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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Keloid


High impact information on Keloid


Chemical compound and disease context of Keloid

  • The hydrocortisone-mediated increase in proline transport and the difference between keloid and normal fibroblasts are observed throughout the culture cycle and after depletion of amino acid pools [9].
  • Treatment of quiescent cultures with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) blocked a normally occurring (20-24 h) peak of serum-stimulated thymidine incorporation in normal and keloid cells [10].
  • Human tissues (keloid, small bowel, lung) were fixed in either Carnoy's fluid or neutral buffered formalin [11].
  • Similar results are obtained with the system A amino acid analogue 2-(methylamino)isobutyric acid, for which the uptake rate increases 87% and 329% in normal and keloid cells, respectively [9].
  • The stimulatory effect of the hormone is blocked by cycloheximide and actinomycin D in both keloid and normal cells [12].

Biological context of Keloid


Anatomical context of Keloid


Gene context of Keloid

  • Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated an intrinsic higher level of HIF-1alpha and VEGF protein expression in keloid tissues compared with their adjacent unremarkable skins [18].
  • Smad3 signalling plays an important role in keloid pathogenesis via epithelial-mesenchymal interactions [22].
  • Compared to normal skin, keloids expressed high basal levels of TGFbetaR1 and TGFbetaR2, Smad2, 3 and 4 and phospho-Smad2 [22].
  • In contradistinction, keloid patients produce greater amounts of IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IFN-beta [23].
  • The production of IFN-alpha, IFN-gamma, and TNF-beta were markedly depressed in keloid patients compared to normal controls [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Keloid


  1. Pharmacologic control of surface scarring in human beings. Peacock, E.E. Ann. Surg. (1981) [Pubmed]
  2. Keratinocyte-derived growth factors play a role in the formation of hypertrophic scars. Niessen, F.B., Andriessen, M.P., Schalkwijk, J., Visser, L., Timens, W. J. Pathol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Reduced dermatopontin expression is a molecular link between uterine leiomyomas and keloids. Catherino, W.H., Leppert, P.C., Stenmark, M.H., Payson, M., Potlog-Nahari, C., Nieman, L.K., Segars, J.H. Genes Chromosomes Cancer (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Increased vascular endothelial growth factor may account for elevated level of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 via activating ERK1/2 in keloid fibroblasts. Wu, Y., Zhang, Q., Ann, D.K., Akhondzadeh, A., Duong, H.S., Messadi, D.V., Le, A.D. Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Gene mapping and serendipity. The locus for torticollis, keloids, cryptorchidism and renal dysplasia (31430, Mckusick) is at Xq28, distal to the G6PD locus. Zuffardi, O., Fraccaro, M. Hum. Genet. (1982) [Pubmed]
  6. Modulation of procollagen gene expression by retinoids. Inhibition of collagen production by retinoic acid accompanied by reduced type I procollagen messenger ribonucleic acid levels in human skin fibroblast cultures. Oikarinen, H., Oikarinen, A.I., Tan, E.M., Abergel, R.P., Meeker, C.A., Chu, M.L., Prockop, D.J., Uitto, J. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  7. Plasma fibronectin deficiency in eight members of one family. Shirakami, A., Shigekiyo, T., Hirai, Y., Takeichi, T., Kawauchi, S., Saito, S., Miyoshi, K. Lancet (1986) [Pubmed]
  8. Reduced growth-factor requirement of keloid-derived fibroblasts may account for tumor growth. Russell, S.B., Trupin, K.M., Rodríguez-Eaton, S., Russell, J.D., Trupin, J.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Alteration of amino acid transport by hydrocortisone. Different effects in human fibroblasts derived from normal skin and keloid. Russell, S.B., Russell, J.D., Trupin, J.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  10. Keloid fibroblasts are refractory to inhibition of DNA synthesis by phorbol esters. Altered response is accompanied by reduced sensitivity to prostaglandin E2 and altered down-regulation of phorbol ester binding sites. Myles, M.E., Russell, J.D., Trupin, J.S., Smith, J.C., Russell, S.B. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Mast cells in human keloid, small intestine, and lung by an immunoperoxidase technique using a murine monoclonal antibody against tryptase. Craig, S.S., DeBlois, G., Schwartz, L.B. Am. J. Pathol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  12. Hydrocortisone induction of system A amino acid transport in human fibroblasts from normal dermis and keloid. Russell, S.B., Russell, J.D., Trupin, J.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  13. Fibronectin is overproduced by keloid fibroblasts during abnormal wound healing. Babu, M., Diegelmann, R., Oliver, N. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. Overexpression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I) receptor and the invasiveness of cultured keloid fibroblasts. Yoshimoto, H., Ishihara, H., Ohtsuru, A., Akino, K., Murakami, R., Kuroda, H., Namba, H., Ito, M., Fujii, T., Yamashita, S. Am. J. Pathol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Keloid fibroblasts resist ceramide-induced apoptosis by overexpression of insulin-like growth factor I receptor. Ishihara, H., Yoshimoto, H., Fujioka, M., Murakami, R., Hirano, A., Fujii, T., Ohtsuru, A., Namba, H., Yamashita, S. J. Invest. Dermatol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Upregulation of TGF-beta1 expression may be necessary but is not sufficient for excessive scarring. Campaner, A.B., Ferreira, L.M., Gragnani, A., Bruder, J.M., Cusick, J.L., Morgan, J.R. J. Invest. Dermatol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Glucocorticoid regulation of elastin synthesis in human fibroblasts: down-regulation in fibroblasts from normal dermis but not from keloids. Russell, S.B., Trupin, J.S., Kennedy, R.Z., Russell, J.D., Davidson, J.M. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Hypoxia-induced HIF-1 alpha accumulation is augmented in a co-culture of keloid fibroblasts and human mast cells: involvement of ERK1/2 and PI-3K/Akt. Zhang, Q., Oh, C.K., Messadi, D.V., Duong, H.S., Kelly, A.P., Soo, C., Wang, L., Le, A.D. Exp. Cell Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Biochemical composition of the connective tissue in keloids and analysis of collagen metabolism in keloid fibroblast cultures. Abergel, R.P., Pizzurro, D., Meeker, C.A., Lask, G., Matsuoka, L.Y., Minor, R.R., Chu, M.L., Uitto, J. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  20. Complex epithelial-mesenchymal interactions modulate transforming growth factor-beta expression in keloid-derived cells. Xia, W., Phan, T.T., Lim, I.J., Longaker, M.T., Yang, G.P. Wound repair and regeneration : official publication of the Wound Healing Society [and] the European Tissue Repair Society. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Topical cyclosporin and T lymphocytes in keloid scars. Duncan, J.I., Thomson, A.W., Muir, I.F. Br. J. Dermatol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. Smad3 signalling plays an important role in keloid pathogenesis via epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Phan, T.T., Lim, I.J., Aalami, O., Lorget, F., Khoo, A., Tan, E.K., Mukhopadhyay, A., Longaker, M.T. J. Pathol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Altered cytokine production in black patients with keloids. McCauley, R.L., Chopra, V., Li, Y.Y., Herndon, D.N., Robson, M.C. J. Clin. Immunol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  24. 5-fluorouracil blocks transforming growth factor-beta-induced alpha 2 type I collagen gene (COL1A2) expression in human fibroblasts via c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase/activator protein-1 activation. Wendling, J., Marchand, A., Mauviel, A., Verrecchia, F. Mol. Pharmacol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Fibroblasts cocultured with keloid keratinocytes: normal fibroblasts secrete collagen in a keloidlike manner. Lim, I.J., Phan, T.T., Bay, B.H., Qi, R., Huynh, H., Tan, W.T., Lee, S.T., Longaker, M.T. Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. Tretinoin reverses upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-13 in human keloid-derived fibroblasts. Uchida, G., Yoshimura, K., Kitano, Y., Okazaki, M., Harii, K. Exp. Dermatol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Upregulation of HSP47 and collagen type III in the dermal fibrotic disease, keloid. Naitoh, M., Hosokawa, N., Kubota, H., Tanaka, T., Shirane, H., Sawada, M., Nishimura, Y., Nagata, K. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Co-ordinate induction of collagen type I and biglycan expression in keloids. Hunzelmann, N., Anders, S., Sollberg, S., Schönherr, E., Krieg, T. Br. J. Dermatol. (1996) [Pubmed]
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