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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Phlebography

  • Group 1 (41 patients) received a fixed dose of 3500 IU of heparin subcutaneously ever eight hours; 16 of the 41 (39 per cent) had deep-vein thrombosis diagnosed by venography [1].
  • Ultrasound identified an additional 3 cases of soleal vein thrombosis, but venography did not visualize these veins [2].
  • Computed tomography and adrenal venography with selective adrenal vein catheterization for determination of aldosterone/cortisol ratios were helpful in the distinction between adenoma and bilateral hyperplasia [3].
  • The finding of asymmetrical adrenal uptake of 6-[131I]methyl-19-nor-cholesterol and a tumor image in the right adrenal on venography led to the preoperative diagnosis of pituitary ACTH-dependent adrenal hyperfunction coexisting with a right adrenal adenoma [4].
  • Obesity does not induce abnormal CSF pressure in subjects with normal cerebral MR venography [5].

Psychiatry related information on Phlebography


High impact information on Phlebography

  • RESULTS: Venography was adequate in 116 patients in the placebo group and 117 in the enoxaparin group [7].
  • The overall incidence of venous thrombosis as documented by venography was less in the 53 patients treated with warfarin than in the 37 treated with dextran (21% v 51%), as was the incidence of thrombi in the femoral or popliteal veins (2% v 16%) [8].
  • The diagnosis of DVT was established by an uptake test using fibrinogen labeled with iodine 125; in patients undergoing hip replacement, phlebography was also employed to confirm or refute the presence of isotopic thrombi [9].
  • For comparison venography was carried out on 10 women in whom pathology was considered to be a likely cause for their pain and 8 women admitted for tubal ligation and who had no pain [10].
  • The plasma concentration of the platelet-specific protein beta-thromboglobulin was measured in fourteen patients who had been investigated for deep venous thrombosis by venography or 125I-fibrinogen scanning [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Phlebography


Biological context of Phlebography


Anatomical context of Phlebography


Associations of Phlebography with chemical compounds

  • Of three localizing procedures (selective adrenal venography, adrenal computed tomographic scan, and adrenal venous sampling for plasma aldosterone concentration) the measurement of adrenal venous plasma aldosterone concentration yielded 100 percent accuracy [27].
  • Intracranial venous system: gadolinium-enhanced three-dimensional MR venography with auto-triggered elliptic centric-ordered sequence--initial experience [28].
  • Use of iohexol for venography is associated with minor side effects in approximately one-fifth of patients, and serious adverse reactions necessitating therapy are rare [29].
  • The authors conclude that metrizamide is the contrast medium of choice for phlebography [30].
  • Four of 14 patients receiving meglumine diatrizoate experienced pain during venography, as compared to 14 of 17 patients receiving sodium diatrizoate (p less than 0.004) [12].

Gene context of Phlebography

  • We have studied systemic global fibrinolytic activity and protein concentrations of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) in plasma of 25 young patients with a previous instance of spontaneous deep vein thrombosis documented by phlebography and in 50 healthy controls [31].
  • Using radionuclide and contrast venography as well as necropsy and laparotomy examination, we investigated 162 unselected southern African Blacks with hepatocellular carcinoma together with appropriate controls for the presence of membranous obstruction of the inferior vena cava [32].
  • Our findings illustrate the need for venography in all patients undergoing venous sampling of ACTH because an understanding of the venous drainage patterns is essential to correctly interpret venous sampling data and warn physicians that the lateralization data may be incorrect or unreliable [33].
  • Evaluation of the inferior vena cava by sonography and venography in children with renal and hepatic tumors [34].
  • METHODS: Fifty-three consecutive postarthroplasty patients (30 THR, 23 TKR) (16 women, 37 men; mean age 71 yr; range 52-85 yr) underwent scintigraphic scanning with 99mTc-rt-PA and contrast venography, on the operated leg, in order to assess the accuracy of this new technique in these asymptomatic patients [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Phlebography

  • These results demonstrate that platelet scintigraphy, a test that permits imaging for up to five days after a single injection, correlates favorably with contrast venography in patients who have not received heparin and may be used as a surveillance test in high-risk patients [36].
  • Randomized trials comparing low-molecular-weight heparin administered at different times relative to surgery with oral anticoagulants in patients undergoing elective hip arthroplasty, evaluated using contrast phlebography, were selected [37].
  • Fifty consecutive patients with suspected herniated nucleus pulposus at L4-5 or L5-S1 were evaluated prospectively with both epidural venography and iophendylate myelography [38].
  • METHODS: 159 patients undergoing total hip replacement were randomized to receive 10, 15 or 20 mg desirudin bid or 5000 IU unfractionated heparin tid immediately before surgery and then for 11 days, until bilateral venography was performed [39].
  • The platelets accumulated in venous thrombi in 6 or 7 patients (86%) with positive findings on impedance plethysmography or contrast venography; all 6 were receiving intravenous heparin [40].


  1. Adjusted versus fixed-dose subcutaneous heparin in the prevention of deep-vein thrombosis after total hip replacement. Leyvraz, P.F., Richard, J., Bachmann, F., Van Melle, G., Treyvaud, J.M., Livio, J.J., Candardjis, G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  2. Utility of leg ultrasonography in suspected symptomatic isolated calf deep venous thrombosis. Simons, G.R., Skibo, L.K., Polak, J.F., Creager, M.A., Klapec-Fay, J.M., Goldhaber, S.Z. Am. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Evolution of the surgical management of primary aldosteronism. Auda, S.P., Brennan, M.F., Gill, J.R. Ann. Surg. (1980) [Pubmed]
  4. Coexistence of pituitary adrenocorticotropin-dependent Cushing's syndrome with a solitary adrenal adenoma. Schteingart, D.E., Tsao, H.S. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1980) [Pubmed]
  5. Obesity does not induce abnormal CSF pressure in subjects with normal cerebral MR venography. Bono, F., Lupo, M.R., Serra, P., Cantafio, C., Lucisano, A., Lavano, A., Fera, F., Pardatscher, K., Quattrone, A. Neurology (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Prevention of deep vein thrombosis after major knee surgery--a randomized, double-blind trial comparing a low molecular weight heparin fragment (enoxaparin) to placebo. Leclerc, J.R., Geerts, W.H., Desjardins, L., Jobin, F., Laroche, F., Delorme, F., Haviernick, S., Atkinson, S., Bourgouin, J. Thromb. Haemost. (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Low-molecular-weight heparin (enoxaparin) as prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism after total hip replacement. Bergqvist, D., Benoni, G., Björgell, O., Fredin, H., Hedlundh, U., Nicolas, S., Nilsson, P., Nylander, G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Two-step warfarin therapy. Prevention of postoperative venous thrombosis without excessive bleeding. Francis, C.W., Marder, V.J., Evarts, C.M., Yaukoolbodi, S. JAMA (1983) [Pubmed]
  9. Prophylaxis for postoperative deep-vein thrombosis. Synergistic effect of heparin and dihydroergotamine. Kakkar, V.V., Stamatakis, J.D., Bentley, P.G., Lawrence, D., de Haas, H.A., Ward, V.P. JAMA (1979) [Pubmed]
  10. Diagnosis of pelvic varicosities in women with chronic pelvic pain. Beard, R.W., Highman, J.H., Pearce, S., Reginald, P.W. Lancet (1984) [Pubmed]
  11. New rapid method for diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis. Ludlam, C.A., Bolton, A.E., Moore, S., Cash, J.D. Lancet (1975) [Pubmed]
  12. Pain accompanying leg venography: a comparison of sodium and methylglucamine diatrizoates. Sommer, F.G., Laglia, A., Goldberg, R.T. Radiology. (1979) [Pubmed]
  13. Gold-195m: a steady-state imaging agent for venography that gives blood velocity measurement. Dowsett, D.J., Ennis, J.T., Collum, C.T., De Jong, R.B. J. Nucl. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  14. Contrast agent-induced thrombophlebitis following leg phlebography: meglumine loxaglate versus meglumine lothalamate. Thomas, M.L., Briggs, G.M., Kuan, B.B. Radiology. (1983) [Pubmed]
  15. Early diagnosis of venous thrombosis using 125I-fibrinogen. Carretta, R.F., DeNardo, S.J., DeNardo, G.L., Janshalt, A.L., Rose, A.W. J. Nucl. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  16. A dose-ranging study of the oral direct thrombin inhibitor, ximelagatran, and its subcutaneous form, melagatran, compared with dalteparin in the prophylaxis of thromboembolism after hip or knee replacement: METHRO I. MElagatran for THRombin inhibition in Orthopaedic surgery. Eriksson, B.I., Arfwidsson, A.C., Frison, L., Eriksson, U.G., Bylock, A., Kälebo, P., Fager, G., Gustafsson, D. Thromb. Haemost. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Local versus central assessment of venographies in a multicenter trial on the prevention of deep vein thrombosis in neurosurgery. Rossi, R., Agnelli, G., Taborelli, P., Fioroni, C., Zerbi, D., Pattacini, P., Giugni, E., Bagatella, P., Vaccarino, A. Thromb. Haemost. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Frequency of pulmonary embolism in ambulant patients with pelvic vein thrombosis: a prospective study. Partsch, H., Oburger, K., Mostbeck, A., König, B., Köhn, H. J. Vasc. Surg. (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Haemodynamic significance of incompetent calf perforating veins. Zukowski, A.J., Nicolaides, A.N., Szendro, G., Irvine, A., Lewis, R., Malouf, G.M., Hobbs, J.T., Dudley, H.A. The British journal of surgery. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Relation between intraocular pressure and size of transverse sinuses. Kantarci, M., Dane, S., Gumustekin, K., Onbas, O., Alper, F., Okur, A., Aslankurt, M., Yazici, A.T. Neuroradiology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Renal occlusion phlebography: applicability of the balloon catheters. Novak, D., Weber, J. Cardiovascular radiology. (1978) [Pubmed]
  22. Paradoxical embolism as a cause of ischemic stroke of uncertain etiology. A transcranial Doppler sonographic study. Itoh, T., Matsumoto, M., Handa, N., Maeda, H., Hougaku, H., Tsukamoto, Y., Kondo, H., Tanouchi, J., Kamada, T. Stroke (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Upper extremity digital subtraction venography with gadoterate meglumine before fistula creation for hemodialysis. Geoffroy, O., Tassart, M., Le Blanche, A.F., Khalil, A., Duédal, V., Rossert, J., Bigot, J.M., Boudghène, F.P. Kidney Int. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Magnetic resonance imaging of the renal mass. Karstaedt, N., McCullough, D.L., Wolfman, N.T., Dyer, R.B. J. Urol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  25. Congenitally absent inferior vena cava presenting in adulthood with venous stasis and ulceration: a surgically treated case. Dougherty, M.J., Calligaro, K.D., DeLaurentis, D.A. J. Vasc. Surg. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Lower extremity deep vein thrombosis: a prospective, randomized, controlled trial in comatose or sedated patients undergoing femoral vein catheterization. Durbec, O., Viviand, X., Potie, F., Vialet, R., Martin, C. Crit. Care Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. The changing clinical spectrum of primary aldosteronism. Bravo, E.L., Tarazi, R.C., Dustan, H.P., Fouad, F.M., Textor, S.C., Gifford, R.W., Vidt, D.G. Am. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  28. Intracranial venous system: gadolinium-enhanced three-dimensional MR venography with auto-triggered elliptic centric-ordered sequence--initial experience. Farb, R.I., Scott, J.N., Willinsky, R.A., Montanera, W.J., Wright, G.A., terBrugge, K.G. Radiology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Lower extremity venography with iohexol: results and complications. Lensing, A.W., Prandoni, P., Büller, H.R., Casara, D., Cogo, A., ten Cate, J.W. Radiology. (1990) [Pubmed]
  30. 125I-fibrinogen uptake following phlebography of the leg. Comparison of ionic and nonionic contrast media. Walters, H.L., Clemenson, J., Browse, N.L., Thomas, M.L. Radiology. (1980) [Pubmed]
  31. Does low protein concentration of tissue-type plasminogen activator predict a low risk of spontaneous deep vein thrombosis? Gram, J., Sidelmann, J., Jespersen, J. Thromb. Haemost. (1995) [Pubmed]
  32. The role of membranous obstruction of the inferior vena cava in the etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma in Southern African blacks. Kew, M.C., McKnight, A., Hodkinson, J., Bukofzer, S., Esser, J.D. Hepatology (1989) [Pubmed]
  33. Venous angiography is needed to interpret inferior petrosal sinus and cavernous sinus sampling data for lateralizing adrenocorticotropin-secreting adenomas. Mamelak, A.N., Dowd, C.F., Tyrrell, J.B., McDonald, J.F., Wilson, C.B. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1996) [Pubmed]
  34. Evaluation of the inferior vena cava by sonography and venography in children with renal and hepatic tumors. Slovis, T.L., Philippart, A.I., Cushing, B., Das, L., Perlmutter, A.D., Reed, J.O., Wilner, H.I., Kroovand, R.L., Farooki, Z.Q. Radiology. (1981) [Pubmed]
  35. Detection of postoperative deep-venous thrombosis using technetium-99m-labeled tissue plasminogen activator. Butler, S.P., Rahman, T., Boyd, S.J., Parkes, S.L., Quinn, R.J. J. Nucl. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  36. Indium-111 platelet scintigraphy for the diagnosis of acute venous thrombosis. Ezekowitz, M.D., Pope, C.F., Sostman, H.D., Smith, E.O., Glickman, M., Rapoport, S., Sniderman, K.W., Friedlaender, G., Pelker, R.R., Taylor, F.B. Circulation (1986) [Pubmed]
  37. Timing of initial administration of low-molecular-weight heparin prophylaxis against deep vein thrombosis in patients following elective hip arthroplasty: a systematic review. Hull, R.D., Pineo, G.F., Stein, P.D., Mah, A.F., MacIsaac, S.M., Dahl, O.E., Ghali, W.A., Butcher, M.S., Brant, R.F., Bergqvist, D., Hamulyák, K., Francis, C.W., Marder, V.J., Raskob, G.E. Arch. Intern. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  38. Prospective comparison of epidural venography and iophendylate myelography in the diagnosis of herniated lumbar disks. Lotz, P.R., Seeger, J.F., Gabrielsen, T.O. Radiology. (1980) [Pubmed]
  39. Coagulation activation markers in the prediction of venous thrombosis after elective hip surgery. Cofrancesco, E., Cortellaro, M., Corradi, A., Ravasi, F., Bertocchi, F. Thromb. Haemost. (1997) [Pubmed]
  40. Scintigraphy with 111In-labeled autologous platelets in venous thromboembolism. Davis, H.H., Siegel, B.A., Sherman, L.A., Heaton, W.A., Welch, M.J. Radiology. (1980) [Pubmed]
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