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Chemical Compound Review

AC1LCVCM     (3S)-3-amino-3-[[(1S)-1- [[(1R)-1-[[(1S)-1...

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Disease relevance of ANGIOTENSIN II


Psychiatry related information on ANGIOTENSIN II

  • It inhibited the drinking caused by water deprivation, the drinking response to intracerebroventricular application of angiotensin-II, as well as the drinking evoked by systemic administration of isoprenaline [4].
  • The possible physiological significance of independent and parallel peripheral and cerebral renin-angiotensin systems for the control of drinking behavior mediated by angiotensin-II is discussed [5].
  • The evolving role of angiotensin-II receptor blockers in cardiovascular risk reduction. Case study [6].
  • However, so far no study has firmly established that such immunosuppressive therapy is indeed superior to aggressive supportive therapy as it is available nowadays, i.e. high dose ACE-inhibitors and/or angiotensin-II receptor blockers, smoking cessation etc [7].
  • As insignificant increase of spontaneous locomotor activity in rats lesioned to CA did not interfere with the cognitive effect of AII and AII(3-7) [8].

High impact information on ANGIOTENSIN II

  • BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether either the angiotensin-II-receptor blocker irbesartan or the calcium-channel blocker amlodipine slows the progression of nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes independently of its capacity to lower the systemic blood pressure [9].
  • Whereas many different enzymes are able to cleave angiotensinogen (renin substrate) to release angiotensin I (AI) or angiotensin II (AII), angiotensinogen is the only known precursor of AI and AII [10].
  • In fact, the distribution of ANP and AII and their receptors in the CNS overlaps considerably [11].
  • Here we show that the AT1 receptor can be activated by mechanical stress through an angiotensin-II-independent mechanism [12].
  • Taken together, these results provide the first evidence that osteopontin is a potentially important mediator of AII regulation of cardiac fibroblast behavior in the cardiac remodeling process [1].

Chemical compound and disease context of ANGIOTENSIN II


Biological context of ANGIOTENSIN II

  • To investigate the gene expression of major angiotensin-II-forming enzymes in left ventricles of normal (n = 9) and failing human hearts (n = 20), we established a competitive RNA-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for mRNA quantification of angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) and human heart chymase [18].
  • ANP (10(-7), 10(-6) M) also suppressed AII-induced RNA and protein syntheses (by 30-40%) with the concomitant reduction of the cell size [19].
  • The renal vasculature was also relatively unresponsive to an intravenous infusion of AII (5 ng X kg-1 X min-1) during late gestation (day 19); in particular, the fall in ERPF in response to AII (16 +/- 3%) was markedly less than that observed in the prepregnant condition (34 +/- 3%; P less than 0.05) [20].
  • Six weeks later, CBDL rats showed higher plasma angiotensin-II and endothelin-1 (P <.01), 56% reduction in peripheral resistance and 73% reduction in pulmonary resistance (P <.01), 87% increase in cardiac index and 30% increase in heart weight (P <.01), and increased myocardial nitric oxide (NO) synthesis [21].
  • In severe cases of TTS, however, angiotensin-II-induced vasoconstriction acts as an additional deleterious factor by further reducing the renal blood flow in donors [22].

Anatomical context of ANGIOTENSIN II


Associations of ANGIOTENSIN II with other chemical compounds


Gene context of ANGIOTENSIN II

  • Endothelin-1 and angiotensin-II stimulate delayed mitogenesis in cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells: evidence for common signaling mechanisms [31].
  • CYP11B2 mRNA levels were increased in cultured zona glomerulosa cells by physiological levels of angiotensin-II [32].
  • Roles of intracellular and extracellular calcium in the kinetic profile of adrenocorticotropin secretion by perifused rat anterior pituitary cells. II. Arginine vasopressin, oxytocin, and angiotensin-II stimulation [33].
  • We previously reported that the rat posterior pituitary contains a potent PRL-releasing factor (PRF) which is distinct from oxytocin (OT), TRH, and angiotensin II (AII) [34].
  • To elucidate the possible involvement of angiotensin II (AII) in the pathogenesis of microvascular changes in severe hypertension, we investigated the effects of angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) on the expression of adhesion molecules of leukocytes and brain microvessels [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ANGIOTENSIN II

  • In this same region the circular dichroism difference spectra of DEPC-modified N alpha-acetyl-L-histidine and DEPC-modified angiotensin-II had two much weaker bands (delta [theta]233 nm = +1000 degree.cm2.dmol-1 and delta[theta]252nm = -600 degree.cm2.dmol-1 for N alpha-acetyl-L-histidine) [36].
  • There are no data reported from clinical trials about possible interactions between angiotensin-II receptor antagonists and aspirin [37].
  • Administration of this AII antagonist to the normal rabbits prevented them from showing pressor hyperresponsiveness following the cross-circulation of blood [38].
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In a case-control study, the ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) gene, the angiotensinogen (AGT) gene (M235T), and the angiotensin II (AII) type 1 receptor gene (AT1 A1166C) were examined in 110 Chinese type 2 diabetic patients [39].
  • The effects of angiotensin II (AII), epinephrine, and changes in perfusion pressure on glomerular capillary and afferent arteriolar pressures were assessed using the in vitro blood perfused juxtamedullary nephron (JMN) preparation [40].


  1. Osteopontin is produced by rat cardiac fibroblasts and mediates A(II)-induced DNA synthesis and collagen gel contraction. Ashizawa, N., Graf, K., Do, Y.S., Nunohiro, T., Giachelli, C.M., Meehan, W.P., Tuan, T.L., Hsueh, W.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. On the inappropriate in hypertension research. Swales, J.D. Lancet (1977) [Pubmed]
  3. Plasma renin and angiotensin II in acute renal failure. Mitch, W.E., Walker, W.G. Lancet (1977) [Pubmed]
  4. Effect of (D-Met2, Pro5)enkephalinamide, a highly potent opiate agonist, on the drinking behaviour of rats. Decsi, L., Schmidt, P. Neuropharmacology (1985) [Pubmed]
  5. Differential effects of brain lesions on thirst induced by the administration of angiotensin-II to the preoptic region, subfornical organ and anterior third ventricle. Kucharczyk, J., Assaf, S.Y., Mogenson, G.J. Brain Res. (1976) [Pubmed]
  6. The evolving role of angiotensin-II receptor blockers in cardiovascular risk reduction. Case study. Oparil, S. Am. J. Hypertens. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Present and future therapy options in IgA-nephropathy. Floege, J., Eitner, F. J. Nephrol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. 6-OHDA lesions to the central amygdala abolish angiotensins facilitation of object recognition in rats. Winnicka, M.M., Braszko, J.J. Gen. Pharmacol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Renoprotective effect of the angiotensin-receptor antagonist irbesartan in patients with nephropathy due to type 2 diabetes. Lewis, E.J., Hunsicker, L.G., Clarke, W.R., Berl, T., Pohl, M.A., Lewis, J.B., Ritz, E., Atkins, R.C., Rohde, R., Raz, I. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Identity of angiotensinogen precursors of rat brain and liver. Campbell, D.J., Bouhnik, J., Ménard, J., Corvol, P. Nature (1984) [Pubmed]
  11. The natriuretic peptide system in the brain: implications in the central control of cardiovascular and neuroendocrine functions. Imura, H., Nakao, K., Itoh, H. Frontiers in neuroendocrinology. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Mechanical stress activates angiotensin II type 1 receptor without the involvement of angiotensin II. Zou, Y., Akazawa, H., Qin, Y., Sano, M., Takano, H., Minamino, T., Makita, N., Iwanaga, K., Zhu, W., Kudoh, S., Toko, H., Tamura, K., Kihara, M., Nagai, T., Fukamizu, A., Umemura, S., Iiri, T., Fujita, T., Komuro, I. Nat. Cell Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Remodeling of the rat right and left ventricles in experimental hypertension. Brilla, C.G., Pick, R., Tan, L.B., Janicki, J.S., Weber, K.T. Circ. Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Neural contribution to renal hypertension following acute renal artery stenosis in conscious rats. Faber, J.E., Brody, M.J. Hypertension (1983) [Pubmed]
  15. In vivo treatment with endotoxin increases rat pulmonary vascular contractility despite NOS induction. Griffiths, M.J., Curzen, N.P., Mitchell, J.A., Evans, T.W. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Losartan, an angiotensin-II receptor antagonist, reduces hematocrits in kidney transplant recipients with posttransplant erythrocytosis. Klaassen, R.J., van Gelder, T., Rischen-Vos, J., Deinum, J., Man in't Veld, A.J., Weimar, W. Transplantation (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Stress hormones in blood and cerebrospinal fluid of conscious sheep: effect of hemorrhage. Cameron, V., Espiner, E.A., Nicholls, M.G., Donald, R.A., MacFarlane, M.R. Endocrinology (1985) [Pubmed]
  18. Increased angiotensin-I converting enzyme gene expression in the failing human heart. Quantification by competitive RNA polymerase chain reaction. Studer, R., Reinecke, H., Müller, B., Holtz, J., Just, H., Drexler, H. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Atrial natriuretic polypeptide inhibits hypertrophy of vascular smooth muscle cells. Itoh, H., Pratt, R.E., Dzau, V.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. Evidence against the hypothesis that prostaglandins are the vasodepressor agents of pregnancy. Serial studies in chronically instrumented, conscious rats. Conrad, K.P., Colpoys, M.C. J. Clin. Invest. (1986) [Pubmed]
  21. Left ventricular hypertrophy in rats with biliary cirrhosis. Inserte, J., Perelló, A., Agulló, L., Ruiz-Meana, M., Schlüter, K.D., Escalona, N., Graupera, M., Bosch, J., Garcia-Dorado, D. Hepatology (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. Role of the fetal renin-angiotensin system. Mahieu-Caputo, D., Dommergues, M., Delezoide, A.L., Lacoste, M., Cai, Y., Narcy, F., Jolly, D., Gonzales, M., Dumez, Y., Gubler, M.C. Am. J. Pathol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Dopamine attenuates the contractile response to angiotensin II in isolated rat glomeruli and cultured mesangial cells. Barnett, R., Singhal, P.C., Scharschmidt, L.A., Schlondorff, D. Circ. Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  24. Convergence of protein kinase C and JAK-STAT signaling on transcription factor GATA-4. Wang, J., Paradis, P., Aries, A., Komati, H., Lefebvre, C., Wang, H., Nemer, M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Effects of angiotensin-II and potassium on phospholipid metabolism in the adrenal zona glomerulosa. Farese, R.V., Larson, R.E., Sabir, M.A., Gomez-Sanchez, C. J. Biol. Chem. (1981) [Pubmed]
  26. Macrophage processing of peptide antigens: identification of an antigenic complex. Nairn, R., Spengler, M.L., Hoffman, M.D., Solvay, M.J., Thomas, D.W. J. Immunol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  27. Bicarbonate transport along the loop of Henle. II. Effects of acid-base, dietary, and neurohumoral determinants. Capasso, G., Unwin, R., Ciani, F., De Santo, N.G., De Tommaso, G., Russo, F., Giebisch, G. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Mechanisms of action of corticotropin-releasing factor and other regulators of corticotropin release in rat pituitary cells. Aguilera, G., Harwood, J.P., Wilson, J.X., Morell, J., Brown, J.H., Catt, K.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  29. Aldose reductase mediates mitogenic signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells. Ramana, K.V., Chandra, D., Srivastava, S., Bhatnagar, A., Aggarwal, B.B., Srivastava, S.K. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. Inhibition of growth factor-induced protein synthesis by a selective MEK inhibitor in aortic smooth muscle cells. Servant, M.J., Giasson, E., Meloche, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Endothelin-1 and angiotensin-II stimulate delayed mitogenesis in cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells: evidence for common signaling mechanisms. Weber, H., Webb, M.L., Serafino, R., Taylor, D.S., Moreland, S., Norman, J., Molloy, C.J. Mol. Endocrinol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  32. The product of the CYP11B2 gene is required for aldosterone biosynthesis in the human adrenal cortex. Curnow, K.M., Tusie-Luna, M.T., Pascoe, L., Natarajan, R., Gu, J.L., Nadler, J.L., White, P.C. Mol. Endocrinol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  33. Roles of intracellular and extracellular calcium in the kinetic profile of adrenocorticotropin secretion by perifused rat anterior pituitary cells. II. Arginine vasopressin, oxytocin, and angiotensin-II stimulation. Won, J.G., Oki, Y., Orth, D.N. Endocrinology (1990) [Pubmed]
  34. Characterization of prolactin-releasing factor in the rat posterior pituitary. Hyde, J.F., Ben-Jonathan, N. Endocrinology (1988) [Pubmed]
  35. Effects of the AT1 receptor antagonist on adhesion molecule expression in leukocytes and brain microvessels of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. Takemori, K., Ito, H., Suzuki, T. Am. J. Hypertens. (2000) [Pubmed]
  36. Circular dichroism studies of diethyl pyrocarbonate-modified histidine in hen egg white lysozyme. Li, C., Moore, D.S., Rosenberg, R.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  37. The effect of losartan versus atenolol on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with hypertension taking aspirin: the Losartan Intervention for Endpoint Reduction in hypertension (LIFE) study. Fossum, E., Moan, A., Kjeldsen, S.E., Devereux, R.B., Julius, S., Snapinn, S.M., Edelman, J.M., de Faire, U., Fyhrquist, F., Ibsen, H., Kristianson, K., Lederballe-Pedersen, O., Lindholm, L.H., Nieminen, M.S., Omvik, P., Oparil, S., Wedel, H., Dahlöf, B. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  38. Humoral factor in pressor hyperresponsiveness in renal prehypertensive rabbits. Johnson, J.A., Kurz, K.D., Siripaisarnpipat, S., Koivunen, D.G., Zeigler, D.W., Sakamaki, T., Payne, C.G. Hypertension (1983) [Pubmed]
  39. Angiotensinogen T235 and ACE insertion/deletion polymorphisms associated with albuminuria in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients. Young, R.P., Chan, J.C., Critchley, J.A., Poon, E., Nicholls, G., Cockram, C.S. Diabetes Care (1998) [Pubmed]
  40. Microvascular reactivity of in vitro blood perfused juxtamedullary nephrons from rats. Casellas, D., Carmines, P.K., Navar, L.G. Kidney Int. (1985) [Pubmed]
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