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Gene Review

CHGB  -  chromogranin B (secretogranin 1)

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CgB, Chromogranin-B, SCG1, Secretogranin I, Secretogranin-1, ...
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Disease relevance of CHGB


Psychiatry related information on CHGB

  • This suggests a specific influence of the constitutive amyloid protein on chromogranin secretion and a role of CgB in the CJD neurodegenerative process [5].
  • In Alzheimer's disease, about 10 to 20% of the amyloid-immunoreactive plaques contained either chromogranin A, chromogranin B or secretoneurin [6].

High impact information on CHGB


Chemical compound and disease context of CHGB

  • The plasma chromogranin A level, in comparison with neuron-specific enolase (NSE), chromogranin B (CBG), pancreastatin, or secretogranin levels, appears to be the most useful neuroendocrine marker for determination of neuroendocrine differentiation of advanced prostatic adenocarcinoma [10].

Biological context of CHGB

  • The complete amino acid sequence of the first one was established in 1985 and recently found to be entirely homologous to positions 420-493 of the just published chromogranin B sequence [11].
  • A high degree of correlation was observed between the various techniques revealing CgA and/or CgB gene expression at different levels; minor discrepancies might be related to tumor heterogeneity or to technical factors [3].
  • Expression of aiiA in transformed Erwinia carotovora strain SCG1 significantly reduces the release of AI, decreases extracellular pectolytic enzyme activities, and attenuates pathogenicity on potato, eggplant, Chinese cabbage, carrot, celery, cauliflower, and tobacco [12].
  • Thus, SgI/ChmB may be a new member of the family of heparin-binding extracellular matrix proteins that mediate cell adhesion and support neurite outgrowth [13].
  • The results demonstrate that CgB is processed in an early stage during its axonal transport [14].

Anatomical context of CHGB

  • Chromogranin A (CGA) and chromogranin B (CGB) are acidic proteins stored in secretory organelles of endocrine cells and neurons [15].
  • RNA messengers coding for CGB were amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in human monocytes, and immunocytochemical analysis by confocal microscopy revealed the presence of CGA or CGB or both in monocytes and neutrophils [15].
  • Cellular expression and specific intragranular localization of chromogranin A, chromogranin B, and synaptophysin during ontogeny of pancreatic islet cells: an ultrastructural study [16].
  • CT is also expressed in a significant proportion of hyperplastic and neoplastic parathyroid glands, and may be independent of the presence of CgB, SYN, or DD57 [17].
  • In neonatal islets, CgA was localized in the periphery of immature alpha- and beta-cell granules and throughout the matrix of delta-cell granules; CgB was distributed throughout the matrix of these granules [16].

Associations of CHGB with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of CHGB


Other interactions of CHGB

  • BACKGROUND: Previous studies have established that calcitonin (CT) and the calcitonin generelated peptide (CGRP) are synthesized and stored in subsets of hyperplastic parathyroid cells that also contain chromogranin B (Schmid, KW, et al. Lab Invest 73:90, 1995) [17].
  • The antibodies were used for immunohistochemical staining of normal and neoplastic neuroendocrine tissue and development of reliable radioimmunoassays for chromogranin A, chromogranin B, chromogranin C and pancreastatin [1].
  • CgA and CgB may mediate tumor progression through some unknown function besides the BRCA1-related function [21].
  • RESULTS: By radioimmunoassay measurement and electron microscopy we show the presence of the neuroendocrine markers chromogranin B, neuropeptide Y, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in about equimolar amount in human prostasomes and chromogranin A in about 2% of that amount [22].
  • Immunohistochemistry was performed by using antibodies against CgA, CgB, NSE,.serotonin, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and somatostatin [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CHGB

  • Only the free peptide and an N-terminally elongated peptide were detected by molecular size exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography, indicating that proteolytic processing of chromogranin B is quite extensive [24].
  • Tissue sections of six human pancreata were immunostained with 16 different region-specific antibodies to the CgB molecule, using double immunofluorescence techniques [25].
  • Immunoblotting studies showed chromogranin B immunoreactivity similar to that found in normal neuroendocrine cells [26].
  • Twenty-five cases of colorectal adenocarcinomas were investigated in parallel by immunocytochemical and hybridization (Northern blot) procedures to detect presence of three members of the chromogranin family, i.e., Chromogranin A, Chromogranin B, and Secretogranin II/secretoneurin and their synthetic machinery [27].
  • Here, we have addressed this issue by analyzing the packaging and transport of secretory human chromogranin B fusion proteins using a green fluorescent protein-based high-resolution, dual-color imaging technique [28].


  1. Measurements of chromogranin A, chromogranin B (secretogranin I), chromogranin C (secretogranin II) and pancreastatin in plasma and urine from patients with carcinoid tumours and endocrine pancreatic tumours. Stridsberg, M., Oberg, K., Li, Q., Engström, U., Lundqvist, G. J. Endocrinol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Pancreastatin secretion by pituitary adenomas and regulation of chromogranin B mRNA expression. Jin, L., Scheithauer, B.W., Young, W.F., Davis, D.H., Klee, G.G., Lloyd, R.V. Am. J. Pathol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Chromogranin A and B gene expression in carcinomas of the breast. Correlation of immunocytochemical, immunoblot, and hybridization analyses. Pagani, A., Papotti, M., Höfler, H., Weiler, R., Winkler, H., Bussolati, G. Am. J. Pathol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. Argyrophilia and chromogranin A and B immunostaining in patients with sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma. A critical appraisal of their prognostic utility. Scopsi, L., Sampietro, G., Boracchi, P., Collini, P. J. Pathol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Different chromogranin immunoreactivity between prion and a-beta amyloid plaque. Rangon, C.M., Haïk, S., Faucheux, B.A., Metz-Boutigue, M.H., Fierville, F., Fuchs, J.P., Hauw, J.J., Aunis, D. Neuroreport (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Synaptic proteins in Alzheimer's disease. Marksteiner, J., Kaufmann, W.A., Gurka, P., Humpel, C. J. Mol. Neurosci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Ca2+-triggered peptide secretion in single cells imaged with green fluorescent protein and evanescent-wave microscopy. Lang, T., Wacker, I., Steyer, J., Kaether, C., Wunderlich, I., Soldati, T., Gerdes, H.H., Almers, W. Neuron (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Essential role of the disulfide-bonded loop of chromogranin B for sorting to secretory granules is revealed by expression of a deletion mutant in the absence of endogenous granin synthesis. Krömer, A., Glombik, M.M., Huttner, W.B., Gerdes, H.H. J. Cell Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Reduction of the disulfide bond of chromogranin B (secretogranin I) in the trans-Golgi network causes its missorting to the constitutive secretory pathways. Chanat, E., Weiss, U., Huttner, W.B., Tooze, S.A. EMBO J. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Evaluation and clinical value of neuroendocrine differentiation in human prostatic tumors. Cussenot, O., Villette, J.M., Cochand-Priollet, B., Berthon, P. The Prostate. Supplement. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Chromogranin B (secretogranin I), a putative precursor of two novel pituitary peptides through processing at paired basic residues. Benjannet, S., Leduc, R., Adrouche, N., Falgueyret, J.P., Marcinkiewicz, M., Seidah, N.G., Mbikay, M., Lazure, C., Chretien, M. FEBS Lett. (1987) [Pubmed]
  12. AiiA, an enzyme that inactivates the acylhomoserine lactone quorum-sensing signal and attenuates the virulence of Erwinia carotovora. Dong, Y.H., Xu, J.L., Li, X.Z., Zhang, L.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Secretogranin I/chromogranin B is a heparin-binding adhesive protein. Chen, M., Tempst, P., Yankner, B.A. J. Neurochem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. Presence and release of SR-17 (chromogranin B(586-602)) in the porcine splenic nerve and its enzymatic degradation by CD26/dipeptidyl peptidase IV. Depreitere, J., Durinx, C., Wang, Z., Coen, E., Lambeir, A.M., Scharpé, S., De Potter, W., Nouwen, E.J. Regul. Pept. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Presence of chromogranin-derived antimicrobial peptides in plasma during coronary artery bypass surgery and evidence of an immune origin of these peptides. Tasiemski, A., Hammad, H., Vandenbulcke, F., Breton, C., Bilfinger, T.J., Pestel, J., Salzet, M. Blood (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Cellular expression and specific intragranular localization of chromogranin A, chromogranin B, and synaptophysin during ontogeny of pancreatic islet cells: an ultrastructural study. Lukinius, A., Stridsberg, M., Wilander, E. Pancreas (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Calcitonin immunoreactivity in neoplastic and hyperplastic parathyroid glands: an immunohistochemical study. Khan, A., Tischler, A.S., Patwardhan, N.A., DeLellis, R.A. Endocr. Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Chromogranin A and chromogranin B in noninvasive and invasive breast carcinoma. Kimura, N., Yoshida, R., Shiraishi, S., Pilichowska, M., Ohuchi, N. Endocr. Pathol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Chromogranin B (secretogranin I), a secretory protein of the regulated pathway, is also present in a tightly membrane-associated form in PC12 cells. Pimplikar, S.W., Huttner, W.B. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Prolactin and secretogranin-II, a marker for the regulated pathway, are secreted in parallel by pituitary GH4C1 cells. Hinkle, P.M., Scammell, J.G., Shanshala, E.D. Endocrinology (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. Clinicopathological study of chromogranin A, B and BRCA1 expression in node-negative breast carcinoma. Yoshida, R., Ohuchi, N., Kimura, N. Oncol. Rep. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Prostasomes are neuroendocrine-like vesicles in human semen. Stridsberg, M., Fabiani, R., Lukinius, A., Ronquist, G. Prostate (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Neuroendocrine differentiation in carcinomas of the prostate: do neuroendocrine serum markers reflect immunohistochemical findings? Angelsen, A., Syversen, U., Haugen, O.A., Stridsberg, M., Mjølnerød, O.K., Waldum, H.L. Prostate (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. PE-11, a peptide derived from chromogranin B, in the human brain. Marksteiner, J., Bauer, R., Kaufmann, W.A., Weiss, E., Barnas, U., Maier, H. Neuroscience (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Region-specific antibodies to chromogranin B display various immunostaining patterns in human endocrine pancreas. Portela-Gomes, G.M., Stridsberg, M. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. Argyrophilic carcinoma of the male breast. A neuroendocrine tumor containing predominantly chromogranin B (secretogranin I). Scopsi, L., Andreola, S., Saccozzi, R., Pilotti, S., Boracchi, P., Rosa, P., Conti, A.R., Manzari, A., Huttner, W.B., Rilke, F. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  27. Chromogranin gene expressions in colorectal adenocarcinomas. Pagani, A., Papotti, M., Abbona, G.C., Bussolati, G. Mod. Pathol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Selective delivery of secretory cargo in Golgi-derived carriers of nonepithelial cells. Rustom, A., Bajohrs, M., Kaether, C., Keller, P., Toomre, D., Corbeil, D., Gerdes, H.H. Traffic (2002) [Pubmed]
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