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Chemical Compound Review

Kakonein     7-hydroxy-3-(4- hydroxyphenyl)-8- [(2R,3R,4R...

Synonyms: Puerarin, CHEMBL486386, SureCN8581666, P5555_FLUKA, P5555_SIGMA, ...
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Disease relevance of Puerarin


Psychiatry related information on Puerarin

  • Overstreet; (2) Effects of daidzin on alcohol intake-search for mechanisms of action, by Wing-Ming Keung; (3) Long-term suppressive effects of puerarin on alcohol drinking in rats, by David Overstreet and David Y [5].
  • Effects of purified puerarin on voluntary alcohol intake and alcohol withdrawal symptoms in P rats receiving free access to water and alcohol [6].
  • These results demonstrate that the Carbopol((R)) 980NF/HPMC E4M can be a viable alternative to conventional puerarin eye drops to enhance ocular bioavailability and patient compliance [7].

High impact information on Puerarin


Chemical compound and disease context of Puerarin


Biological context of Puerarin

  • The Neuroprotection of puerarin against cerebral ischemia is associated with the prevention of apoptosis in rats [1].
  • These results suggest that puerarin can protect islets against oxidative stress probably due to stimulating the activities of the antioxidant enzymes [8].
  • After administration of SMEDDS and tablets to rabbits, a significant difference was observed in main pharmacokinetic parameters of t(max), C(max) and AUC(0--infinity) between SMEDDS and tablets, and a 2.2-fold increase in the relative bioavailability of puerarin was observed with the SMEDDS compared with Yufengningxin tablets [14].
  • Acid-base equilibrium of puerarin in CTAB micelles [15].
  • In this study, when cells were pretreated with puerarin prior to 0.4 mM MPP+, protective roles were accompanied by a reduction of cell viability loss, morphological changes of apoptosis and apoptotic rate [16].

Anatomical context of Puerarin

  • In conclusion, our results suggest that puerarin may activate alpha (1)-adrenoceptors on the adrenal gland to enhance the secretion of beta-endorphin to result in a decrease of plasma glucose in STZ-diabetic rats [17].
  • The potentiating action of puerarin (10 muM) on sodium nitroprusside-mediated relaxation was not affected by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; 300 muM), or by the disruption of the endothelium with Triton X-100 [9].
  • These findings indicate that puerarin protects the myocardium against ischemia and reperfusion injury via inhibiting mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening and activating the mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel [18].
  • To explore the protective mechanism of puerarin in MPP+-induced PC12 cells, mitochondrial function and caspase-3-like activity were measured [16].
  • Puerarin decreases serum total cholesterol and enhances thoracic aorta endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats [19].

Associations of Puerarin with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Puerarin

  • The mechanism may be that puerarin can induce VEGF and eNOS expression [23].
  • The study showed, in the rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury, 3-methoxy puerarin can not only increase the level of PGI2 in cerebral tissue and the activity of plasma t-PA, but also inhibit the activity of plasma PAI and the expression of ET-1 mRNA in cerebral tissue [24].
  • An activation of alpha 1A -AR seems responsible for the action of puerarin in C 2 C 12 cells [25].
  • Animals administered with puerarin suppressed the hypercholesterolemic diet induced impairment of eNOS expression, whereas there was no significant difference in the endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation among various groups of animals [19].
  • Taken together, the above results suggest that pretreatment of PC12 cells with puerarin could block MPP+-mediated apoptosis by mitochondria-dependent caspase cascade [16].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Puerarin


  1. The Neuroprotection of puerarin against cerebral ischemia is associated with the prevention of apoptosis in rats. Xu, X., Zhang, S., Zhang, L., Yan, W., Zheng, X. Planta Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Reversal of chemical-induced liver fibrosis in Wistar rats by puerarin. Zhang, S., Ji, G., Liu, J. J. Nutr. Biochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Induction of apoptosis by puerarin in colon cancer HT-29 cells. Yu, Z., Li, W. Cancer Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. The study of anti-metabolic syndrome effect of puerarin in vitro. Xu, M.E., Xiao, S.Z., Sun, Y.H., Zheng, X.X., Ou-Yang, Y., Guan, C. Life Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Herbal remedies for alcoholism: promises and possible pitfalls. Overstreet, D.H., Keung, W.M., Rezvani, A.H., Massi, M., Lee, D.Y. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Effects of purified puerarin on voluntary alcohol intake and alcohol withdrawal symptoms in P rats receiving free access to water and alcohol. Benlhabib, E., Baker, J.I., Keyler, D.E., Singh, A.K. Journal of medicinal food. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Preparation and Evaluation of a Carbopol((R))/HPMC-based In Situ Gelling Ophthalmic System for Puerarin. Wu, C., Qi, H., Chen, W., Huang, C., Su, C., Li, W., Hou, S. Yakugaku Zasshi (2007) [Pubmed]
  8. Puerarin protects rat pancreatic islets from damage by hydrogen peroxide. Xiong, F.L., Sun, X.H., Gan, L., Yang, X.L., Xu, H.B. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Puerarin, an isoflavonoid derived from Radix puerariae, potentiates endothelium-independent relaxation via the cyclic AMP pathway in porcine coronary artery. Yeung, D.K., Leung, S.W., Xu, Y.C., Vanhoutte, P.M., Man, R.Y. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. HPLC method for the determination and pharmacokinetic studies on puerarin in cerebral ischemia reperfusion rat plasma after intravenous administration of puerariae radix isoflavone. Yan, B., Xing, D., Ding, Y., Tao, J., Du, L.J. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Puerarin acts through brain serotonergic mechanisms to induce thermal effects. Chueh, F.S., Chang, C.P., Chio, C.C., Lin, M.T. J. Pharmacol. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Protective effect of puerarin against myocardial reperfusion injury. Myocardial metabolism and ultrastructure. Fan, L.L., Sun, L.H., Li, J., Yue, X.H., Yu, H.X., Wang, S.Y., Dong, S.Q. Chin. Med. J. (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. Application of microdialysis technique in the traditional chinese medicine. Zhang, S., Zeng, X., Xu, X., Zheng, X. Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Study on the bioavailability of puerarin from Pueraria lobata isoflavone self-microemulsifying drug-delivery systems and tablets in rabbits by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Cui, S., Zhao, C., Tang, X., Chen, D., He, Z. Biomed. Chromatogr. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Acid-base equilibrium of puerarin in CTAB micelles. Xi, J., Guo, R. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis (2007) [Pubmed]
  16. Protection by puerarin against MPP+-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells mediated by inhibiting mitochondrial dysfunction and caspase-3-like activation. Bo, J., Ming, B.Y., Gang, L.Z., Lei, C., Jia, A.L. Neurosci. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Mediation of beta-endorphin by the isoflavone puerarin to lower plasma glucose in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Chen, W.C., Hayakawa, S., Yamamoto, T., Su, H.C., Liu, I.M., Cheng, J.T. Planta Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Atractyloside and 5-hydroxydecanoate block the protective effect of puerarin in isolated rat heart. Gao, Q., Pan, H.Y., Qiu, S., Lu, Y., Bruce, I.C., Luo, J.H., Xia, Q. Life Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Puerarin decreases serum total cholesterol and enhances thoracic aorta endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats. Yan, L.P., Chan, S.W., Chan, A.S., Chen, S.L., Ma, X.J., Xu, H.X. Life Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Determination of puerarin, daidzein and rutin in Pueraria lobata (Wild.) Ohwi by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection. Chen, G., Zhang, J., Jiannong, Y. Journal of chromatography. A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Regulation of isoflavone production in hydroponically grown Pueraria montana (kudzu) by cork pieces, XAD-4, and methyl jasmonate. Kirakosyan, A., Kaufman, P.B., Chang, S.C., Warber, S., Bolling, S., Vardapetyan, H. Plant Cell Rep. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Antihyperglycemic effect of puerarin in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Hsu, F.L., Liu, I.M., Kuo, D.H., Chen, W.C., Su, H.C., Cheng, J.T. J. Nat. Prod. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Puerarin induces angiogenesis in myocardium of rat with myocardial infarction. Zhang, S., Chen, S., Shen, Y., Yang, D., Liu, X., Sun-Chi, A.C., Xu, H. Biol. Pharm. Bull. (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. The mechanism of 3-methoxy puerarin on decreasing the cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Zhao, T., Han, J., Chen, Y., Wan, H., Bie, X. Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition (2007) [Pubmed]
  25. Stimulatory effect of puerarin on alpha1A-adrenoceptor to increase glucose uptake into cultured C2C12 cells of mice. Hsu, H.H., Chang, C.K., Su, H.C., Liu, I.M., Cheng, J.T. Planta Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. Determination of puerarin in rat cortex by high-performance liquid chromatography after intravenous administration of Puerariae flavonoids. Yan, B., Wang, W., Zhang, L., Xing, D., Wang, D., Du, L. Biomed. Chromatogr. (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Contrasting effects of puerarin and daidzin on glucose homeostasis in mice. Meezan, E., Meezan, E.M., Jones, K., Moore, R., Barnes, S., Prasain, J.K. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
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