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Gene Review

Dhfr  -  dihydrofolate reductase

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Dihydrofolate reductase
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Disease relevance of Dhfr


High impact information on Dhfr


Chemical compound and disease context of Dhfr


Biological context of Dhfr


Anatomical context of Dhfr


Associations of Dhfr with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Dhfr

  • Analysis of the transcription factor E2F complexes formed in the promoter regions of cdc2 and dihydrofolate reductase genes showed that the amount of complexes formed is maximal at the G1/S boundary, but decreases in S phase when these genes are transcribed extensively [23].

Other interactions of Dhfr


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Dhfr


  1. A study of chromosomal changes associated with amplified dihydrofolate reductase genes in rat hepatoma cells and their dedifferentiated variants. Fougere-Deschatrette, C., Schimke, R.T., Weil, D., Weiss, M.C. J. Cell Biol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Cloning and expression of the chromosomal immune interferon gene of the rat. Dijkema, R., van der Meide, P.H., Pouwels, P.H., Caspers, M., Dubbeld, M., Schellekens, H. EMBO J. (1985) [Pubmed]
  3. Alpha-pyridine nucleotides as substrates for a plasmid-specified dihydrofolate reductase. Smith, S.L., Burchall, J.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1983) [Pubmed]
  4. Dihydrofolate reductase in primary brain tumors, cell cultures of central nervous system origin, and normal brain during fetal and neonatal growth. Duch, D.S., Bigner, D.D., Bowers, S.W., Nichol, C.A. Cancer Res. (1979) [Pubmed]
  5. Mechanisms of sensitivity and natural resistance to antifolates in a methylcholanthrene-induced rat sarcoma. Li, W.W., Lin, J.T., Schweitzer, B.I., Bertino, J.R. Mol. Pharmacol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Stable transfection of malaria parasite blood stages. van Dijk, M.R., Waters, A.P., Janse, C.J. Science (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Chronic toxicity of methotrexate in rats: partial to complete projection of the liver by choline: Brief communication. Freeman-Narrod, M., Narrod, S.A., Custer, R.P. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1977) [Pubmed]
  8. Dual targeting of cytochrome P4502B1 to endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria involves a novel signal activation by cyclic AMP-dependent phosphorylation at ser128. Anandatheerthavarada, H.K., Biswas, G., Mullick, J., Sepuri, N.B., Otvos, L., Pain, D., Avadhani, N.G. EMBO J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. A signal-anchor sequence selective for the mitochondrial outer membrane. McBride, H.M., Millar, D.G., Li, J.M., Shore, G.C. J. Cell Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. The role of cellular folates in the enhancement of activity of the thymidylate synthase inhibitor 10-propargyl-5,8-dideazafolate against hepatoma cells in vitro by inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase. Galivan, J., Rhee, M.S., Johnson, T.B., Dilwith, R., Nair, M.G., Bunni, M., Priest, D.G. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Mitochondrial precursor protein. Effects of 70-kilodalton heat shock protein on polypeptide folding, aggregation, and import competence. Sheffield, W.P., Shore, G.C., Randall, S.K. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  12. 2,4-Diamino-5-benzylpyrimidines as antibacterial agents. 13. Some alkenyl derivatives with high in vitro activity against anaerobic organisms. Roth, B., Tidwell, M.Y., Ferone, R., Baccanari, D.P., Sigel, C.W., DeAngelis, D., Elwell, L.P. J. Med. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  13. Combination of PS-15, epiroprim, or pyrimethamine with dapsone in prophylaxis of Toxoplasma gondii and Pneumocystis carinii dual infection in a rat model. Brun-Pascaud, M., Chau, F., Garry, L., Jacobus, D., Derouin, F., Girard, P.M. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. 2,4-Diaminothieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine analogues of trimetrexate and piritrexim as potential inhibitors of Pneumocystis carinii and Toxoplasma gondii dihydrofolate reductase. Rosowsky, A., Mota, C.E., Wright, J.E., Freisheim, J.H., Heusner, J.J., McCormack, J.J., Queener, S.F. J. Med. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Persistent nicotine treatment potentiates amplification of the dihydrofolate reductase gene in rat lung epithelial cells as a consequence of Ras activation. Guo, J., Chu, M., Abbeyquaye, T., Chen, C.Y. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Isolation of rat dihydrofolate reductase gene and characterization of recombinant enzyme. Wang, Y., Bruenn, J.A., Queener, S.F., Cody, V. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Cells exposed to antifolates show increased cellular levels of proteins fused to dihydrofolate reductase: a method to modulate gene expression. Mayer-Kuckuk, P., Banerjee, D., Malhotra, S., Doubrovin, M., Iwamoto, M., Akhurst, T., Balatoni, J., Bornmann, W., Finn, R., Larson, S., Fong, Y., Gelovani Tjuvajev, J., Blasberg, R., Bertino, J.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Linkage group selection: rapid gene discovery in malaria parasites. Culleton, R., Martinelli, A., Hunt, P., Carter, R. Genome Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Biosynthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin by de novo and salvage pathways in adrenal medulla extracts, mammalian cell cultures, and rat brain in vivo. Nichol, C.A., Lee, C.L., Edelstein, M.P., Chao, J.Y., Duch, D.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1983) [Pubmed]
  20. Import of a cytosolic protein into lysosomes by chaperone-mediated autophagy depends on its folding state. Salvador, N., Aguado, C., Horst, M., Knecht, E. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Design, synthesis, and antifolate activity of new analogues of piritrexim and other diaminopyrimidine dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors with omega-carboxyalkoxy or omega-carboxy-1-alkynyl substitution in the side chain. Chan, D.C., Fu, H., Forsch, R.A., Queener, S.F., Rosowsky, A. J. Med. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Dexamethasone negatively regulates the activity of a chimeric dihydrofolate reductase/glucocorticoid receptor protein. Israel, D.I., Kaufman, R.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  23. Differential activation of cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinase genes by adenovirus E1A12S cDNA product. Ishii, T., Shimizu, M., Kanayama, Y., Nakada, S., Nojima, H., Oda, K. Exp. Cell Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Stimulation of methotrexate resistance and dihydrofolate reductase gene amplification by c-myc. Denis, N., Kitzis, A., Kruh, J., Dautry, F., Corcos, D. Oncogene (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. Correlation analysis of Baker's studies on enzyme inhibition. 1. Guanine deaminase, xanthine oxidase, dihydrofolate reductase, and complement. Silipo, C., Hansch, C. J. Med. Chem. (1976) [Pubmed]
  26. Hormonal regulation of guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase activity and biopterin levels in the rat adrenal cortex. Abou-Donia, M.M., Duch, D.S., Nichol, C.A., Viveros, O.H. Endocrinology (1983) [Pubmed]
  27. Posttranslational modifications of rat proenkephalin overexpressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Lindberg, I., Shaw, E., Finley, J., Leone, D., Deininger, P. Endocrinology (1991) [Pubmed]
  28. Characterization of the signal peptide at the amino terminus of the rat peroxisomal 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase precursor. Tsukamoto, T., Hata, S., Yokota, S., Miura, S., Fujiki, Y., Hijikata, M., Miyazawa, S., Hashimoto, T., Osumi, T. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. Developmental patterns in the rat cerebellum after cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum treatment. Bernocchi, G., Scherini, E., Nano, R. Neuroscience (1990) [Pubmed]
  30. Assay of dihydrofolate reductase activity by monitoring tetrahydrofolate using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Aiso, K., Nozaki, T., Shimoda, M., Kokue, E. Anal. Biochem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Effects of methotrexate on rat liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy. Tsukamoto, I., Kojo, S. Clin. Sci. (1992) [Pubmed]
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