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Chemical Compound Review

Belustine     1-(2-chloroethyl)-3- cyclohexyl-1-nitroso-urea

Synonyms: lomustine, Cecenu, CeeNU, CCNU, NSC-79037, ...
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Disease relevance of lomustine


Psychiatry related information on lomustine


High impact information on lomustine


Chemical compound and disease context of lomustine


Biological context of lomustine


Anatomical context of lomustine


Associations of lomustine with other chemical compounds


Gene context of lomustine

  • CCNU-dependent potentiation of TRAIL/Apo2L-induced apoptosis in human glioma cells is p53-independent but may involve enhanced cytochrome c release [31].
  • Thus, defective MMR and p53 influence CCNU sensitivity in opposite directions [32].
  • The hMLH1/p53 defective variants displayed a less prominent cell cycle arrest and reduced apoptosis after CCNU treatment [32].
  • An increase in cell killing and in the frequency of micronuclei was observed after CCNU exposure in 2 hPMS2-defective clones (clones 6 and 7) compared with the parental HeLa cells [33].
  • Hypersensitivity to CCNU was not seen in the MMR- cell lines DLD1, HEC1A, and HCT116, suggesting that other parameters, besides the MGMT and MMR defects, affect the cell's response to this drug [20].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of lomustine


  1. Quality and duration of survival in glioblastoma multiforme. Combined surgical, radiation, and lomustine therapy. Hochberg, F.H., Linggood, R., Wolfson, L., Baker, W.H., Kornblith, P. JAMA (1979) [Pubmed]
  2. Chemotherapy for bronchogenic carcinoma. Methotrexate, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and lomustine. Chahinian, P.A., Arnold, D.J., Cohen, J.M., Purpora, D.P., Jaffrey, I.S., Teirstein, A.S., Kirschner, P.A., Holland, J.F. JAMA (1977) [Pubmed]
  3. Specific genetic predictors of chemotherapeutic response and survival in patients with anaplastic oligodendrogliomas. Cairncross, J.G., Ueki, K., Zlatescu, M.C., Lisle, D.K., Finkelstein, D.M., Hammond, R.R., Silver, J.S., Stark, P.C., Macdonald, D.R., Ino, Y., Ramsay, D.A., Louis, D.N. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Theophylline-induced lomustine toxicity. Zeltzer, P.M., Feig, S.A. Lancet (1979) [Pubmed]
  5. Treatment of advanced-stage Hodgkin's disease: alternating noncrossresistant MOPP/CABS is not superior to MOPP. Longo, D.L., Duffey, P.L., DeVita, V.T., Wiernik, P.H., Hubbard, S.M., Phares, J.C., Bastian, A.W., Jaffe, E.S., Young, R.C. J. Clin. Oncol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Survival time in mice bearing TLX5 lymphoma subjected to rotational stress and chemotherapy with CCNU. Perissin, L., Rapozzi, V., Zorzet, S., Giraldi, T. Anticancer Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Radiotherapy alone versus combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy in nonresectable non-small-cell lung cancer: first analysis of a randomized trial in 353 patients. Le Chevalier, T., Arriagada, R., Quoix, E., Ruffie, P., Martin, M., Tarayre, M., Lacombe-Terrier, M.J., Douillard, J.Y., Laplanche, A. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. Thoracic radiation therapy alone compared with combined chemoradiotherapy for locally unresectable non-small cell lung cancer. A randomized, phase III trial. Morton, R.F., Jett, J.R., McGinnis, W.L., Earle, J.D., Therneau, T.M., Krook, J.E., Elliott, T.E., Mailliard, J.A., Nelimark, R.A., Maksymiuk, A.W. Ann. Intern. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. Subunit composition of plasma von Willebrand factor in patients with the myeloproliferative syndrome. Budde, U., Dent, J.A., Berkowitz, S.D., Ruggeri, Z.M., Zimmerman, T.S. Blood (1986) [Pubmed]
  10. Phase II study of first-line chemotherapy with temozolomide in recurrent oligodendroglial tumors: the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Brain Tumor Group Study 26971. van den Bent, M.J., Taphoorn, M.J., Brandes, A.A., Menten, J., Stupp, R., Frenay, M., Chinot, O., Kros, J.M., van der Rijt, C.C., Vecht, C.h.J., Allgeier, A., Gorlia, T. J. Clin. Oncol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Phase II trial of procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine as initial therapy for patients with low-grade oligodendroglioma or oligoastrocytoma: efficacy and associations with chromosomal abnormalities. Buckner, J.C., Gesme, D., O'Fallon, J.R., Hammack, J.E., Stafford, S., Brown, P.D., Hawkins, R., Scheithauer, B.W., Erickson, B.J., Levitt, R., Shaw, E.G., Jenkins, R. J. Clin. Oncol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Quantitative dose-response relations for the cytotoxic activity of chloroethylnitrosoureas in cell culture. Weinkam, R.J., Deen, D.F. Cancer Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  13. The CD4+/CD8+ ratio as a prognostic factor in patients with metastatic melanoma receiving chemoimmunotherapy. Hernberg, M., Muhonen, T., Turunen, J.P., Hahka-Kemppinen, M., Pyrhönen, S. J. Clin. Oncol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Randomized phase III trial in childhood high-grade astrocytoma comparing vincristine, lomustine, and prednisone with the eight-drugs-in-1-day regimen. Childrens Cancer Group. Finlay, J.L., Boyett, J.M., Yates, A.J., Wisoff, J.H., Milstein, J.M., Geyer, J.R., Bertolone, S.J., McGuire, P., Cherlow, J.M., Tefft, M. J. Clin. Oncol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. APRIL, a new member of the tumor necrosis factor family, modulates death ligand-induced apoptosis. Roth, W., Wagenknecht, B., Klumpp, A., Naumann, U., Hahne, M., Tschopp, J., Weller, M. Cell Death Differ. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. In vivo interaction between radiation and 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea in the absence or presence of misonidazole in mice. Siemann, D.W., Maddison, K., Wolf, K., Hill, S.A., Keng, P.C. Cancer Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  17. DNA damage and repair in L1210 cells exposed to 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea. Hilton, J., Bowie, D.L., Gutin, P.H., Zito, D.M., Walker, M.D. Cancer Res. (1977) [Pubmed]
  18. Nitrosourea interaction with chromatin and effect on poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase activity. Sudhakar, S., Tew, K.D., Schein, P.S., Woolley, P.V., Smulson, M.E. Cancer Res. (1979) [Pubmed]
  19. Alterations of chromosome arms 1p and 19q as predictors of survival in oligodendrogliomas, astrocytomas, and mixed oligoastrocytomas. Smith, J.S., Perry, A., Borell, T.J., Lee, H.K., O'Fallon, J., Hosek, S.M., Kimmel, D., Yates, A., Burger, P.C., Scheithauer, B.W., Jenkins, R.B. J. Clin. Oncol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. N-(2-chloroethyl)-N'-cyclohexyl-N-nitrosourea sensitivity in mismatch repair-defective human cells. Aquilina, G., Ceccotti, S., Martinelli, S., Hampson, R., Bignami, M. Cancer Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Microsomal monooxygenation of the carcinostatic 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea. Synthesis and identification of cis and trans monohydroxylated products. May, H.E., Boose, R., Reed, D.J. Biochemistry (1975) [Pubmed]
  22. Autologous bone marrow grafts in dogs treated with lethal doses of 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea. Abb, J., Netzel, B., Rodt, H.V., Thierfelder, S. Cancer Res. (1978) [Pubmed]
  23. Effect of O6-alkylguanine pretreatment on the sensitivity of human colon tumor cells to the cytotoxic effects of chloroethylating agents. Dolan, M.E., Young, G.S., Pegg, A.E. Cancer Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  24. Two mechanisms of synergism when amphotericin B is used in combination with actinomycin D or 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea against the human promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60. Vertut-Croquin, A., Brajtburg, J., Medoff, G. Cancer Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  25. Involvement of FMN and phenobarbital cytochrome P-450 in stimulating a one-electron reductive denitrosation of 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-(cyclohexyl)-1-nitrosourea catalyzed by NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase. Potter, D.W., Reed, D.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  26. Oral combination chemotherapy in the management of AIDS-related lymphoproliferative malignancies. Remick, S.C., Sedransk, N., Haase, R., Craffey, M., Subramanian, N., Dowlati, A., Nazeer, T., Ramnes, C., Blanchard, C., Mastrianni, D., Balducci, L., Horton, J., Ruckdeschel, J.C. Drugs (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Role of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase in the resistance of pancreatic tumors to DNA alkylating agents. Kokkinakis, D.M., Ahmed, M.M., Delgado, R., Fruitwala, M.M., Mohiuddin, M., Albores-Saavedra, J. Cancer Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  28. Role of radiotherapy in the treatment of supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors in childhood: results of the prospective German brain tumor trials HIT 88/89 and 91. Timmermann, B., Kortmann, R.D., Kühl, J., Meisner, C., Dieckmann, K., Pietsch, T., Bamberg, M. J. Clin. Oncol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with poor-risk medulloblastoma: a preliminary report. Packer, R.J., Siegel, K.R., Sutton, L.N., Evans, A.E., D'Angio, G., Rorke, L.B., Bunin, G.R., Schut, L. Ann. Neurol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  30. A randomized trial of alternating chemotherapy versus best supportive care in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Cellerino, R., Tummarello, D., Guidi, F., Isidori, P., Raspugli, M., Biscottini, B., Fatati, G. J. Clin. Oncol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  31. CCNU-dependent potentiation of TRAIL/Apo2L-induced apoptosis in human glioma cells is p53-independent but may involve enhanced cytochrome c release. Röhn, T.A., Wagenknecht, B., Roth, W., Naumann, U., Gulbins, E., Krammer, P.H., Walczak, H., Weller, M. Oncogene (2001) [Pubmed]
  32. Mismatch repair and p53 independently affect sensitivity to N-(2-chloroethyl)-N'-cyclohexyl-N-nitrosourea. Aquilina, G., Ceccotti, S., Martinelli, S., Soddu, S., Crescenzi, M., Branch, P., Karran, P., Bignami, M. Clin. Cancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. Sensitivity to DNA cross-linking chemotherapeutic agents in mismatch repair-defective cells in vitro and in xenografts. Fiumicino, S., Martinelli, S., Colussi, C., Aquilina, G., Leonetti, C., Crescenzi, M., Bignami, M. Int. J. Cancer (2000) [Pubmed]
  34. Procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy for anaplastic astrocytoma: A retrospective review of radiation therapy oncology group protocols comparing survival with carmustine or PCV adjuvant chemotherapy. Prados, M.D., Scott, C., Curran, W.J., Nelson, D.F., Leibel, S., Kramer, S. J. Clin. Oncol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  35. DNA damage induced by a new 2-chloroethyl nitrosourea on malignant melanoma cells. Godeneche, D., Rapp, M., Thierry, A., Laval, F., Madelmont, J.C., Chollet, P., Veyre, A. Cancer Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  36. Restrictive lung disease following treatment for malignant brain tumors: a potential late effect of craniospinal irradiation. Jakacki, R.I., Schramm, C.M., Donahue, B.R., Haas, F., Allen, J.C. J. Clin. Oncol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  37. Growth response of B16 melanoma to in vivo treatment with 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea (CCNU) at the initial stage after tumor transplantation. Li, X.H., Paulus, G., Atassi, G., Buyssens, N. Am. J. Pathol. (1984) [Pubmed]
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