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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Lymphedema


Psychiatry related information on Lymphedema


High impact information on Lymphedema


Chemical compound and disease context of Lymphedema


Biological context of Lymphedema


Anatomical context of Lymphedema

  • We examined the expression of chemokine receptors on the surfaces of T cells and B cells from 27 individuals either with lymphatic filarial disease (lymphedema), with the asymptomatic or subclinical form of filarial infection, or without filarial infection [21].
  • We describe two brothers with congenital lymphedema of lower limbs, atrial septal defect (ASD), and similar facial appearance [22].
  • In contrast, LAS showed dermal diffusion ("backflow"), cross-over with retrograde tracer backflow (reflux), delayed tracer transport, and depending on the cause of lymphedema (i.e., primary or secondary), discrete or poorly defined lymph trunks (tracer "bands") and delayed or nonvisualization of regional lymph nodes [23].
  • Thus we consider that brachial plexus entrapment and carpal tunnel syndrome should be added to the list of complications following mastectomy, with lymphedema playing an active part in their development [24].
  • Evaluation by lymphoscintigraphy of the effect of a micronized flavonoid fraction (Daflon 500 mg) in the treatment of upper limb lymphedema [25].

Gene context of Lymphedema


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Lymphedema


  1. Lack of effect of coumarin in women with lymphedema after treatment for breast cancer. Loprinzi, C.L., Kugler, J.W., Sloan, J.A., Rooke, T.W., Quella, S.K., Novotny, P., Mowat, R.B., Michalak, J.C., Stella, P.J., Levitt, R., Tschetter, L.K., Windschitl, H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Efficacy of graded elastic compression in the lower leg. Pierson, S., Pierson, D., Swallow, R., Johnson, G. JAMA (1983) [Pubmed]
  3. The VCAM-1 gene that encodes the vascular cell adhesion molecule is a target of the Sry-related high mobility group box gene, Sox18. Hosking, B.M., Wang, S.C., Downes, M., Koopman, P., Muscat, G.E. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Lymphatic disorders in rheumatoid arthritis. Joos, E., Bourgeois, P., Famaey, J.P. Semin. Arthritis Rheum. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. The reverse hockey stick technique: postmastectomy radiation therapy for breast cancer patients with locally advanced tumor presentation or extensive loco-regional recurrence. Pezner, R.D., Lipsett, J.A., Forell, B., Vora, N.L., Desai, K.R., Wong, J.Y., Luk, K.H. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. Iminopeptiduria, skin ulcerations, and edema in a boy with prolidase deficiency. Sheffield, L.J., Schlesinger, P., Faull, K., Halpern, B.J., Schier, G.M., Cotton, R.G., Hammond, J., Danks, D.M. J. Pediatr. (1977) [Pubmed]
  7. Treatment of lymphedema of the arms and legs with 5,6-benzo-[alpha]-pyrone. Casley-Smith, J.R., Morgan, R.G., Piller, N.B. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. A genetic Xenopus laevis tadpole model to study lymphangiogenesis. Ny, A., Koch, M., Schneider, M., Neven, E., Tong, R.T., Maity, S., Fischer, C., Plaisance, S., Lambrechts, D., Héligon, C., Terclavers, S., Ciesiolka, M., Kälin, R., Man, W.Y., Senn, I., Wyns, S., Lupu, F., Brändli, A., Vleminckx, K., Collen, D., Dewerchin, M., Conway, E.M., Moons, L., Jain, R.K., Carmeliet, P. Nat. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Inhibition of lymphangiogenesis with resulting lymphedema in transgenic mice expressing soluble VEGF receptor-3. Mäkinen, T., Jussila, L., Veikkola, T., Karpanen, T., Kettunen, M.I., Pulkkanen, K.J., Kauppinen, R., Jackson, D.G., Kubo, H., Nishikawa, S., Ylä-Herttuala, S., Alitalo, K. Nat. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Vascular endothelial growth factor C is required for sprouting of the first lymphatic vessels from embryonic veins. Karkkainen, M.J., Haiko, P., Sainio, K., Partanen, J., Taipale, J., Petrova, T.V., Jeltsch, M., Jackson, D.G., Talikka, M., Rauvala, H., Betsholtz, C., Alitalo, K. Nat. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. T1alpha/podoplanin deficiency disrupts normal lymphatic vasculature formation and causes lymphedema. Schacht, V., Ramirez, M.I., Hong, Y.K., Hirakawa, S., Feng, D., Harvey, N., Williams, M., Dvorak, A.M., Dvorak, H.F., Oliver, G., Detmar, M. EMBO J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Congenital hereditary lymphedema caused by a mutation that inactivates VEGFR3 tyrosine kinase. Irrthum, A., Karkkainen, M.J., Devriendt, K., Alitalo, K., Vikkula, M. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Human lymphedema fluid lipoproteins: particle size, cholesterol and apolipoprotein distributions, and electron microscopic structure. Reichl, D., Forte, T.M., Hong, J.L., Rudra, D.N., Pflug, J. J. Lipid Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  14. Soft-tissue uptake of Tc-99m MDP in secondary scrotal lymphedema. Rao, B.R., Hodgens, D.W. J. Nucl. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  15. Diminished monocyte function in microfilaremic patients with lymphatic filariasis and its relationship to altered lymphoproliferative responses. Sasisekhar, B., Aparna, M., Augustin, D.J., Kaliraj, P., Kar, S.K., Nutman, T.B., Narayanan, R.B. Infect. Immun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. A model for gene therapy of human hereditary lymphedema. Karkkainen, M.J., Saaristo, A., Jussila, L., Karila, K.A., Lawrence, E.C., Pajusola, K., Bueler, H., Eichmann, A., Kauppinen, R., Kettunen, M.I., Yla-Herttuala, S., Finegold, D.N., Ferrell, R.E., Alitalo, K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Microcephaly/lymphedema and terminal deletion of the long arm of chromosome 13. Fryns, J.P. Am. J. Med. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. FOXC2 truncating mutation in distichiasis, lymphedema, and cleft palate. Bahuau, M., Houdayer, C., Tredano, M., Soupre, V., Couderc, R., Vazquez, M.P. Clin. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Lymphedema, lipedema, and the open wound: the role of compression therapy. Macdonald, J.M., Sims, N., Mayrovitz, H.N. Surg. Clin. North Am. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. White blood cell defects: molecular discoveries and clinical management. Uzel, G., Holland, S.M. Current allergy and asthma reports. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Chemokine receptors of T cells and of B cells in lymphatic filarial infection: a role for CCR9 in pathogenesis. Babu, S., Blauvelt, C.P., Kumaraswami, V., Nutman, T.B. J. Infect. Dis. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Possible new autosomal recessive syndrome of lymphedema, hydroceles, atrial septal defect, and characteristic facial changes. Irons, M.B., Bianchi, D.W., Geggel, R.L., Marx, G.R., Bhan, I. Am. J. Med. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Magnetic resonance imaging in human lymphedema: comparison with lymphangioscintigraphy. Case, T.C., Witte, C.L., Witte, M.H., Unger, E.C., Williams, W.H. Magnetic resonance imaging. (1992) [Pubmed]
  24. Nerve entrapments associated with postmastectomy lymphedema. Ganel, A., Engel, J., Sela, M., Brooks, M. Cancer (1979) [Pubmed]
  25. Evaluation by lymphoscintigraphy of the effect of a micronized flavonoid fraction (Daflon 500 mg) in the treatment of upper limb lymphedema. Pecking, A.P. International angiology : a journal of the International Union of Angiology. (1995) [Pubmed]
  26. Mutations in FOXC2 (MFH-1), a forkhead family transcription factor, are responsible for the hereditary lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome. Fang, J., Dagenais, S.L., Erickson, R.P., Arlt, M.F., Glynn, M.W., Gorski, J.L., Seaver, L.H., Glover, T.W. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptors in the regulation of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. Karkkainen, M.J., Petrova, T.V. Oncogene (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Insights into the molecular pathogenesis and targeted treatment of lymphedema. Saaristo, A., Karkkainen, M.J., Alitalo, K. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Lymphangiogenic gene therapy with minimal blood vascular side effects. Saaristo, A., Veikkola, T., Tammela, T., Enholm, B., Karkkainen, M.J., Pajusola, K., Bueler, H., Ylä-Herttuala, S., Alitalo, K. J. Exp. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. Lack of effect of long-term octreotide therapy in severe thyroid-associated dermopathy. Rotman-Pikielny, P., Brucker-Davis, F., Turner, M.L., Sarlis, N.J., Skarulis, M.C. Thyroid (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Selenium in the treatment of head and neck lymphedema. Bruns, F., Büntzel, J., Mücke, R., Schönekaes, K., Kisters, K., Micke, O. Medical principles and practice : international journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre. (2004) [Pubmed]
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