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Gene Review

AZIN2  -  antizyme inhibitor 2

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ADC, ARGDC, AZI2, AZIB1, Antizyme inhibitor 2, ...
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Disease relevance of ADC


Psychiatry related information on ADC

  • In patients with ADC, MAA uptake mainly depends on alcohol consumption [4].
  • The AIDS dementia complex (ADC, also referred to as HIV-associated cognitive impairment) is a common disorder among HIV-infected patients associated with both inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes [5].
  • The value of prospective serial neuropsychological, neuroradiological and neurophysiological measurements to assist diagnosis of ADC/HACC in patients with premorbid personality disorder and intercurrent drug use is demonstrated [6].
  • The relevance of the 1984 Mental Health Act (Scotland) with regard to drug users with ADC/HACC is discussed [6].
  • The innervation in human taste buds of the foliate and circumvallate papillae was studied immunohistochemically using several neuronal markers in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their control (ADC) patients [7].

High impact information on ADC

  • A genome-wide screen for genetic linkage in a large family with an autosomal dominant form of Caffey disease (ADC) revealed a locus on chromosome 17q21 (LOD score, 6.78) [8].
  • Also, the ADC inhibitor difluoromethylarginine inhibited L-arginine-dependent restoration of parasite replication rates, while the protection from DNA fragmentation persisted [9].
  • In aggregate, these results indicate that T. cruzi epimastigotes can undergo programmed cell death that can be inhibited by L-arginine by means of (i) a *NO synthase-dependent *NO production that suppresses apoptosis and (ii) an ADC-dependent production of polyamines that support parasite proliferation [9].
  • Myocardial uptake of 111In monoclonal antimyosin antibodies (MAA) was used to study myocardial damage in patients with idiopathic (IDC) and alcoholic (ADC) dilated cardiomyopathy and to assess its prognostic implications [4].
  • Moreover, in several studies, TSA was capable of inducing DNA demethylation even in the absence of ADC [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of ADC


Biological context of ADC


Anatomical context of ADC


Associations of ADC with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of ADC

  • However, sustained decreases in rrCBV and ADC values may indicate that even low ecstasy doses can induce prolonged vasoconstriction in some brain areas, although it is not known whether this effect is permanent [22].

Other interactions of ADC

  • ODC-p might also function as a brain- and testis-specific AZI [17].
  • We found that IL-6 mRNA was highly expressed in all tumor biopsy samples analyzed (4 LLC, 3 ADC and 3 SCC) [23].
  • These data suggest that the induction of NGF and bFGF alone appears to be insufficient as a compensatory mechanism to prevent ADC [24].
  • The cellular and regional distribution of NFkappaB, TNF-alpha, and apoptosis was examined in the frontal cortex (FC), deep white matter (DWM) and the basal ganglia (BG) of 17 patients with ADC [25].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Transient neurological deficits occur in advanced HIV-1 disease and are often associated with ADC, elevated concentrations of anticardiolipin antibodies, and low protein S levels [3].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ADC

  • Northern blot analysis using the cDNA probe indicated the expression of ADC message in selective human brain regions and other human tissues [14].
  • A direct interaction between ODCp and AZs was detected by immunoprecipitation experiments [15].
  • This article addresses the question posed in the title by examining the effects of parameters traditionally associated with improved absolute quantitation, on the analysis of 12 acquired immune deficiency syndrome dementia complex (ADC) patients compared to a normal control group [26].
  • DW MR imaging yielded a total apparent diffusion coefficient including diffusion and microperfusion (ADC(tot)), as well as an ADC reflecting predominantly pure diffusion (ADC(D)) and the perfusion fraction [27].
  • It is called the "ADC method", since estimation of FNR is based on "Accidentally Detected Carcinoma". ADC is a carcinoma detected by chance upon close examination because of abnormalities falsely pointed out in the first stage of the mass survey (mass screening) in a region other than the one in which carcinoma is located [28].


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  2. The urokinase receptor is overexpressed in the AIDS dementia complex and other neurological manifestations. Cinque, P., Nebuloni, M., Santovito, M.L., Price, R.W., Gisslen, M., Hagberg, L., Bestetti, A., Vago, G., Lazzarin, A., Blasi, F., Sidenius, N. Ann. Neurol. (2004) [Pubmed]
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  8. A novel COL1A1 mutation in infantile cortical hyperostosis (Caffey disease) expands the spectrum of collagen-related disorders. Gensure, R.C., Mäkitie, O., Barclay, C., Chan, C., Depalma, S.R., Bastepe, M., Abuzahra, H., Couper, R., Mundlos, S., Sillence, D., Ala Kokko, L., Seidman, J.G., Cole, W.G., Jüppner, H. J. Clin. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
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  10. Histone deacetylase inhibitors decrease DNA methyltransferase-3B messenger RNA stability and down-regulate de novo DNA methyltransferase activity in human endometrial cells. Xiong, Y., Dowdy, S.C., Podratz, K.C., Jin, F., Attewell, J.R., Eberhardt, N.L., Jiang, S.W. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Integrin laminin receptor profile of pulmonary squamous cell and adenocarcinomas. Patriarca, C., Alfano, R.M., Sonnenberg, A., Graziani, D., Cassani, B., de Melker, A., Colombo, P., Languino, L.R., Fornaro, M., Warren, W.H., Coggi, G., Gould, V.E. Hum. Pathol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Induction of Ley antigen by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine in association with differentiation and apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer cells. Yamada, T., Ohwada, S., Saitoh, F., Adachi, M., Morishita, Y., Hozumi, M. Anticancer Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Inhibition of ornithine or arginine decarboxylase as an experimental approach to African or American trypanosomiasis. McCann, P.P., Bacchi, C.J., Bitonti, A.J., Kierszenbaum, F., Sjoerdsma, A. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. Expression of human arginine decarboxylase, the biosynthetic enzyme for agmatine. Zhu, M.Y., Iyo, A., Piletz, J.E., Regunathan, S. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Mouse Ornithine Decarboxylase-like Gene Encodes an Antizyme Inhibitor Devoid of Ornithine and Arginine Decarboxylating Activity. L??pez-Contreras, A.J., L??pez-Garcia, C., Jim??nez-Cervantes, C., Cremades, A., Pe??afiel, R. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Consistency of Polyamine Profiles and Expression of Arginine Decarboxylase in Mitosis during Zygotic Embryogenesis of Scots Pine. Vuosku, J., Jokela, A., L????r??, E., S????skilahti, M., Muilu, R., Sutela, S., Altabella, T., Sarjala, T., H??ggman, H. Plant Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Expression of a novel human ornithine decarboxylase-like protein in the central nervous system and testes. Pitkänen, L.T., Heiskala, M., Andersson, L.C. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Normal aging in the central nervous system: quantitative MR diffusion-tensor analysis. Abe, O., Aoki, S., Hayashi, N., Yamada, H., Kunimatsu, A., Mori, H., Yoshikawa, T., Okubo, T., Ohtomo, K. Neurobiol. Aging (2002) [Pubmed]
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  20. Pleural mesotheliomas have an integrin profile distinct from visceral carcinomas. Koukoulis, G.K., Shen, J., Monson, R., Warren, W.H., Virtanen, I., Gould, V.E. Hum. Pathol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Neuroprotective effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy monitored by MR-imaging after embolic stroke in rats. Henninger, N., Küppers-Tiedt, L., Sicard, K.M., Günther, A., Schneider, D., Schwab, S. Exp. Neurol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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