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Chemical Compound Review

Europium-154     europium

Synonyms: AC1L2XVT, 154Eu, 15585-10-1, Europium, isotope of mass 154
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Disease relevance of europium


High impact information on europium


Chemical compound and disease context of europium


Biological context of europium


Anatomical context of europium


Associations of europium with other chemical compounds

  • The specific hybrids were labelled after filter hybridization with europium ions through the chelating groups of DTPA [24].
  • In addition, the europium and terbium cations have the useful property that their luminescence is enhanced when bound to nucleic acids [25].
  • Furthermore, Eu3+ does not support catalysis by KF exo or several other two-metal-ion phosphoryl-transfer enzymes [15].
  • This time-resolved immunofluorometric assay for human follitropin involves use of europium- or samarium-labeled monoclonal antibodies, with an average incorporation ratio of 3 mol of Eu3+ or Sm3+ per mole of antibody [26].
  • Spectra of the fluorescent chelates in the microtitration-strip wells were run on a time-resolved fluorometer equipped with filters for Eu3+ (613 nm) and Sm3+ (643 nm), the fluorescence from each sample being inversely proportional to the concentration of antigens [27].

Gene context of europium

  • The assay consists of FLAG-tagged ERalpha or ERbeta ligand binding domain (LBD), a biotinylated coactivator peptide, europium-labeled anti-FLAG antibody, and streptavidin-conjugated allophycocyanin [28].
  • Upon agonist binding, the biotinylated coactivator peptide is recruited to FLAG-tagged ER LBD to form a complex and thus allow fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to occur between europium and allophycocyanin [28].
  • The sensitivity, stability, and high specific activity of europium-labeled IL8 demonstrate the usefulness of lanthanide-labeled proteins in the measurement of receptor-ligand interactions and may be extended to other peptide ligands [29].
  • Robust FRET was observed when an 18-amino-acid APP Swedish-synthetic peptide that was N-terminally labeled with europium cryptate and C-terminally biotinylated was incubated with streptavidin-coupled cross-linked allophycocyanin (SA-XL665) [30].
  • We designed a simple homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence (HTRF) assay which utilizes the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) pair europium and allophycocyanin for measuring BACE1 enzymatic activity in a high-throughput manner [30].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of europium

  • Using a novel europium-based class I MHC-peptide binding immunoassay, we determined that MT236-244 bound Dk 2-3 logs less well than MT389-397 [31].
  • The europium ions were quantitatively detected by time-resolved fluorometry [24].
  • The assay includes PCR amplification of a fragment encompassing the mutation site followed by hybridization reactions with allele-specific europium (Eu)-labelled oligonucleotide probes [32].
  • Third, this protocol is evaluated for a noncompetitive immunoassay of a human immunoglobulin G, and a concentration as low as 3.1 x 10(-12) M is determined, which is competitive with colloidal gold-based anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV), colorimetric ELISA, or immunoassays based on fluorescent europium chelate labels [33].
  • Streptavidin-polyvinylamine conjugates labeled with a europium chelate: applications in immunoassay, immunohistochemistry, and microarrays [34].


  1. Lanthanide complexes as fluorescent indicators for neutral sugars and cancer biomarkers. Alptürk, O., Rusin, O., Fakayode, S.O., Wang, W., Escobedo, J.O., Warner, I.M., Crowe, W.E., Král, V., Pruet, J.M., Strongin, R.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Europium as a fluorescent probe of transfer RNA structure. Wolfson, J.M., Kearns, D.R. Biochemistry (1975) [Pubmed]
  3. Automated time-resolved immunofluorometric assay for Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgM and IgA antibodies: study of more than 130,000 filter-paper blood-spot samples from newborns. Sørensen, T., Spenter, J., Jaliashvili, I., Christiansen, M., Nørgaard-Pedersen, B., Petersen, E. Clin. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Brain metastasis model in athymic nude mice using a novel MUC1-secreting human breast-cancer cell line, MA11. Rye, P.D., Norum, L., Olsen, D.R., Garman-Vik, S., Kaul, S., Fodstad, O. Int. J. Cancer (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Time-resolved fluorometric assay for detection of autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65). Ankelo, M., Westerlund-Karlsson, A., Ilonen, J., Knip, M., Savola, K., Kankaanpää, P., Meriö, L., Siitari, H., Hinkkanen, A. Clin. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. A complex between prostate-specific antigen and alpha 1-antichymotrypsin is the major form of prostate-specific antigen in serum of patients with prostatic cancer: assay of the complex improves clinical sensitivity for cancer. Stenman, U.H., Leinonen, J., Alfthan, H., Rannikko, S., Tuhkanen, K., Alfthan, O. Cancer Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Stoichiometry of a ligand-gated ion channel determined by fluorescence energy transfer. Farrar, S.J., Whiting, P.J., Bonnert, T.P., McKernan, R.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Conformational changes of DNA induced by binding of Chironomus high mobility group protein 1a (cHMG1a). Regions flanking an HMG1 box domain do not influence the bend angle of the DNA. Heyduk, E., Heyduk, T., Claus, P., Wiśniewski, J.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Oncomodulin and parvalbumin. A comparison of their interactions with europium ion. Henzl, M.T., Birnbaum, E.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  10. Time-resolved fluorometry PCR assay for rapid detection of herpes simplex virus in cerebrospinal fluid. Hukkanen, V., Rehn, T., Kajander, R., Sjöroos, M., Waris, M. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay: a new test for rubella antibodies. Meurman, O.H., Hemmilä, I.A., Lövgren, T.N., Halonen, P.E. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  12. Dual-label time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay for the simultaneous detection of adenovirus and rotavirus in faeces. Siitari, H. J. Virol. Methods (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Toxicity study of europium chloride in rats. Ogawa, Y., Suzuki, S., Naito, K., Saito, M., Kamata, E., Hirose, A., Ono, A., Kaneko, T., Chiba, M., Inaba, Y. J. Environ. Pathol. Toxicol. Oncol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Activation of acyl phosphate monoesters by lanthanide ions: enhanced reactivity of benzoyl methyl phosphate. Kluger, R., Cameron, L.L. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Structural elucidation of the binding and inhibitory properties of lanthanide (III) ions at the 3'-5' exonucleolytic active site of the Klenow fragment. Brautigam, C.A., Aschheim, K., Steitz, T.A. Chem. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Voltage-induced formation of alamethicin pores in lecithin bilayer vesicles. Lau, A.L., Chan, S.I. Biochemistry (1976) [Pubmed]
  17. Time-resolved fluorometry in the genetic diagnosis of familial defective apolipoprotein B-100. Eggertsen, G., Eriksson, M., Wiklund, O., Iitiä, A., Olofsson, S.O., Angelin, B., Berglund, L. J. Lipid Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Europium-labeled oligonucleotides to detect point mutations: application to PIZ alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency. Dahlén, P., Carlson, J., Liukkonen, L., Lilja, H., Siitari, H., Hurskainen, P., Iitä, A., Jeppsson, J.O., Lövgren, T. Clin. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. Decreased skeletal muscle phosphotyrosine phosphatase (PTPase) activity towards insulin receptors in insulin-resistant Zucker rats measured by delayed Europium fluorescence. Worm, D., Handberg, A., Hoppe, E., Vinten, J., Beck-Nielsen, H. Diabetologia (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Insulin-like growth factor I is an independent coregulatory modulator of natural killer (NK) cell activity. Auernhammer, C.J., Feldmeier, H., Nass, R., Pachmann, K., Strasburger, C.J. Endocrinology (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. An improved, luminescent europium-based stain for detection of electroblotted proteins on nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene difluoride membranes. Kemper, C., Berggren, K., Diwu, Z., Patton, W.F. Electrophoresis (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Lateral Flow Immunoassay Using Europium (III) Chelate Microparticles and Time-Resolved Fluorescence for Eosinophils and Neutrophils in Whole Blood. Rundström, G., Jonsson, A., Mårtensson, O., Mendel-Hartvig, I., Venge, P. Clin. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  23. Cytolytic antibodies to melanocytes in vitiligo. Cui, J., Arita, Y., Bystryn, J.C. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Sensitive non-radioactive dot-blot hybridization using DNA probes labelled with chelate group substituted psoralen and quantitative detection by europium ion fluorescence. Oser, A., Roth, W.K., Valet, G. Nucleic Acids Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  25. Lanthanide probes for a phosphodiester-cleaving, lead-dependent, DNAzyme. Geyer, C.R., Sen, D. J. Mol. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. Europium and samarium as labels in time-resolved immunofluorometric assay of follitropin. Bador, R., Déchaud, H., Claustrat, F., Desuzinges, C. Clin. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  27. Dual-label time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay for simultaneous detection of myoglobin and carbonic anhydrase III in serum. Vuori, J., Rasi, S., Takala, T., Väänänen, K. Clin. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  28. A homogeneous in vitro functional assay for estrogen receptors: coactivator recruitment. Liu, J., Knappenberger, K.S., Kack, H., Andersson, G., Nilsson, E., Dartsch, C., Scott, C.W. Mol. Endocrinol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Chemokine receptor-ligand interactions measured using time-resolved fluorescence. Inglese, J., Samama, P., Patel, S., Burbaum, J., Stroke, I.L., Appell, K.C. Biochemistry (1998) [Pubmed]
  30. Measuring human beta-secretase (BACE1) activity using homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence. Kennedy, M.E., Wang, W., Song, L., Lee, J., Zhang, L., Wong, G., Wang, L., Parker, E. Anal. Biochem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Cross-recognition of two middle T protein epitopes by immunodominant polyoma virus-specific CTL. Wilson, C.S., Moser, J.M., Altman, J.D., Jensen, P.E., Lukacher, A.E. J. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. Time-resolved fluorometry in the diagnosis of Leber hereditary optic neuroretinopathy. Huoponen, K., Juvonen, V., Iitiä, A., Dahlen, P., Siitari, H., Aula, P., Nikoskelainen, E., Savontaus, M.L. Hum. Mutat. (1994) [Pubmed]
  33. Magnetic bead-based chemiluminescent metal immunoassay with a colloidal gold label. Fan, A., Lau, C., Lu, J. Anal. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. Streptavidin-polyvinylamine conjugates labeled with a europium chelate: applications in immunoassay, immunohistochemistry, and microarrays. Scorilas, A., Bjartell, A., Lilja, H., Moller, C., Diamandis, E.P. Clin. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
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