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MeSH Review

Chewing Gum

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Disease relevance of Chewing Gum


Psychiatry related information on Chewing Gum


High impact information on Chewing Gum

  • The use of nicotine chewing gum combined with psychological support improves the success rate in quitting smoking [9].
  • BACKGROUND: Insulin sensitivity and cardiovascular risk profile were examined in 20 healthy, nonobese, middle-aged men who were long-term users of nicotine-containing chewing gum and in 20 matched control subjects who did not use nicotine [10].
  • Other dietary factors (eg, the presence of buffers in dairy products; the use of sugarless chewing gum, particularly gum containing xylitol; and the consumption of sugars as part of meals rather than between meals) may reduce the risk of caries [11].
  • OBJECTIVE: We assessed the acute thermogenic effects of chewing gum containing different doses of nicotine and caffeine [12].
  • For those TD patients on haloperidol, significant reductions occurred in tic frequency and severity during the gum-chewing and the two postgum-chewing periods [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of Chewing Gum


Biological context of Chewing Gum


Anatomical context of Chewing Gum


Associations of Chewing Gum with chemical compounds

  • We studied the effectiveness of chewing gum containing nicotine, in combination with group counseling, for subjects who were attempting to stop smoking [27].
  • An application study on the release of menthone and menthol from chewing gum by a group of six test persons was performed [28].
  • We thus hypothesized that 5-HT descending inhibitory pathways may be enhanced by rhythmic behavior of gum chewing in humans [29].
  • Effect of after-meal sucrose-free gum-chewing on clinical caries [30].
  • Subjects in the "Gum" group were instructed to chew one stick of a commercially available sorbitol-sweetened chewing gum for 20 minutes after meals, three times daily [30].

Gene context of Chewing Gum

  • The response of plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) to nicotine administered by chewing gum (Nicorette, 2 mg) was examined in nine healthy volunteers [31].
  • Remineralization of enamel subsurface lesions by sugar-free chewing gum containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate [32].
  • Chewing gum on a Laryngeal Mask Airway [33].
  • NPO includes chewing gum [34].
  • More than 2/3 of the patients found the mucin chewing gum efficient at various times and situations [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Chewing Gum


  1. Plasma nicotine levels produced by chewing nicotine gum. McNabb, M.E., Ebert, R.V., McCusker, K. JAMA (1982) [Pubmed]
  2. The effects of xylitol-containing chewing gums on dental plaque and acidogenic potential. Scheie, A.A., Fejerskov, O., Danielsen, B. J. Dent. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Occurrence of dental decay in children after maternal consumption of xylitol chewing gum, a follow-up from 0 to 5 years of age. Isokangas, P., Söderling, E., Pienihäkkinen, K., Alanen, P. J. Dent. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. The short-term effect of nicotine chewing gum in patients with Parkinson's disease. Clemens, P., Baron, J.A., Coffey, D., Reeves, A. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Silver acetate gum as a deterrent to smoking. Malcolm, R., Currey, H.S., Mitchell, M.A., Keil, J.E. Chest (1986) [Pubmed]
  6. Prospective study on the effect of smoking and nicotine substitution on leucocyte blood counts and relation between blood leucocytes and lung function. Jensen, E.J., Pedersen, B., Frederiksen, R., Dahl, R. Thorax (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Time course of cigarette withdrawal symptoms during four weeks of treatment with nicotine chewing gum. West, R.J., Hajek, P., Belcher, M. Addictive behaviors. (1987) [Pubmed]
  8. Cardiovascular, electrocortical, and behavioral effects of nicotine chewing gum. Michel, C., Hasenfratz, M., Nil, R., Bättig, K. Klin. Wochenschr. (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. A double-blind trial of a 16-hour transdermal nicotine patch in smoking cessation. Tønnesen, P., Nørregaard, J., Simonsen, K., Säwe, U. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. Long-term use of nicotine gum is associated with hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. Eliasson, B., Taskinen, M.R., Smith, U. Circulation (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Sugars and dental caries. Touger-Decker, R., van Loveren, C. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Effect of chewing gum containing nicotine and caffeine on energy expenditure and substrate utilization in men. Jessen, A.B., Toubro, S., Astrup, A. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. The effects of nicotine plus haloperidol compared to nicotine only and placebo nicotine only in reducing tic severity and frequency in Tourette's disorder. McConville, B.J., Sanberg, P.R., Fogelson, M.H., King, J., Cirino, P., Parker, K.W., Norman, A.B. Biol. Psychiatry (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. Effect of sorbitol, xylitol, and xylitol/sorbitol chewing gums on dental plaque. Söderling, E., Mäkinen, K.K., Chen, C.Y., Pape, H.R., Loesche, W., Mäkinen, P.L. Caries Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  15. Effect of urea in sugar-free chewing gums on pH recovery in human dental plaque evaluated with three different methods. Imfeld, T., Birkhed, D., Lingström, P. Caries Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Role of cold receptors and menthol in thirst, the drive to breathe and arousal. Eccles, R. Appetite. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Effects on dental caries incidence of frequent ingestion of small amounts of sugars and stannous EDTA in chewing gum. Glass, R.L. Caries Res. (1981) [Pubmed]
  18. The management of xerostomia in patients on haemodialysis: comparison of artificial saliva and chewing gum. Bots, C.P., Brand, H.S., Veerman, E.C., Valentijn-Benz, M., Van Amerongen, B.M., Nieuw Amerongen, A.V., Valentijn, R.M., Vos, P.F., Bijlsma, J.A., Bezemer, P.D., ter Wee, P.M. Palliative medicine. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Changes in cardiovascular risk profile during the cessation of smoking. Terres, W., Becker, P., Rosenberg, A. Am. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. Nicotine enhances the circulatory effects of adenosine in human beings. Smits, P., Eijsbouts, A., Thien, T. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1989) [Pubmed]
  21. Nicotine chewing gum: effectiveness and the influence of patient education in a family practice. Shaughnessy, A.F., Davis, R.E., Reeder, C.E. The Journal of family practice. (1987) [Pubmed]
  22. Maternal smoking and fetal breathing movements. Gennser, G., Marsál, K., Brantmark, B. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  23. The rate of absorption and relative bioavailability of caffeine administered in chewing gum versus capsules to normal healthy volunteers. Kamimori, G.H., Karyekar, C.S., Otterstetter, R., Cox, D.S., Balkin, T.J., Belenky, G.L., Eddington, N.D. International journal of pharmaceutics. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Fluoride and urea chewing gums in an intra-oral experimental caries model. Sjögren, K., Ruben, J., Lingström, P., Lundberg, A.B., Birkhed, D. Caries Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Characteristics of the gum chewing occlusal phase in children with primary dentition. Saitoh, I., Hayasaki, H., Nakata, S., Iwase, Y., Nakata, M. Journal of oral rehabilitation. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Miconazole chewing gum for treatment of chronic oral candidosis. Rindum, J.L., Holmstrup, P., Pedersen, M., Rassing, M.R., Stoltze, K. Scandinavian journal of dental research. (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. Effect of nicotine chewing gum in combination with group counseling on the cessation of smoking. Tønnesen, P., Fryd, V., Hansen, M., Helsted, J., Gunnersen, A.B., Forchammer, H., Stockner, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  28. Flavor release measurement by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap mass spectrometry, construction of interface and mathematical modeling of release profiles. Haahr, A.M., Madsen, H., Smedsgaard, J., Bredie, W.L., Stahnke, L.H., Refsgaard, H.H. Anal. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Prolonged rhythmic gum chewing suppresses nociceptive response via serotonergic descending inhibitory pathway in humans. Mohri, Y., Fumoto, M., Sato-Suzuki, I., Umino, M., Arita, H. Pain (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Effect of after-meal sucrose-free gum-chewing on clinical caries. Szöke, J., Bánóczy, J., Proskin, H.M. J. Dent. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. Response of plasma arginine vasopressin to nicotine in normal man. Goldsmith, S.R., Katz, A., Crooks, P.A. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1988) [Pubmed]
  32. Remineralization of enamel subsurface lesions by sugar-free chewing gum containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate. Shen, P., Cai, F., Nowicki, A., Vincent, J., Reynolds, E.C. J. Dent. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  33. Chewing gum on a Laryngeal Mask Airway. Wenke, M., Akça, O. Anesthesiology (2002) [Pubmed]
  34. NPO includes chewing gum. Kradel, B., Hackett, A., Johnstone, R. Anesth. Analg. (1992) [Pubmed]
  35. Comparison between new saliva stimulants in patients with dry mouth: a placebo-controlled double-blind crossover study. Aagaard, A., Godiksen, S., Teglers, P.T., Schiødt, M., Glenert, U. J. Oral Pathol. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  36. Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials of nicotine chewing-gum. Lam, W., Sze, P.C., Sacks, H.S., Chalmers, T.C. Lancet (1987) [Pubmed]
  37. The use of nicotine chewing gum as an aid to stopping smoking. Malcolm, R.E., Sillett, R.W., Turner, J.A., Ball, K.P. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1980) [Pubmed]
  38. Xylitol chewing gums and caries rates: a 40-month cohort study. Mäkinen, K.K., Bennett, C.A., Hujoel, P.P., Isokangas, P.J., Isotupa, K.P., Pape, H.R., Mäkinen, P.L. J. Dent. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  39. A novel use of xylitol sugar in preventing acute otitis media. Uhari, M., Kontiokari, T., Niemelä, M. Pediatrics (1998) [Pubmed]
  40. Development and validation of a high-performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of cold relief ingredients in chewing gum. Gasco-Lopez, A.I., Izquierdo-Hornillos, R., Jiminez, A. Journal of chromatography. A. (1997) [Pubmed]
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