The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

Sarkosyl     2-(dodecanoyl-methyl- amino)ethanoic acid

Synonyms: Gardol, Hamposyl L, Maprosyl L, Sarcosyl L, Sarkosyl L, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Gardol

  • Most of the TPP activity in the crude E. coli sonicate was initially found in the membrane fraction, but it became solubilized in the presence of 0.2% Sarkosyl [1].
  • Following Me2SO removal by methanol precipitation, solubilized PrP27-30 molecules aggregated into small and amorphous structures that did not resemble the rod configuration observed when scrapie brain membranes were extracted with Sarkosyl and digested with proteinase K [2].
  • Transcription elongation in a nuclear extract in vitro is efficiently blocked by Sarkosyl at a specific site downstream of the adenovirus major late (ML) promoter at which regulated transcription arrest has also been observed in vivo [3].
  • Purified elongation complexes treated with 1% Sarkosyl and paused at U(14)/G(16) on an HIV-1 template and at G(11) on the Ad2-ML template are equally sensitive to dephosphorylation by CTD phosphatase [4].
  • To examine this hypothesis, the effects of the detergent Sarkosyl on HIV transcription were studied [5].

Psychiatry related information on Gardol

  • Small amounts of brain tissue (2 g) infected with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) can be fractionated by using a simple 1-day method that includes lysis with N-lauroylsarcosine [6].
  • However, immunoblot analysis of sarkosyl-insoluble tau showed three major bands of 60, 64, and 68 kDa, consistent with the presence of 3- and 4-repeat tau isoforms, as in Alzheimer's disease [7].
  • Sarkosyl-insoluble tau extracted from the cerebral cortex showed the presence of straight and twisted tau filaments and a pattern of pathological tau bands similar to that of Pick's disease [8].
  • The detergent sodium N-lauroyl sarkosinate (sarkosyl) is a detergent that is widely used in PrP-res purifications and is known to stimulate the PrP-res-induced conversion reaction [9].

High impact information on Gardol

  • Sarkosyl defines three intermediate steps in transcription initiation by RNA polymerase III: application to stimulation of transcription by E1A [10].
  • The formation of the corresponding 0.015% Sarkosyl-resistant complex required the presence of TFIIIC, TFIIIB, and RNA polymerase III but not nucleoside triphosphates [10].
  • The action of the chimeric acidic transcriptional activator GAL-VP16 has been investigated by performing a series of kinetic experiments using the detergent Sarkosyl as well as monoclonal antibodies which specifically inhibit GAL-VP16 DNA binding and transcriptional activation [11].
  • Extraction of doublet microtubules from the sperm flagella of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus with sarkosyl (0.5%)-urea (2.5 M) yields a highly pure preparation of "tektin" filaments that we have previously shown to resemble intermediate filament proteins [12].
  • The network of fibrils visualized in these fractions by negative staining is structurally resistant to treatment with DOC, but is either solubilized or disrupted by N-lauroylsarcosine [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of Gardol

  • The phage was sensitive to the organic solvents deoxycholate and Sarkosyl, and its infectivity was reduced by treatment with phospholipase C. Electron microscopy indicated the presence of a double-layered coat around the phage particles [14].
  • This increase resulted in a specific infectivity for cores that was only 20-fold less than that of purified disaggregated virus particles (stored in the presence of 0.1% sodium-N-lauroylsarcosine (NLS)) [15].
  • We found, however, that the insolubility of the small (EnvA) and the large (EnvB) cysteine-rich proteins of Chlamydia psittaci 6BC in Sarkosyl is dependent on the maintenance of a supramolecular disulfide-cross-linked complex and is unlikely to be a valid indicator of outer membrane location [16].
  • Both wild-type and cysteine-less (Cys-less) CTPs were overexpressed in E. coli and solubilized with sarkosyl [17].
  • The ferric-aerobactin receptor of strain W3C105 was an 80-kDa protein, identified by immunoblots of Sarkosyl-soluble proteins obtained from E. carotovora cells grown in iron-depleted medium and probed with antiserum raised against the 74-kDa ferric-aerobactin receptor encoded by the pColV-K30 plasmid of Escherichia coli [18].

Biological context of Gardol

  • Incubation with the HeLa extract increased the amount of Sarkosyl-resistant (i.e., transcribing) RNA polymerase on the SV40 chromosomes [19].
  • FA and FE do not replace one another and show different kinetics of action in a sarkosyl block assay [20].
  • Agarose gel electrophoretic mobility shift showed that a preformed Zta-holo-TFIID-TFIIA complex was resistant to Sarkosyl and to Zta response element oligonucleotide challenge [21].
  • Transcription of the PARP (procyclin or procyclic acidic repetitive protein), variant cell surface glycoprotein (VSG) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes was resistant or increased after addition of Sarkosyl [22].
  • In contrast, the transcription of seven protein coding house keeping genes and the mini-exon donor RNA (medRNA) genes was completely abolished by the addition of Sarkosyl, while the transcription of the 5S rRNA genes showed an intermediate sensitivity [22].

Anatomical context of Gardol


Associations of Gardol with other chemical compounds

  • Antibodies raised against the Sarkosyl-insoluble, major flagellar glycoprotein fraction, mastigonemes, were used to determine the source of flagellar surface glycoproteins and to define the general properties of flagellar surface assembly in Euglena [28].
  • They are highly stable during isolation but can be solubilized by urea, high salt, low pH, or detergent (Sarkosyl) [29].
  • Transcription complexes preassembled on immobilized templates were depleted of pol III after a single round of RNA synthesis in the presence of heparin and sarkosyl [30].
  • It was solubilized from cytoplasmic membranes by treatment with Sarkosyl/cholate mixture and purified by gel filtration on Sephadex G-200 [31].
  • The lysis method is based on the sensitivity of this bacterium to incubation with lysozyme, n-dodecylamine,EDTA, followed by Sarkosyl, after growth in the presence of carbenicillin [32].

Gene context of Gardol

  • No modifications in the expression of non-phosphorylated MEK-1, ERK2 and GSK-3alpha/beta, as revealed by immunohistochemistry, were seen in AGD, but sarkosyl-insoluble fractions were particularly enriched in JNK-1 and alphaCaM kinase II [33].
  • Investigation of the role of TFIIF in transcription initiation indicates that both RAP30 and RAP74 function in synthesis of the first few phosphodiester bonds of nascent transcripts and in formation of Sarkosyl-resistant pre-initiation intermediates [34].
  • Neither detergent (2% Sarkosyl) extraction nor limited proteinase K digestion of scrapie microsomes produced recognizable prion amyloid rods [35].
  • In E. coli both Rad2/beta-galactosidase fusion protein and native Rad2 protein are insoluble, but are extractable with 1% Sarkosyl [36].
  • Cell lysis and protein solubilization with the anionic detergent sarkosyl yielded preparations of EcR and USP with properties similar to those of the endogenous receptors in various respects [37].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Gardol


  1. Purification, cloning, expression, and properties of mycobacterial trehalose-phosphate phosphatase. Klutts, S., Pastuszak, I., Edavana, V.K., Thampi, P., Pan, Y.T., Abraham, E.C., Carroll, J.D., Elbein, A.D. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Protease-resistant and detergent-insoluble prion protein is not necessarily associated with prion infectivity. Shaked, G.M., Fridlander, G., Meiner, Z., Taraboulos, A., Gabizon, R. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Mechanistic studies of transcription arrest at the adenovirus major late attenuation site. Comparison of purified RNA polymerase II and washed elongation complexes. Wiest, D.K., Wang, D., Hawley, D.K. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. C-terminal domain phosphatase sensitivity of RNA polymerase II in early elongation complexes on the HIV-1 and adenovirus 2 major late templates. Marshall, N.F., Dahmus, M.E. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. HIV-1 Tat overcomes inefficient transcriptional elongation in vitro. Laspia, M.F., Wendel, P., Mathews, M.B. J. Mol. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Specific proteins associated with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and scrapie share antigenic and carbohydrate determinants. Manuelidis, L., Valley, S., Manuelidis, E.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
  7. Pick's disease associated with the novel Tau gene mutation K369I. Neumann, M., Schulz-Schaeffer, W., Crowther, R.A., Smith, M.J., Spillantini, M.G., Goedert, M., Kretzschmar, H.A. Ann. Neurol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Variable phenotypic expression and extensive tau pathology in two families with the novel tau mutation L315R. van Herpen, E., Rosso, S.M., Serverijnen, L.A., Yoshida, H., Breedveld, G., van de Graaf, R., Kamphorst, W., Ravid, R., Willemsen, R., Dooijes, D., Majoor-Krakauer, D., Kros, J.M., Crowther, R.A., Goedert, M., Heutink, P., van Swieten, J.C. Ann. Neurol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Conformational change, aggregation and fibril formation induced by detergent treatments of cellular prion protein. Xiong, L.W., Raymond, L.D., Hayes, S.F., Raymond, G.J., Caughey, B. J. Neurochem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Sarkosyl defines three intermediate steps in transcription initiation by RNA polymerase III: application to stimulation of transcription by E1A. Kovelman, R., Roeder, R.G. Genes Dev. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. The acidic transcriptional activator GAL-VP16 acts on preformed template-committed complexes. White, J., Brou, C., Wu, J., Lutz, Y., Moncollin, V., Chambon, P. EMBO J. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Localization of tektin filaments in microtubules of sea urchin sperm flagella by immunoelectron microscopy. Linck, R.W., Amos, L.A., Amos, W.B. J. Cell Biol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  13. Zonulae occludentes in junctional complex-enriched fractions from mouse liver: preliminary morphological and biochemical characterization. Stevenson, B.R., Goodenough, D.A. J. Cell Biol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  14. Properties of "diplophage": a lipid-containing bacteriophage. Lopez, R., Ronda, C., Tomasz, A., Portoles, A. J. Virol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  15. Enhanced infectivity of modified bluetongue virus particles for two insect cell lines and for two Culicoides vector species. Mertens, P.P., Burroughs, J.N., Walton, A., Wellby, M.P., Fu, H., O'Hara, R.S., Brookes, S.M., Mellor, P.S. Virology (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Architecture of the cell envelope of Chlamydia psittaci 6BC. Everett, K.D., Hatch, T.P. J. Bacteriol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Oligomeric state of wild-type and cysteine-less yeast mitochondrial citrate transport proteins. Kotaria, R., Mayor, J.A., Walters, D.E., Kaplan, R.S. J. Bioenerg. Biomembr. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. High-affinity iron uptake systems present in Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora include the hydroxamate siderophore aerobactin. Ishimaru, C.A., Loper, J.E. J. Bacteriol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Transcription of Simian Virus 40 chromosomes in an extract of HeLa cells. Beard, P., Nyfeler, K. EMBO J. (1982) [Pubmed]
  20. Purification of two transcription factors required for initiation by mammalian RNA polymerase II. Kawaguchi, T., Kitajima, S., Niho, Y., Oda, T., Germino, J., Weissman, S.M., Yasukochi, Y. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  21. Identification of functional targets of the Zta transcriptional activator by formation of stable preinitiation complex intermediates. Lieberman, P. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. The PARP and VSG genes of Trypanosoma brucei do not resemble RNA polymerase II transcription units in sensitivity to Sarkosyl in nuclear run-on assays. Rudenko, G., Lee, M.G., Van der Ploeg, L.H. Nucleic Acids Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. Isolation and initial characterization of the mammalian midbody. Mullins, J.M., McIntosh, J.R. J. Cell Biol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  24. Demonstration of Balbiani ring RNA sequences in polysomes. Wieslander, L., Daneholt, B. J. Cell Biol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  25. Chromatin and DNA synthesis associated with nuclear membrane in germinating cotton. Clay, W.F., Katterman, F.R., Bartels, P.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1975) [Pubmed]
  26. Phenotypic variation in hereditary frontotemporal dementia with tau mutations. van Swieten, J.C., Stevens, M., Rosso, S.M., Rizzu, P., Joosse, M., de Koning, I., Kamphorst, W., Ravid, R., Spillantini, M.G., Niermeijer, n.u.l.l., Heutink, P. Ann. Neurol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. High level expression and characterization of the mitochondrial citrate transport protein from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Kaplan, R.S., Mayor, J.A., Gremse, D.A., Wood, D.O. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Flagellar surface antigens in Euglena: immunological evidence for an external glycoprotein pool and its transfer to the regenerating flagellum. Rogalski, A.A., Bouck, G.B. J. Cell Biol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  29. Isolation, ultrastructure, and protein composition of the flagellar rootlet of Naegleria gruberi. Larson, D.E., Dingle, A.D. J. Cell Biol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  30. Transcription termination factor La is also an initiation factor for RNA polymerase III. Maraia, R.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Purification and properties of cytochrome b556 in the respiratory chain of aerobically grown Escherichia coli K12. Kita, K., Yamato, I., Anraku, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (1978) [Pubmed]
  32. On the isolation of TI-plasmid from Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Ledeboer, A.M., Krol, A.J., Dons, J.J., Spier, F., Schilperoort, R.A., Zaenen, I., van Larebeke, N., Schell, J. Nucleic Acids Res. (1976) [Pubmed]
  33. Phosphorylated protein kinases associated with neuronal and glial tau deposits in argyrophilic grain disease. Ferrer, I., Barrachina, M., Tolnay, M., Rey, M.J., Vidal, N., Carmona, M., Blanco, R., Puig, B. Brain Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  34. Roles for both the RAP30 and RAP74 subunits of transcription factor IIF in transcription initiation and elongation by RNA polymerase II. Tan, S., Aso, T., Conaway, R.C., Conaway, J.W. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  35. Scrapie prion rod formation in vitro requires both detergent extraction and limited proteolysis. McKinley, M.P., Meyer, R.K., Kenaga, L., Rahbar, F., Cotter, R., Serban, A., Prusiner, S.B. J. Virol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  36. Overexpression of the RAD2 gene of S. cerevisiae: identification and preliminary characterization of Rad2 protein. Nicolet, C.M., Friedberg, E.C. Yeast (1987) [Pubmed]
  37. Expression of EcR and USP in Escherichia coli: purification and functional studies. Elke, C., Vögtli, M., Rauch, P., Spindler-Barth, M., Lezzi, M. Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  38. Negative supercoiling of DNA facilitates an interaction between transcription factor IID and the fibroin gene promoter. Mizutani, M., Ohta, T., Watanabe, H., Handa, H., Hirose, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  39. TGA1a, a tobacco DNA-binding protein, increases the rate of preinitiation complex formation in a plant in vitro transcription system [corrected]. Yamazaki, K., Katagiri, F., Imaseki, H., Chua, N.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  40. Hippocampal sclerosis dementia with tauopathy. Beach, T.G., Sue, L., Scott, S., Layne, K., Newell, A., Walker, D., Baker, M., Sahara, N., Yen, S.H., Hutton, M., Caselli, R., Adler, C., Connor, D., Sabbagh, M. Brain Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  41. B-subunit of phosphate-specific transporter from Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a thermostable ATPase. Sarin, J., Aggarwal, S., Chaba, R., Varshney, G.C., Chakraborti, P.K. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  42. Frontal lobe dementia with novel tauopathy: sporadic multiple system tauopathy with dementia. Bigio, E.H., Lipton, A.M., Yen, S.H., Hutton, M.L., Baker, M., Nacharaju, P., White, C.L., Davies, P., Lin, W., Dickson, D.W. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (2001) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities