The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

Struvite     azane; magnesium; phosphoric acid;...

Synonyms: AC1O3RSL, LS-186698, AC1Q4U6M, 15490-91-2, Struvite ((NH4)Mg(PO4).6H2O), ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Struvite


Psychiatry related information on Struvite

  • The underlying cause of UTI in this patient may have been damage to the lower urinary tract induced by previous diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and/or sterile struvite uroliths that compromised local host defense mechanisms [6].
  • An optimal reaction time of 30 min was established for struvite precipitation in the pre-treated swine wastewater at pH 8.5, minimizing the co-precipitation of interfering minerals [7].

High impact information on Struvite


Chemical compound and disease context of Struvite

  • The results show that plasma shield lasertripsy is as effective as direct lasertripsy for fragmenting gallstones, struvite and calcium oxalate dihydrate calculi, is potentially safer, and can fragment cystine calculi which the pulsed dye laser applied directly cannot [11].
  • For example, a low urinary pH and high urinary concentration of undissociated uric acid could be discerned readily in cases of uric acid lithiasis, as were high urinary pH and exaggerated urinary supersaturation of struvite in cases of infection lithiasis [12].
  • Implantation of foreign bodies in their urinary bladders and changing their urinary ambient conditions by administering ethylene glycol for two weeks at two week intervals resulted in the formation of urinary stones of mixed composition containing calcium oxalate and struvite [13].
  • With the exception of EGTA and HEDTA for struvite stones, solutions based on these compounds show high solubilities for all the inorganic kidney stone compounds at a solution pH of 8 or higher and therefore have good prospects as litholytic agents [14].
  • OBJECTIVE: Citric acid, in varying concentrations, has been used in the dissolution treatment of struvite renal calculi [15].

Biological context of Struvite


Anatomical context of Struvite

  • These pathogens secrete copious amounts of glycocalyx which facilitates adhesion of the organisms to the kidney, provides protection for these bacteria, and serves to bind struvite and apatite crystals that result from bacterial urease activity [10].
  • PURPOSE: Although geographic variability in cases of kidney stones, primarily calcium stones, is reported in the general population, little is known about geographic variability in subjects with spinal cord injury, in whom struvite stones predominate [21].
  • Computerized tomography demonstrated that a non-opaque filling defect within the ureter of a ureterostomy patient was a struvite calculus containing a minimal amount of calcium salts [22].
  • We do not recommend routine cultures for this organism unless the urine is alkaline and struvite crystals, leukocytes, and erythrocytes are present [23].
  • In this review, the importance of urease to bacteria is discussed, identifying the gastrointestinal tract as a major reservoir of ureolytic bacteria and investigating the urinary tract environment and the infectious struvite stone production that often accompanies urease-producing bacteria there [24].

Associations of Struvite with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Struvite

  • A possible approach to this problem is to search for CLCN5 mutations in patients who may have a high prevalence of mutations: end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients with previous calcium, struvite, or radio-opaque (CSR) stones [29].
  • The results suggest that the sugar composition of Proteus LPS may either enhance or inhibit the crystallization of struvite and apatite, depending on its chemical structure and ability to bind cations [30].
  • All urinary stone constituents could accompany struvite and many could replace this compound [31].
  • Four of seven patients with struvite calculi had an infected pre-operative midstream urine specimen and six of the seven removed calculi demonstrated significant bacterial growth [32].
  • Problems with struvite formation date back to the 1960s when it was noticed at the Hyperion treatment plant, Los Angeles. Operators at the plant noticed crystalline deposits on the underside of post digestion screens [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Struvite


  1. New treatment for struvite urinary stones. Smith, L.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Intracolonic formation of struvite crystals in a patient with congenital megacolon. Patterson, D.J., Alpert, E. Gastroenterology (1982) [Pubmed]
  3. Reduced glomerular filtration rate and hypercalciuria in primary struvite nephrolithiasis. Kristensen, C., Parks, J.H., Lindheimer, M., Coe, F.L. Kidney Int. (1987) [Pubmed]
  4. Unique ability of the Proteus mirabilis capsule to enhance mineral growth in infectious urinary calculi. Dumanski, A.J., Hedelin, H., Edin-Liljegren, A., Beauchemin, D., McLean, R.J. Infect. Immun. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Encrusted pyelitis and cystitis by Corynebacterium urealyticum (CDC group D2): a new and threatening complication following renal transplant. Aguado, J.M., Morales, J.M., Salto, E., Lumbreras, C., Lizasoain, M., Diaz-Gonzalez, R., Martinez, M.A., Andres, A., Praga, M., Noriega, A.R. Transplantation (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Medical management of male and female cats with nonobstructive lower urinary tract disease. Osborne, C.A., Polzin, D.J., Klausner, J.S., Kruger, J.M. Vet. Clin. North Am. Small Anim. Pract. (1984) [Pubmed]
  7. Laboratory and pilot-scale phosphate and ammonium removal by controlled struvite precipitation following coagulation and flocculation of swine wastewater. Laridi, R., Auclair, J.C., Benmoussa, H. Environmental technology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. A randomized double-blind study of acetohydroxamic acid in struvite nephrolithiasis. Williams, J.J., Rodman, J.S., Peterson, C.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  9. Tubulopathy in nephrolithiasis: consequence rather than cause. Jaeger, P., Portmann, L., Ginalski, J.M., Jacquet, A.F., Temler, E., Burckhardt, P. Kidney Int. (1986) [Pubmed]
  10. An in vitro ultrastructural study of infectious kidney stone genesis. McLean, R.J., Nickel, J.C., Noakes, V.C., Costerton, J.W. Infect. Immun. (1985) [Pubmed]
  11. Plasma shield lasertripsy: in vitro studies. Bhatta, K.M., Rosen, D.I., Dretler, S.P. J. Urol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. Graphic display of urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. Pak, C.Y., Skurla, C., Harvey, J. J. Urol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  13. Urolithogenesis of mixed foreign body stones. Khan, S.R., Hackett, R.L. J. Urol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. Screening of chelating agents for chemolysis. Verplaetse, H., Verbeeck, R.M., Minnaert, H., Oosterlinck, W. Eur. Urol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  15. Citric acid (solution R) irrigation in the treatment of refractory infection (struvite) stone disease: is it useful? Joshi, H.B., Kumar, P.V., Timoney, A.G. Eur. Urol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Historical perspectives and current advancements in the bacteriology and medical therapy of struvite urinary stone disease. Schwartz, B.F. Curr. Pharm. Des. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Influence of chondroitin sulfate, heparin sulfate, and citrate on Proteus mirabilis-induced struvite crystallization in vitro. McLean, R.J., Downey, J., Clapham, L., Nickel, J.C. J. Urol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Corynebacterium group D2 pyelonephritis. Schoch, P.A., Ferragamo, M.A., Cunha, B.A. Urology (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. Canine struvite urolithiasis: problems and their dissolution. Osborne, C.A., Klausner, J.S., Krawiec, D.R., Griffith, D.P. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. (1981) [Pubmed]
  20. Comparison of the filtration characteristics of organic and inorganic membranes in a membrane-coupled anaerobic bioreactor. Kang, I.J., Yoon, S.H., Lee, C.H. Water Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Geographic variation and environmental risk factors for the incidence of initial kidney stones in patients with spinal cord injury. Chen, Y.Y., Roseman, J.M., Devivo, M.J., Huang, C.T. J. Urol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Non-opaque calculus demonstrated by computerized tomography. Alter, A.J., Peterson, D.T., Plautz, A.C. J. Urol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  23. Prevalence of Corynebacterium urealyticum in urine specimens collected at a university-affiliated medical center. Ryan, M., Murray, P.R. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. The ecology and pathogenicity of urease-producing bacteria in the urinary tract. McLean, R.J., Nickel, J.C., Cheng, K.J., Costerton, J.W. Crit. Rev. Microbiol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  25. Cystine calculi--rough and smooth: a new clinical distinction. Bhatta, K.M., Prien, E.L., Dretler, S.P. J. Urol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  26. Stone fragility--a new therapeutic distinction. Dretler, S.P. J. Urol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  27. Comparative assessment of ureteral stent biomaterial encrustation. Tunney, M.M., Keane, P.F., Jones, D.S., Gorman, S.P. Biomaterials (1996) [Pubmed]
  28. Urolithiasis in Tunisian children: a study of 120 cases based on stone composition. Kamoun, A., Daudon, M., Abdelmoula, J., Hamzaoui, M., Chaouachi, B., Houissa, T., Zghal, A., Ben Ammar, S., Belkahia, C., Lakhoua, R. Pediatr. Nephrol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. Dent's disease and prevalence of renal stones in dialysis patients in Northeastern Italy. Tosetto, E., Graziotto, R., Artifoni, L., Nachtigal, J., Cascone, C., Conz, P., Piva, M., Dell'Aquila, R., De Paoli Vitali, E., Citron, L., Nalesso, F., Antonello, A., Vertolli, U., Zagatti, R., Lupo, A., D'Angelo, A., Anglani, F., Gambaro, G. J. Hum. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  30. Crystallization of urine mineral components may depend on the chemical nature of Proteus endotoxin polysaccharides. Torzewska, A., Staczek, P., Rózalski, A. J. Med. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Constituents of urinary calculi containing struvite. Sutor, D.J. British journal of urology. (1975) [Pubmed]
  32. Bacteriological study of renal calculi. McCartney, A.C., Clark, J., Lewi, H.J. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  33. Assesing the potential for struvite recovery at sewage treatment works. Parsons, S.A., Wall, F., Doyle, J., Oldring, K., Churchley, J. Environmental technology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  34. Encrusted pyelitis of native kidneys. Hertig, A., Duvic, C., Chretien, Y., Jungers, P., Grünfeld, J.P., Rieu, P. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  35. Renal obstruction from persistent struvite stone matrix: a complication of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. LaBerge, J.M., Sheff, C.D. Radiology. (1987) [Pubmed]
  36. Outpatient irrigation of the renal collecting system with 10 per cent hemiacidrin: cumulative experience of 365 days in 13 patients. Palmer, J.M., Bishai, M.B., Mallon, D.S. J. Urol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  37. Primary dissolution therapy of struvite calculi. Dretler, S.P., Pfister, R.C. J. Urol. (1984) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities