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Chemical Compound Review

Liberty     azanium 2-amino-4-(hydroxy-methyl...

Synonyms: Buster, Finale, Ignite, Basta, Dash, ...
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Disease relevance of phosphinothricin

  • The fen-phen finale: a study of weight loss and valvular heart disease [1].
  • Summary of safety evaluation toxicity studies of glufosinate ammonium [2].
  • Cost data were gathered from computerized records of the Liberty Mutual Insurance Company for low back pain workers' compensation claims (N = 119,107) and for all claims (N = 731,087) initiated from 45 jurisdictions (states) during 1989 [3].
  • DAS-59122-7 maize also contains the pat gene, originally isolated from Streptomyces viridochromogenes, which confers tolerance to glufosinate-ammonium herbicides (e.g. Libertytrade mark) [4].
  • Incidents of poisoning in humans caused by the ingestion of the glufosinate ammonium containing herbicides are gradually increasing in Japan. This poisoning is characterized by various neurological symptoms such as disturbances of consciousness, convulsions and apnea which appear after an asymptomatic interval of several hours [5].

Psychiatry related information on phosphinothricin

  • He discusses John Mill's On Liberty and Gerald Dworkin's "Paternalism" and suggests that there are times when the intervention should be withheld, but never the care [6].
  • The reliability of long-term recall of physical activity participation was examined in 322 women and 129 men in a worksite health study conducted at the Liberty Corporation, Greenville, South Carolina during 1976-1987 [7].
  • The results of the study suggest that although awareness of this public mental health services was low, Project Liberty was well received among the people who may be most likely to need its services [8].
  • Persons with lower socioeconomic status and those who had psychological symptoms consistent with posttraumatic stress disorder were more likely to say that they would contact Project Liberty [8].

High impact information on phosphinothricin


Chemical compound and disease context of phosphinothricin

  • Among subjects that participated in the Finale study, no significant correlations have been observed between mental health and vitamin B12/folate status [13].

Biological context of phosphinothricin


Anatomical context of phosphinothricin

  • On the other hand, the main component, GLA, produced no effects in isolated atria and aortas [14].
  • The rats exposed to glufosinate ammonium, an herbicide, during the time of neurogenesis in the hippocampus showed a decrease in the wet-dog shakes response to kainic acid at six weeks of age [18].
  • GLA was not detected in the cerebrospinal fluid 6 h after the convulsions [19].
  • In this selective overview of gamete interactions that lead to fertilization, encounters of three kinds, followed by the finale of gamete fusion, are considered from the sperm's viewpoint, with particular emphasis on the mammalian species with the mouse as the principal model [20].
  • Cost data were collected from computerized records of the Liberty Mutual Insurance Company for upper extremity cumulative trauma disorder workers' compensation claims (N = 6,067) and for all claims (N = 731,087) initiated from 45 states during 1989 [21].

Associations of phosphinothricin with other chemical compounds


Gene context of phosphinothricin

  • Individuals needing intensive mental health treatment continued to enter Project Liberty for two years after the World Trade Center attacks [25].
  • OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine a pattern in the frequency with which individuals who manifested distress reactions resembling diagnostic syndromes of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder accessed services provided by Project Liberty [26].
  • Senator Nickles (R-Okla) was interviewed in March in his Oklahoma City office on the 18th floor of the Liberty Bank Building [27].
  • We evaluated six conventional brassicaceous species, namely, Brassica napus L. 'Q2', B. rapa L., B. juncea (L.) Czern., B. carinata L., B. oleracea L., and Sinapis alba L., and two herbicide-tolerant cultivars, namely, B. napus 'Liberty' and B. napus 'Conquest' for their resistance against P. xylostella [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of phosphinothricin


  1. The fen-phen finale: a study of weight loss and valvular heart disease. Wadden, T.A., Berkowitz, R.I., Silvestry, F., Vogt, R.A., St John Sutton, M.G., Stunkard, A.J., Foster, G.D., Aber, J.L. Obes. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Summary of safety evaluation toxicity studies of glufosinate ammonium. Ebert, E., Leist, K.H., Mayer, D. Food Chem. Toxicol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. The cost of 1989 workers' compensation low back pain claims. Webster, B.S., Snook, S.H. Spine. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Compositional assessment of event DAS-59122-7 maize using substantial equivalence. Herman, R.A., Storer, N.P., Phillips, A.M., Prochaska, L.M., Windels, P. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  5. A toxicokinetic analysis in a patient with acute glufosinate poisoning. Hirose, Y., Kobayashi, M., Koyama, K., Kohda, Y., Tanaka, T., Honda, H., Hori, Y., Yoshida, K., Kikuchi, M. Human & experimental toxicology. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Refusing treatment for mental illness: historical and ethical dimensions. Reiser, S.J. The American journal of psychiatry. (1980) [Pubmed]
  7. Reliability of long-term recall of participation in physical activity by middle-aged men and women. Blair, S.N., Dowda, M., Pate, R.R., Kronenfeld, J., Howe, H.G., Parker, G., Blair, A., Fridinger, F. Am. J. Epidemiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. Awareness and perceptions of a communitywide mental health program in New York city after September 11. Rudenstine, S., Galea, S., Ahern, J., Felton, C., Vlahov, D. Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.) (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Auditory cortex cheers the overture and listens through the finale. Middlebrooks, J.C. Nat. Neurosci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Glufosinate ammonium induces convulsion through N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in mice. Matsumura, N., Takeuchi, C., Hishikawa, K., Fujii, T., Nakaki, T. Neurosci. Lett. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Glufosinate ammonium stimulates nitric oxide production through N-methyl D-aspartate receptors in rat cerebellum. Nakaki, T., Mishima, A., Suzuki, E., Shintani, F., Fujii, T. Neurosci. Lett. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Apoptosis induced by glufosinate ammonium in the neuroepithelium of developing mouse embryos in culture. Watanabe, T. Neurosci. Lett. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Five year changes in mental health and associations with vitamin B12/folate status of elderly Europeans. Eussen, S.J., Ferry, M., Hininger, I., Haller, J., Matthys, C., Dirren, H. The journal of nutrition, health & aging. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Cardiovascular effects of a herbicide containing glufosinate and a surfactant: in vitro and in vivo analyses in rats. Koyama, K., Koyama, K., Goto, K. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. The thrifty genotype in type 2 diabetes: an unfinished symphony moving to its finale? Joffe, B., Zimmet, P. Endocrine (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Protein binding of glufosinate and factors affecting it revealed by an equilibrium dialysis technique. Hori, Y., Koyama, K., Fujisawa, M., Nakajima, M., Shimada, K., Hirose, Y., Kohda, Y., Akuzawa, H. Journal of analytical toxicology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Standl.). Han, J.S., Kim, C.K., Park, S.H., Hirschi, K.D., Mok, I. Plant Cell Rep. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Transgenerational effects of maternal exposure to chemicals on the functional development of the brain in the offspring. Fujii, T. Cancer Causes Control (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Two cases of glufosinate poisoning with late onset convulsions. Tanaka, J., Yamashita, M., Yamashita, M., Matsuo, H., Yamamoto, T. Veterinary and human toxicology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Interactions between gametes leading to fertilization: the sperm's eye view. Storey, B.T. Reprod. Fertil. Dev. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. The cost of compensable upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders. Webster, B.S., Snook, S.H. Journal of occupational medicine. : official publication of the Industrial Medical Association. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Takeover of Ontario Blue Cross may be sign MDs will soon face US-style managed care. Korcok, M. CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Safety evaluation of the phosphinothricin acetyltransferase proteins encoded by the pat and bar sequences that confer tolerance to glufosinate-ammonium herbicide in transgenic plants. Hérouet, C., Esdaile, D.J., Mallyon, B.A., Debruyne, E., Schulz, A., Currier, T., Hendrickx, K., van der Klis, R.J., Rouan, D. Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Evaluation of detection methods for genetically modified traits in genotypes resistant to European corn borer and herbicides. Ma, B.L., Subedi, K., Evenson, L., Stewart, G. Journal of environmental science and health. Part. B, Pesticides, food contaminants, and agricultural wastes. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Characteristics of project liberty clients that predicted referrals to intensive mental health services. Covell, N.H., Essock, S.M., Felton, C.J., Donahue, S.A. Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.) (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. Clusters of event reactions among recipients of project liberty mental health counseling. Jackson, C.T., Allen, G., Essock, S.M., Foster, M.J., Lanzara, C.B., Felton, C.J., Donahue, S.A. Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.) (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Interview with Senator Don Nickles on domestic health care issues. Interview by Richard L. Reece. Nickles, D. The Journal of the Oklahoma State Medical Association. (1991) [Pubmed]
  28. Resistance of some cultivated brassicaceae to infestations by Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). Sarfraz, M., Dosdall, L.M., Keddie, B.A. J. Econ. Entomol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  29. A library of Arabidopsis 35S-cDNA lines for identifying novel mutants. LeClere, S., Bartel, B. Plant Mol. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. Hemodialysis and hemoperfusion in the successful treatment of a poisoning with a herbicide containing glufosinate ammonium and a surfactant. Shinohara, M., Tsuchida, A., Abe, Y., Sadakata, H., Nada, Y., Koizumi, R., Matsushima, K., Yano, S., Naruse, T. Clin. Nephrol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  31. A comparative study of direct hemoperfusion and hemodialysis for the removal of glufosinate ammonium. Tanaka, J., Yamashita, M., Yamamoto, T. J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  32. Biolistic co-transformation of Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum strain CG423 with green fluorescent protein and resistance to glufosinate ammonium. Inglis, P.W., Aragão, F.J., Frazão, H., Magalhães, B.P., Valadares-Inglis, M.C. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. Determination of glufosinate ammonium and its metabolite (AE F064619 and AE F061517) residues in water by gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry after ion exchange cleanup and derivatization. Royer, A., Beguin, S., Sochor, H., Communal, P.Y. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
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