The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

Gadolinium(3+)     gadolinium(+3) cation

Synonyms: CHEBI:49618, AR-1J1109, AC1L5140, Gadolinium, ion(Gd3 )
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of GADOLINIUM ION

  • Here, an engineered EF- hand motif is incorporated into the central cytoplasmic loop of the lactose permease of Escherichia coli generating a high-affinity site for Tb(3+) (K(Tb)(3+) approximately 4.5 microM) or Gd(3+) (K(Gd)(3+) approximately 2.3 microM) [1].
  • This influx was sensitive to blockers of TRP-like nonspecific Ca(2+) channels, including Ruthenium Red, La(3+), and Gd(3+) ions which also prevented the Fe(2+) ion-induced toxicity and oxidative stress as revealed by protein carbonylation status [2].
  • Gd(3+) blocks stretch-activated channels and suppresses stretch-induced arrhythmias [3].
  • In neither series was the number of phase Ib premature ventricular beats reduced by Gd(3+) (46 +/- 20 in untreated vs. 91 +/- 37 in Gd(3+)-treated animals in series A and 19 +/- 7 vs. 22 +/- 13, respectively, in series B; both P = not significant) [4].
  • The occurrence of ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation was significantly associated with the magnitude of early ischemic expansion of the LAD region, as measured by ultrasonic crystals, but was also not prevented by Gd(3+) [4].

High impact information on GADOLINIUM ION

  • Furthermore, we demonstrated that permissive SOCE was mediated by canonical transient receptor potential channel (TRPC) due to its sensitivity to specific inhibition by MRS1845 and Gd(3+) and that TRPC6 was the principal TRPC family member expressed by human neutrophils [5].
  • This may be indicative of constitutive trafficking of TRPC3, with Gd(3+) acting to "trap" cycling TRPC3 molecules in the plasma membrane [6].
  • Consistent with this interpretation, TRPC3-expressing cells exhibited large variance in membrane capacitance, and this variance was decreased by both Gd(3+) and EGF [6].
  • Interestingly, reducing conditions failed to eliminate the inhibition of SOCC by La(3+) and Gd(3+), indicating that the Zn(2+) and lanthanides binding sites are distinct [7].
  • Unlike most other TRP-related channels, which are inhibited by La(3+) and Gd(3+), currents through TRPC4 and TRPC5 are potentiated by La(3+) [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of GADOLINIUM ION

  • Animals received no treatment (n = 35) or intravenous nitroglycerin (2.5 microg/kg/min for 20 min, starting 10 min after coronary occlusion, n = 8) or Gd(3+) (80 microM/kg for 35 min, starting 5 min before occlusion, n = 15) [9].

Biological context of GADOLINIUM ION

  • Not only Ca(2+), but also several other Ca(2+) receptor-specific agonists, Mg(2+), Gd(3+), spermine, and poly-l-Arginine, can activate T903-Rhoc truncated receptor-initiated phosphoinositide hydrolysis in HEK 293 cells [10].
  • This enhancement was completely abolished by Gd(3+); and as has been previously shown for Gd(3+), RU360 led to a switch to a wortmannin-sensitive form of exocytosis [11].
  • With membrane potential held at -75 mV, Gd(3+) still shifted threshold for activation positive, but I(Na) increased positive to -40 mV, causing the current-voltage curves to cross over [3].
  • A rise in either Ca(2+) or Gd(3+) activated an outwardly rectifying Cl(-) (OR(cl)) channel reversibly and dose-dependently, which was characterized by rapid activation kinetics, little inactivation, and blockage by DIDS [12].
  • HNE modification and IkappaB phosphorylation, NF-kappaB translocation to the nucleus, and following COX-2 production were inhibited by extracellular Ca(2+) removal or Gd(3+) application, as well as by the antioxidants [13].

Anatomical context of GADOLINIUM ION

  • The propagation of intercellular Ca(2+) waves in astrocytes was also potentiated by quinine and inhibited by FFA and Gd(3+) [14].
  • The onset of the strong positive dipole effect on PS membranes with Gd(3+) is observed near the zero charge point and correlates with a six-fold increase of membrane tension [15].
  • SOCs were activated in these vessels using the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA) inhibitors cyclopiazonic acid and thapsigargin and were dose dependently blocked by the SOC antagonists Gd(3+) and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) and the combined SOC/ROC antagonist SKF-96365 [16].
  • Using video camera monitoring we show that HeLa cells also swell in micromolar concentrations of Gd(3+) in isotonic taurine Ringer solution [17].
  • According to light scattering measurements micromolar concentrations of Gd(3+) induce cell swelling of human healthy and cystic fibrosis (CF) B-lymphocyte cell lines in isotonic Ringer solution [17].

Associations of GADOLINIUM ION with other chemical compounds

  • We have investigated the complexation of the luminescent Nd(3+), Eu(3+), Gd(3+), Tb(3+), Er(3+), and Yb(3+) ions by a polylysin dendrimer containing 21 amide groups in the interior and, in the periphery, 24 chromophoric dansyl units which show an intense fluorescence band in the visible region [18].
  • Arabidopsis root NSCCs were blocked by H(+) (pK approximately equal to 6.0), Ca(2+) (K(1/2) approximately equal to 0.1 mM), Ba(2+), Zn(2+), La(3+), Gd(3+), quinine, and the His modifier diethylpyrocarbonate [19].
  • In both regions, treatment with the cation channel blocker Gd(3+) prevented H(2)O(2)-induced net Ca(2+) influx, consistent with application of exogenous H(2)O(2) resulting in the activation of plasma membrane Gd(3+)-sensitive Ca(2+)-influx pathways [20].
  • A trivalent nonlanthanide, Al(3+), that possesses much a smaller atomic mass than Gd(3+) blocked but did not activate or sensitize the TRPV1 channel [21].
  • At maximal density (pure PS, neutral pH), adsorption of Be(2+) or Gd(3+) induces an increase of phi(d) of 35 or 140 mV, respectively [15].

Gene context of GADOLINIUM ION

  • The PIP(3)-activated Ca(2+) entry is inhibited by known TRPC6 inhibitors such as Gd(3+) and SKF96365 and is independent of IP(3) production [22].
  • However, widely different concentrations of La(3+) and Gd(3+) have reportedly been required for block of TRP3 channels in various expression systems [23].
  • BCL-2 overexpression also enhances the capacitative Ca(2+) entry that can be differentiated from the swelling-activated Ca(2+) transient by kinetic analysis and sensitivity to Gd(3+) [24].
  • Whole-cell currents through TRPV1 were induced by Gd(3+) with a half-maximal activation achieved at 72 microM at +40 mV [21].
  • We first confirmed that Gd(3+) activated the CaSR by measuring intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in CALs loaded with fura 2 [25].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GADOLINIUM ION

  • (45)Ca microinjections showed that Ca(2+) permeability in the DT was strongly inhibited by Cd(2+) (20 microM), Gd(3+) (100 microM), and La(3+) (1 mM), whereas nifedipine (20 microM) had no effect [26].
  • Whole cell recordings revealed that the macroscopic cationic currents exhibit transient receptor potential (TRP) melastatin (TRPM)7-like properties such as outward rectification and sensitivity to Mg(2+) and Gd(3+) [27].
  • Preparation of PEG-conjugated fullerene containing Gd(3+) ions for photodynamic therapy [28].
  • This combined ultrafiltration and relaxivity study demonstrates that the common assumption of a single r(1b) value for a Gd(3+) complex bound at several protein sites is not a valid approximation [29].
  • The initial rate of this constriction was not affected by the L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker 10(-6) m nifedipine (n = 5), by 10(-6) m U73343 (n = 6), which is the inactive analogue of U73122, by the T-type Ca(2+) channel blocker 10(-6) Gd(3+) (n = 6) or the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger blocker 10(-4) m Ni(2+) (n = 5) [30].


  1. Engineering a terbium-binding site into an integral membrane protein for luminescence energy transfer. Vázquez-Ibar, J.L., Weinglass, A.B., Kaback, H.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. alpha-Tocopherol-mediated long-lasting protection against oxidative damage involves an attenuation of calcium entry through TRP-like channels in cultured hippocampal neurons. Crouzin, N., de Jesus Ferreira, M.C., Cohen-Solal, C., Aimar, R.F., Vignes, M., Guiramand, J. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2007) [Pubmed]
  3. Modulation of cardiac Na(+) current by gadolinium, a blocker of stretch-induced arrhythmias. Li, G.R., Baumgarten, C.M. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Intracoronary infusion of Gd3+ into ischemic region does not suppress phase Ib ventricular arrhythmias after coronary occlusion in swine. Barrabés, J.A., Garcia-Dorado, D., Agulló, L., Rodríguez-Sinovas, A., Padilla, F., Trobo, L., Soler-Soler, J. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. E-selectin permits communication between PAF receptors and TRPC channels in human neutrophils. McMeekin, S.R., Dransfield, I., Rossi, A.G., Haslett, C., Walker, T.R. Blood (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Dissociation of Regulated Trafficking of TRPC3 Channels to the Plasma Membrane from Their Activation by Phospholipase C. Smyth, J.T., Lemonnier, L., Vazquez, G., Bird, G.S., Putney, J.W. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Inhibitory mechanism of store-operated Ca2+ channels by zinc. Gore, A., Moran, A., Hershfinkel, M., Sekler, I. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Lanthanides potentiate TRPC5 currents by an action at extracellular sites close to the pore mouth. Jung, S., Mühle, A., Schaefer, M., Strotmann, R., Schultz, G., Plant, T.D. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Ventricular fibrillation during acute coronary occlusion is related to the dilation of the ischemic region. Barrabés, J.A., Garcia-Dorado, D., Padilla, F., Agulló, L., Trobo, L., Carballo, J., Soler-Soler, J. Basic Res. Cardiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Evidence for distinct cation and calcimimetic compound (NPS 568) recognition domains in the transmembrane regions of the human Ca2+ receptor. Ray, K., Northup, J. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Mitochondria play a critical role in shaping the exocytotic response of rat pancreatic acinar cells. Thomas, P., Bagrij, T., Campos-Toimil, M., Edwardson, J.M. Cell Calcium (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Na+ dependence of extracellular Ca2+-sensing mechanisms leading to activation of an outwardly rectifying Cl- channel in murine osteoclasts. Sakuta, K., Sakai, H., Mori, H., Morihata, H., Kuno, M. Bone (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Involvement of reactive oxygen species in cyclic stretch-induced NF-kappaB activation in human fibroblast cells. Amma, H., Naruse, K., Ishiguro, N., Sokabe, M. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Intercellular calcium signaling in astrocytes via ATP release through connexin hemichannels. Stout, C.E., Costantin, J.L., Naus, C.C., Charles, A.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Dipole potentials indicate restructuring of the membrane interface induced by gadolinium and beryllium ions. Ermakov, Y.A., Averbakh, A.Z., Yusipovich, A.I., Sukharev, S. Biophys. J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Calmodulin mediates norepinephrine-induced receptor-operated calcium entry in preglomerular resistance arteries. Facemire, C.S., Arendshorst, W.J. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Studies on human porin XXI: gadolinium opens Up cell membrane standing porin channels making way for the osmolytes chloride or taurine-A putative approach to activate the alternate chloride channel in cystic fibrosis. Thinnes, F.P., Hellmann, K.P., Hellmann, T., Merker, R., Schwarzer, C., Walter, G., Götz, H., Hilschmann, N. Mol. Genet. Metab. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Luminescent lanthanide ions hosted in a fluorescent polylysin dendrimer. Antenna-like sensitization of visible and near-infrared emission. Vicinelli, V., Ceroni, P., Maestri, M., Balzani, V., Gorka, M., Vögtle, F. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Sodium fluxes through nonselective cation channels in the plasma membrane of protoplasts from Arabidopsis roots. Demidchik, V., Tester, M. Plant Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Spatial variation in H(2)O(2) response of Arabidopsis thaliana root epidermal Ca(2+) flux and plasma membrane Ca(2+) channels. Demidchik, V., Shabala, S.N., Davies, J.M. Plant J. (2007) [Pubmed]
  21. Gadolinium activates and sensitizes the vanilloid receptor TRPV1 through the external protonation sites. Tousova, K., Vyklicky, L., Susankova, K., Benedikt, J., Vlachova, V. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. The canonical transient receptor potential 6 channel as a putative phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate-sensitive calcium entry system. Tseng, P.H., Lin, H.P., Hu, H., Wang, C., Zhu, M.X., Chen, C.S. Biochemistry (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Inhibition of TRP3 channels by lanthanides. Block from the cytosolic side of the plasma membrane. Halaszovich, C.R., Zitt, C., Jungling, E., Luckhoff, A. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. A novel function of BCL-2 overexpression in regulatory volume decrease. Enhancing swelling-activated Ca(2+) entry and Cl(-) channel activity. Shen, M.R., Yang, T.P., Tang, M.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Calcium-sensing receptor regulation of PTH-dependent calcium absorption by mouse cortical ascending limbs. Motoyama, H.I., Friedman, P.A. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. Acute study of interaction among cadmium, calcium, and zinc transport along the rat nephron in vivo. Barbier, O., Jacquillet, G., Tauc, M., Poujeol, P., Cougnon, M. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. TRPM7 is a stretch- and swelling-activated cation channel involved in volume regulation in human epithelial cells. Numata, T., Shimizu, T., Okada, Y. Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  28. Preparation of PEG-conjugated fullerene containing Gd(3+) ions for photodynamic therapy. Liu, J., Ohta, S., Sonoda, A., Yamada, M., Yamamoto, M., Nitta, N., Murata, K., Tabata, Y. Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society (2007) [Pubmed]
  29. The Gd(3+) complex of a fatty acid analogue of DOTP binds to multiple albumin sites with variable water relaxivities. Caravan, P., Greenfield, M.T., Li, X., Sherry, A.D. Inorganic chemistry. (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. Evidence for a calcium-sensing receptor in the vascular smooth muscle cells of the spiral modiolar artery. Wonneberger, K., Scofield, M.A., Wangemann, P. J. Membr. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities