D., Goodenow, M.M., Eron, J.J., Fiscus, S.A., Cohen, M.S., Swanstrom, R. J. Virol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. A receptor for the malarial parasite Plasmodium vivax: the erythrocyte chemokine receptor. Horuk, R., Chitnis, C.E., Darbonne, W.C., Colby, T.J., Rybicki, A., Hadley, T.J., Miller, L.H. Science (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Suid evolution and correlation of African hominid localities: an alternative taxonomy. Cooke, H.B. Science (1978) [Pubmed]
  8. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis in sub-Saharan Africa. Anglaret, X. Lancet (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Epidemic cholera in Burundi: patterns of transmission in the Great Rift Valley Lake region. Birmingham, M.E., Lee, L.A., Ndayimirije, N., Nkurikiye, S., Hersh, B.S., Wells, J.G., Deming, M.S. Lancet (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. The T allele of a single-nucleotide polymorphism 13.9 kb upstream of the lactase gene (LCT) (C-13.9kbT) does not predict or cause the lactase-persistence phenotype in Africans. Mulcare, C.A., Weale, M.E., Jones, A.L., Connell, B., Zeitlyn, D., Tarekegn, A., Swallow, D.M., Bradman, N., Thomas, M.G. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Molecular evidence of greater selective pressure for drug resistance exerted by the long-acting antifolate Pyrimethamine/Sulfadoxine compared with the shorter-acting chlorproguanil/dapsone on Kenyan Plasmodium falciparum. Nzila, A.M., Nduati, E., Mberu, E.K., Hopkins Sibley, C., Monks, S.A., Winstanley, P.A., Watkins, W.M. J. Infect. Dis. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Meningococcal meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa: the case for mass and routine vaccination with available polysaccharide vaccines. Robbins, J.B., Schneerson, R., Gotschlich, E.C., Mohammed, I., Nasidi, A., Chippaux, J.P., Bernardino, L., Maiga, M.A. Bull. World Health Organ. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. A randomized clinical trial comparing single- and multi-dose combination therapy with diethylcarbamazine and albendazole for treatment of bancroftian filariasis. El Setouhy, M., Ramzy, R.M., Ahmed, E.S., Kandil, A.M., Hussain, O., Farid, H.A., Helmy, H., Weil, G.J. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Malaria in pregnancy: its relevance to safe-motherhood programmes. Shulman, C.E. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Evaluation of the efficacy of pyrantel-oxantel for the treatment of soil-transmitted nematode infections. Albonico, M., Bickle, Q., Haji, H.J., Ramsan, M., Khatib, K.J., Montresor, A., Savioli, L., Taylor, M. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. A back migration from Asia to sub-Saharan Africa is supported by high-resolution analysis of human Y-chromosome haplotypes. Cruciani, F., Santolamazza, P., Shen, P., Macaulay, V., Moral, P., Olckers, A., Modiano, D., Holmes, S., Destro-Bisol, G., Coia, V., Wallace, D.C., Oefner, P.J., Torroni, A., Cavalli-Sforza, L.L., Scozzari, R., Underhill, P.A. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Caffeine and intraocular pressure in a Nigerian population. Ajayi, O.B., Ukwade, M.T. Journal of glaucoma. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. A study of Y-chromosome microsatellite variation in sub-Saharan Africa: a comparison between F(ST) and R(ST) genetic distances. Caglià, A., Tofanelli, S., Coia, V., Boschi, I., Pescarmona, M., Spedini, G., Pascali, V., Paoli, G., Destro-Bisol, G. Hum. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. IgG glycosylation in association with tropical infections and rheumatoid arthritis in the tropics. Adebajo, A.O., Hazelman, B.L. Clinical and experimental rheumatology. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Superimposing polymorphism: the case of a point mutation within a polymorphic Alu insertion. Martinez, L., Reategui, E.P., Fonseca, L.R., Sierra-Montes, J.M., Terreros, M.C., Pereira-Simon, S., Herrera, R.J. Hum. Hered. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Epidemiological evidence for an association between chloroquine resistance of Plasmodium falciparum and its immunological properties. Koella, J.C. Parasitol. Today (Regul. Ed.) (1993) [Pubmed]
  22. Nonoxynol-9 100 mg gel: multi-site safety study from sub-Saharan Africa. Hoffman, I.F., Taha, T.E., Padian, N.S., Kelly, C.W., Welch, J.D., Martinson, F.E., Kumwenda, N.I., Rosenberg, Z.F., Chilongozi, D.A., Brown, J.M., Chirenje, M., Richardson, B.A. AIDS (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Instability of lopinavir/ritonavir capsules at ambient temperatures in sub-Saharan Africa: relevance to WHO antiretroviral guidelines. Pau, A.K., Moodley, N.K., Holland, D.T., Fomundam, H., Matchaba, G.U., Capparelli, E.V. AIDS (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. p53 gene mutation spectrum in hepatocellular carcinomas in Hong Kong Chinese. Ng, I.O., Chung, L.P., Tsang, S.W., Lam, C.L., Lai, E.C., Fan, S.T., Ng, M. Oncogene (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Multilocus analysis of introgression between two sympatric sister species of Drosophila: Drosophila yakuba and D. santomea. Llopart, A., Lachaise, D., Coyne, J.A. Genetics (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression and prostaglandin E(2) synthesis are up-regulated in carcinomas of the cervix: a possible autocrine/paracrine regulation of neoplastic cell function via EP2/EP4 receptors. Sales, K.J., Katz, A.A., Davis, M., Hinz, S., Soeters, R.P., Hofmeyr, M.D., Millar, R.P., Jabbour, H.N. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. The role of mannose-binding lectin in health and disease. Turner, M.W. Mol. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. A common Fanconi anemia mutation in black populations of sub-Saharan Africa. Morgan, N.V., Essop, F., Demuth, I., de Ravel, T., Jansen, S., Tischkowitz, M., Lewis, C.M., Wainwright, L., Poole, J., Joenje, H., Digweed, M., Krause, A., Mathew, C.G. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  29. The extent of linkage disequilibrium caused by selection on G6PD in humans. Saunders, M.A., Slatkin, M., Garner, C., Hammer, M.F., Nachman, M.W. Genetics (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Genetic studies on the Senegal population. II. Polymorphisms of the plasma proteins F13A, F13B, ORM1, AHSG, C6, C7, and APOC2. Corbo, R.M., Scacchi, R., Cossu, G., Brega, A., Scozzari, R. Hum. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  31. When to initiate highly active antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa? A South African cost-effectiveness study. Badri, M., Cleary, S., Maartens, G., Pitt, J., Bekker, L.G., Orrell, C., Wood, R. Antivir. Ther. (Lond.) (2006) [Pubmed]
  32. The efficacy of permethrin-treated bed nets on child mortality and morbidity in western Kenya I. Development of infrastructure and description of study site. Phillips-Howard, P.A., Nahlen, B.L., Alaii, J.A., ter Kuile, F.O., Gimnig, J.E., Terlouw, D.J., Kachur, S.P., Hightower, A.W., Lal, A.A., Schoute, E., Oloo, A.J., Hawley, W.A. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. Compliance with and tolerance of mefloquine and chloroquine + proguanil malaria chemoprophylaxis in French short-term travellers to sub-Saharan Africa. Carme, B., Peguet, C., Nevez, G. Trop. Med. Int. Health (1997) [Pubmed]
  34. Plasmodium falciparum dhfr but not dhps mutations associated with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine treatment failure and gametocyte carriage in northern Ghana. Mockenhaupt, F.P., Teun Bousema, J., Eggelte, T.A., Schreiber, J., Ehrhardt, S., Wassilew, N., Otchwemah, R.N., Sauerwein, R.W., Bienzle, U. Trop. Med. Int. Health (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. The Cape Town Palliative Care Declaration: home-grown solutions for sub-Saharan Africa. Mpanga Sebuyira, L., Mwangi-Powell, F., Pereira, J., Spence, C. Journal of palliative medicine. (2003) [Pubmed]
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