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Chemical Compound Review

Nicarbazin     1,3-bis(4-nitrophenyl)urea; 4,6-dimethyl...

Synonyms: Nicrazin, Nicoxin, Nicrazine, Nirazin, Nicarb, ...
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Disease relevance of EINECS 209-607-7

  • Thermal polypnea was observed in both experiments, but, although there were no treatment differences in Experiment 1, RR was lower (P less than .05) in the last hour of heat stress for Nicarbazin-fed birds in Experiment 2 [1].
  • Nicarbazin at levels ranging from 100 to 200 mg/kg significantly (P less than .05) depressed weight gain and feed efficiency [2].
  • Lack of effect of dietary factors on nicarbazin toxicity in broiler chicks [2].
  • Liquid chromatographic determination of 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide, the active component of the infertility agent nicarbazin, in chicken, duck, goose, and snake eggs [3].
  • Intestinal weight, as a percent of body weight, was not significantly affected when body weight was suppressed with a high level of nicarbazin added to a practical diet, but it was significantly reduced when bacitracin was added to the semipurified diet and chicks were restricted in food intake to 70% of controls [4].

High impact information on EINECS 209-607-7


Chemical compound and disease context of EINECS 209-607-7


Biological context of EINECS 209-607-7


Anatomical context of EINECS 209-607-7

  • Egg yolk mottling generally increased along with the level and duration of feeding NCZ [15].
  • Lack of interactive effect of nicarbazin and dietary energy-to-protein ratio on performance and abdominal fat pad weight of broiler chicks [16].
  • The narasin/nicarbazin mixture (50/50) appears primarily to prevent further development of sporozoites [17].
  • 3. It is suggested that nicarbazin not only prevents yolk deposition within the ovary but also adversely affects the stimulatory function of the hypothalamus, possibly through an unsuitable hormonal environment [18].
  • The incidence of oocysts was monitored in the litter at two broiler farms where birds were reared to 8 wk of age using a shuttle program involving nicarbazin (from 0 to 21 days of age) and salinomycin (from 21 to 44 days of age) [19].

Associations of EINECS 209-607-7 with other chemical compounds


Gene context of EINECS 209-607-7


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of EINECS 209-607-7


  1. Physiological responses of heat-stressed broilers fed nicarbazin. Beers, K.W., Raup, T.J., Bottje, W.G., Odom, T.W. Poult. Sci. (1989) [Pubmed]
  2. Lack of effect of dietary factors on nicarbazin toxicity in broiler chicks. Bartov, I. Poult. Sci. (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. Liquid chromatographic determination of 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide, the active component of the infertility agent nicarbazin, in chicken, duck, goose, and snake eggs. Primus, T.M., Kohler, D.J., Goodall, M.A., Yoder, C., Mathies, T., Miller, L., Johnston, J.J., Vercauteren, K. Journal of AOAC International. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Effects of diet, bacitracin, and body weight restrictions on the intestine of broiler chicks. Stutz, M.W., Johnson, S.L., Judith, F.R. Poult. Sci. (1983) [Pubmed]
  5. Development and validation of a method for the confirmation of nicarbazin in chicken liver and eggs using LC-electrospray MS-MS according to the revised EU criteria for veterinary drug residue analysis. Yakkundi, S., Cannavan, A., Elliott, C.T., Lovgren, T., Kennedy, D.G. The Analyst. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Determination of nicarbazin in feeds using liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry. Cannavan, A., Ball, G., Kennedy, D.G. The Analyst. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. The efficacy and economic benefits of Paracox, a live attenuated anticoccidial vaccine, in commercial trials with standard broiler chickens in the United Kingdom. Williams, R.B., Carlyle, W.W., Bond, D.R., Brown, I.A. Int. J. Parasitol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Molecular effects of nicarbazin on avian reproduction. Yoder, C.A., Graham, J.K., Miller, L.A. Poult. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Anticoccidial drugs: growth and performance depressing effects in young chickens. Keshavarz, K., McDougald, L.R. Poult. Sci. (1982) [Pubmed]
  10. Sensitivity of avian Eimeria spp. to seven chemical and five ionophore anticoccidials in five Belgian integrated broiler operations. Peeters, J.E., Derijcke, J., Verlinden, M., Wyffels, R. Avian Dis. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Heat stress mortality in nicarbazine fed chickens. Buys, S.B., Rasmussen, R.W. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association. (1978) [Pubmed]
  12. Effects of nicarbazin on intestinal digestion and absorption of nutrients in the rabbit. Sorribas, V., Arruebo, M.P., Navarro, H., Alcalde, A.I. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. Nicarbazin effects on broiler thermobalance during high ambient temperature stress. Wiernusz, C.J., Teeter, R.G. Poult. Sci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Nicarbazin in schistosome infections: I. Antibody formation in mice and hamsters infected with Schistosoma mansoni. Hillyer, G.V., Reyes, C.N., Hernández-Almenas, N. Exp. Parasitol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  15. Production and egg-quality responses of White Leghorn layers to anticoccidial agents. Jones, J.E., Solis, J., Hughes, B.L., Castaldo, D.J., Toler, J.E. Poult. Sci. (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. Lack of interactive effect of nicarbazin and dietary energy-to-protein ratio on performance and abdominal fat pad weight of broiler chicks. Bartov, I. Poult. Sci. (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Anticoccidial activity of combinations of narasin and nicarbazin. Long, P.L., Johnson, J., McKenzie, M.E. Poult. Sci. (1988) [Pubmed]
  18. The adverse effects of nicarbazin on reproductive activity in the hen. Luck, M.R. Br. Poult. Sci. (1979) [Pubmed]
  19. Research note: immunity to Eimeria in broilers reared on nicarbazin and salinomycin. Chapman, H.D. Poult. Sci. (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Sensitivity of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain 932 to selected anticoccidial drugs in broiler chicks. Stanley, V.G., Woldesenbet, S., Gray, C., Hinton, A. Poult. Sci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Sequential use of coccidiostats: effect on development by Eimeria tenella of resistance to amprolium, nicarbazin, Unistat, and zoalene. McLoughlin, D.K., Chute, M.B. Avian Dis. (1975) [Pubmed]
  22. Efficacy of diclazuril in comparison with chemical and ionophorous anticoccidials against Eimeria spp. in broiler chickens in floor pens. Conway, D.P., Mathis, G.F., Johnson, J., Schwartz, M., Baldwin, C. Poult. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Nicarbazin stimulates intestinal transport of L-leucine in rabbit. Sorribas, V., Arruebo, M.P., Navarro, H., Alcalde, A.I. J. Vet. Pharmacol. Ther. (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. The therapeutic effect of 16 antimicrobial agents on Cryptosporidium infection in mice. Tzipori, S.R., Campbell, I., Angus, K.W. The Australian journal of experimental biology and medical science. (1982) [Pubmed]
  25. High-performance liquid chromatography-based determination of nicarbazin excretion in waterfowl. Stahl, R.S., Johnston, J.J. J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. Nicarbazin complex yields dinitrocarbanilide as ultrafine crystals with improved anticoccidial activity. Rogers, E.F., Brown, R.D., Brown, J.E., Kazazis, D.M., Leanza, W.J., Nichols, J.R., Ostlind, D.A., Rodino, T.M. Science (1983) [Pubmed]
  27. A new and rapid method for the determination of nicarbazin residues in poultry feed, eggs and muscle tissue using supercritical fluid extraction and high performance liquid chromatography. Matabudul, D.K., Crosby, N.T., Sumar, S. The Analyst. (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. An all-in-one dry chemistry immunoassay for the screening of coccidiostat nicarbazin in poultry eggs and liver. Hagren, V., Crooks, S.R., Elliott, C.T., Lövgren, T., Tuomola, M. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Screening for the coccidiostats halofuginone and nicarbazin in egg and chicken muscle: development of an ELISA. Huet, A.C., Mortier, L., Daeseleire, E., Fodey, T., Elliott, C., Delahaut, P. Food additives and contaminants. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Efficient HPLC method for the determination of nicarbazin, as dinitrocarbanilide in broiler liver. Capurro, E., Danaher, M., Anastasio, A., Cortesi, M.L., O'Keeffe, M. J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
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