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Gene Review

Ptn  -  pleiotrophin

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: HB-GAM, HBBM, HBGF-8, HBNF, Heparin-binding brain mitogen, ...
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Disease relevance of Ptn


High impact information on Ptn


Biological context of Ptn


Anatomical context of Ptn

  • HSCs expressed PTN mRNA in response to GalN treatment and its protein was found on hepatocytes [9].
  • We suggest that the TSR sequence motif, found in several neurite outgrowth-promoting and other cell surface and matrix-binding proteins, defines a beta structure similar to those found in HB-GAM and MK [6].
  • HB-GAM is suggested to regulate motility in osteoblasts through a similar mechanism as in neurons [6].
  • These findings, together with in vitro interactions with neurons, suggest that HB-GAM is a cell matrix-associated cue for growth cone migration [7].
  • In the transgenic model, the HB-GAM expression is maintained in mesenchymal tissues with the highest expression in the periosteum [5].

Associations of Ptn with chemical compounds

  • The expression of PTN mRNA in the liver was markedly up-regulated by the treatment with D-galactosamine (GalN) or with acetylaminofluorene followed by partial hepatectomy [9].
  • In addition to N-syndecan, the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan RPTP beta/zeta (receptor-type tyrosine phosphatase beta/zeta) is implicated in the receptor mechanism of HB-GAM [6].
  • The data indicate that PTN is up-regulated in DA-depleted striatum and exhibits a trophic effect specifically on the survival of cultured dopaminergic neurons [10].
  • As PTN did not increase the number of microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP 2)-positive neurons or promote the proliferation of dopaminergic progenitors in a bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labelling study, the effect appeared to enhance the specific survival of dopaminergic neurons [10].
  • We showed that the domains (but not the lysine-rich tails) in HB-GAM are required and sufficient for interaction with hippocampal neurons [11].

Regulatory relationships of Ptn


Other interactions of Ptn


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ptn


  1. Upregulation of pleiotrophin expression in rat hepatic stellate cells by PDGF and hypoxia: implications for its role in experimental biliary liver fibrogenesis. Antoine, M., Tag, C.G., Wirz, W., Borkham-Kamphorst, E., Sawitza, I., Gressner, A.M., Kiefer, P. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. The angiogenic peptide pleiotrophin (PTN/HB-GAM) is expressed in fracture healing: an immunohistochemical study in rats. Petersen, W., Wildemann, B., Pufe, T., Raschke, M., Schmidmaier, G. Archives of orthopaedic and trauma surgery. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Upregulation of pleiotrophin gene expression in developing microvasculature, macrophages, and astrocytes after acute ischemic brain injury. Yeh, H.J., He, Y.Y., Xu, J., Hsu, C.Y., Deuel, T.F. J. Neurosci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Basic FGF and FGF receptor 1 are expressed in microglia during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: temporally distinct expression of midkine and pleiotrophin. Liu, X., Mashour, G.A., Webster, H.F., Kurtz, A. Glia (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Osteoblast recruitment and bone formation enhanced by cell matrix-associated heparin-binding growth-associated molecule (HB-GAM). Imai, S., Kaksonen, M., Raulo, E., Kinnunen, T., Fages, C., Meng, X., Lakso, M., Rauvala, H. J. Cell Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Heparin-binding proteins HB-GAM (pleiotrophin) and amphoterin in the regulation of cell motility. Rauvala, H., Huttunen, H.J., Fages, C., Kaksonen, M., Kinnunen, T., Imai, S., Raulo, E., Kilpeläinen, I. Matrix Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. HB-GAM (heparin-binding growth-associated molecule) and heparin-type glycans in the development and plasticity of neuron-target contacts. Rauvala, H., Peng, H.B. Prog. Neurobiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Pleiotrophin induces formation of functional neovasculature in vivo. Christman, K.L., Fang, Q., Kim, A.J., Sievers, R.E., Fok, H.H., Candia, A.F., Colley, K.J., Herradon, G., Ezquerra, L., Deuel, T.F., Lee, R.J. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Pleiotrophin/heparin-binding growth-associated molecule as a mitogen of rat hepatocytes and its role in regeneration and development of liver. Asahina, K., Sato, H., Yamasaki, C., Kataoka, M., Shiokawa, M., Katayama, S., Tateno, C., Yoshizato, K. Am. J. Pathol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Pleiotrophin exhibits a trophic effect on survival of dopaminergic neurons in vitro. Hida, H., Jung, C.G., Wu, C.Z., Kim, H.J., Kodama, Y., Masuda, T., Nishino, H. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. The two thrombospondin type I repeat domains of the heparin-binding growth-associated molecule bind to heparin/heparan sulfate and regulate neurite extension and plasticity in hippocampal neurons. Raulo, E., Tumova, S., Pavlov, I., Pekkanen, M., Hienola, A., Klankki, E., Kalkkinen, N., Taira, T., Kilpelaïnen, I., Rauvala, H. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Co-expression of heparin-binding growth-associated molecule (HB-GAM) and N-syndecan (syndecan-3) in developing rat brain. Nolo, R., Kaksonen, M., Raulo, E., Rauvala, H. Neurosci. Lett. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Immunodetection of heparin-binding growth associated molecule (pleiotrophin) in striatal interneurons. Taravini, I.R., Ferrario, J.E., Delbe, J., Ginestet, L., Debeir, T., Courty, J., Murer, M.G., Gershanik, O.S., Raisman-Vozari, R. Brain Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. N-syndecan and HB-GAM (heparin-binding growth-associated molecule) associate with early axonal tracts in the rat brain. Kinnunen, A., Kinnunen, T., Kaksonen, M., Nolo, R., Panula, P., Rauvala, H. Eur. J. Neurosci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Heparan sulphate and HB-GAM (heparin-binding growth-associated molecule) in the development of the thalamocortical pathway of rat brain. Kinnunen, A., Niemi, M., Kinnunen, T., Kaksonen, M., Nolo, R., Rauvala, H. Eur. J. Neurosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
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