The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

HP  -  haptoglobin

Bos taurus

Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of HP

  • The diagnostic value of haptoglobin in differentiating between healthy animals and those with mastitis gave sensitivities and specificities of 82 per cent and 94 per cent respectively with serum and 86 per cent and 100 per cent with milk [1].
  • The protein was purified from serum obtained from a cow with fatty liver, and was identified as haptoglobin, which is known to have hemoglobin-binding capacity and to be an acute-phase protein [2].
  • Serum haptoglobin as an indicator of the acute phase response in bovine respiratory disease [3].
  • Haptoglobin measurements were not a good indicator of Salmonella infection status [4].
  • Detection of annexin I and IV and haptoglobin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from calves experimentally inoculated with Pasteurella haemolytica [5].

Psychiatry related information on HP

  • The initial banding procedure did not alter heifer physiology and altered only eating behavior, but the cutting of the tail (docking) increased haptoglobin in response to the tissue damage and returned eating behavior to baseline [6].

High impact information on HP

  • Anticoagulation was not used in the postoperative period during which time monthly laboratory parameters were obtained including hemoglobin, hematocrit, white cell count, red cell count and indices, lactic acid dehydrogenase, serum haptoglobin, and, additionally at sacrifice, platelet and red cell morphology [7].
  • Hp with smaller sizes obtained from native Hp by partial reduction with cysteine showed almost the same Hb-binding capacity [8].
  • Glucagon given with dexamethasone depressed albumin and haptoglobin synthesis markedly, but not that of fibrinogen and alpha1-acid glycoprotein [9].
  • Although the dose of dexamethasone (total 1.0 mug.) used was insufficient to induce synthesis of alpha2-acute phase globulin, net syntheses of albumin, fibrogen, alpha1-acid glycoprotein, and haptoglobin were increased [9].
  • In contrast, for the two non-tyrosine-sulphated proteins (haptoglobin and transferrin) tested, co-precipitation of the TyrS-binding protein was not observed [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of HP


Biological context of HP

  • Hp concentrations were also measured in the serum collected from 11 other cows within 3 weeks after parturition [14].
  • These results demonstrate that Hp concentration may be a useful indicator for cows with postpartum reproductive disorders [14].
  • The amino acid sequence of concanavalin A was found to be 53.6% related to trypsin and haptoglobin [15].
  • Serum haptoglobin levels, cardiac rhythm and the body temperature of vaccinated cows during the 24-72 h post-challenge were lower than in non-vaccinated animals [16].
  • The change of protein kinase C-catalyzed phosphorylation was suggested to be involved in the induction of Hp in cows [11].

Anatomical context of HP

  • Although the Sahiwals became as anaemic as the Holsteins, other measures of pathology, including enlargement of the draining lymph node and the acute phase proteins, alpha1 acid glycoprotein and haptoglobin, were significantly less in the Sahiwals than in the Holsteins (P<0.05) [17].
  • Regulation of haptoglobin secretion by recombinant bovine cytokines in primary cultured bovine hepatocytes [18].
  • Haptoglobin mRNA was detected in the liver, but not in the ovary or oviduct [19].
  • In blood of immunized animals, haptoglobin was present and expression of surface adhesion molecules on neutrophils was modified whereas no change was observed concerning the lymphocyte subpopulations [20].
  • Increases in milk haptoglobin and SAA were specific for the infected udder quarters [21].

Associations of HP with chemical compounds

  • By polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, lipoprotein (5.2% +/- 0.41), IgM (11.4% +/- 3.1), IgG (9.4% +/- 0.98), haptoglobin 21.8% +/- 3.73), transferrin (10.4% +/- 2.15), ceruloplasmin (7.8% +/- 1.3), postalbumin (20.8% +/- 2.09), and albumin (13.7% +/- 0.75) were identified provisionally [22].
  • Endotoxin increased rectal temperature (RT) and the circulating levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), cortisol, haptoglobin (Hp), thromboxane B(2) (TXB(2)) [23].
  • LPS increased serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), cortisol, and haptoglobin but decreased plasma glucose and IGF-I [24].
  • Other than glucocorticoids, estradiol induced haptoglobin release, whereas progesterone was less effective [12].
  • Haptoglobin mRNA expression was then quantitatively evaluated by real-time RT-PCR in mammary biopsies collected from the treated and the control quarter before, and 3, 6, 9, and 12 h after LPS challenge from 6 other cows [25].

Other interactions of HP

  • Serum amyloid A had a maximum (100 per cent) clinical sensitivity in discriminating between the acute and chronic cases, and haptoglobin had the highest clinical specificity of 76 per cent; counts of neutrophils and band neutrophils had sensitivities of 71 per cent and 42 per cent and specificities of 30 per cent and 72 per cent, respectively [26].
  • Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), like haptoglobin, was not detected in blood [27].
  • Sequential changes in plasma fibrinogen, serum haptoglobin, acid-soluble glyco-proteins and alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor activity were analysed and compared with both the clinical and bacteriological findings and the final outcome of the disease after calving [28].
  • Results were compared to the bovine acute phase protein haptoglobin, and to lactalbumin, lactoferrin, and immunoglobulins in plasma from calves [29].
  • Haptoglobin appearance in serum was not associated with the increase of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (a marker for inflammation) [11].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of HP

  • The Hp assay developed in this study gave a good correlation (r=0.893)with Western blotting [14].
  • When NHS containing different Hp allotypes is fractionated by gel filtration, TLF1 activity is either revealed or remains masked, depending on whether it coelutes with Hp [30].
  • Masked TLF1 activity in the column fractions is revealed if Hp is removed by density gradient ultracentrifugation [30].
  • Amino acid composition and N-terminal sequence analyses revealed that both peptides were homologous to each counterpart of human Hp [8].
  • Four successive steps (immunoprecipitation of Hp, electrophoresis of the cleared serum, Western blotting of the separated proteins, and detection of hemoglobin-related molecules based on the peroxidase properties of the heme moiety), provided electropherograms that could be easily interpreted in terms of the presence of HBOCs [31].


  1. Acute phase proteins in serum and milk from dairy cows with clinical mastitis. Eckersall, P.D., Young, F.J., McComb, C., Hogarth, C.J., Safi, S., Weber, A., McDonald, T., Nolan, A.M., Fitzpatrick, J.L. Vet. Rec. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Purification of a protein from serum of cattle with hepatic lipidosis, and identification of the protein as haptoglobin. Yoshino, K., Katoh, N., Takahashi, K., Yuasa, A. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Serum haptoglobin as an indicator of the acute phase response in bovine respiratory disease. Godson, D.L., Campos, M., Attah-Poku, S.K., Redmond, M.J., Cordeiro, D.M., Sethi, M.S., Harland, R.J., Babiuk, L.A. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Prevalence of Salmonella in beef feeder steers as determined by bacterial culture and ELISA serology. Galland, J.C., House, J.K., Hyatt1, D.R., Hawkins, L.L., Anderson, N.V., Irwin2, C.K., Smith, B.P. Vet. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Detection of annexin I and IV and haptoglobin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from calves experimentally inoculated with Pasteurella haemolytica. Katoh, N., Miyamoto, T., Nakagawa, H., Watanabe, A. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Tail-docking influences on behavioral, immunological, and endocrine responses in dairy heifers. Eicher, S.D., Morrow-Tesch, J.L., Albright, J.L., Dailey, J.W., Young, C.R., Stanker, L.H. J. Dairy Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. A new cardiac prosthesis: the St. Jude Medical cardiac valve: in vivo results. Emery, R.W., Mettler, E., Nicoloff, D.M. Circulation (1979) [Pubmed]
  8. Isolation and characterization of bovine haptoglobin from acute phase sera. Morimatsu, M., Syuto, B., Shimada, N., Fujinaga, T., Yamamoto, S., Saito, M., Naiki, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. Direct effects of glucagon on protein and amino acid metabolism in the isolated perfused rat liver. Interactions with insulin and dexamethasone in net synthesis of albumin and acute-phase proteins. Miller, L.L. Diabetes (1976) [Pubmed]
  10. Identification of complexes between the tyrosine-O-sulphate-binding protein and tyrosine-sulphated proteins in bovine liver membrane lysates. Liu, M.C., Lu, R.L., Han, J.R., Tang, X.B., Suiko, M., Liu, C.C. Biochem. J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. Possible involvement of protein kinase C with induction of haptoglobin in cows by treatment with dexamethasone and by starvation. Yoshino, K., Katoh, N., Takahashi, K., Yuasa, A. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Dexamethasone-induced haptoglobin release by calf liver parenchymal cells. Higuchi, H., Katoh, N., Miyamoto, T., Uchida, E., Yuasa, A., Takahashi, K. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Induction of serum haptoglobin by administration of ethionine to cows. Uchida, E., Katoh, N., Takahashi, K. J. Vet. Med. Sci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Serum haptoglobin concentration in cattle. Chan, J.P., Chu, C.C., Fung, H.P., Chuang, S.T., Lin, Y.C., Chu, R.M., Lee, S.L. J. Vet. Med. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Structural similarities among concanavalin A, haptoglobin, and trypsin. Dobryszycka, W., Przysiecki, B. FEBS Lett. (1984) [Pubmed]
  16. Immune responses to a DNA/protein vaccination strategy against Staphylococcus aureus induced mastitis in dairy cows. Shkreta, L., Talbot, B.G., Diarra, M.S., Lacasse, P. Vaccine (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Bos taurus and Bos indicus (Sahiwal) calves respond differently to infection with Theileria annulata and produce markedly different levels of acute phase proteins. Glass, E.J., Preston, P.M., Springbett, A., Craigmile, S., Kirvar, E., Wilkie, G., Brown, C.G. Int. J. Parasitol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Regulation of haptoglobin secretion by recombinant bovine cytokines in primary cultured bovine hepatocytes. Yoshioka, M., Watanabe, A., Shimada, N., Murata, H., Yokomizo, Y., Nakajima, Y. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Expression of haptoglobin mRNA in the liver and oviduct during the oestrous cycle of cows (Bos taurus). Lavery, K., Gabler, C., Day, J., Killian, G. Anim. Reprod. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Kinetics of cells and cytokines during immune-mediated inflammation in the mammary gland of cows systemically immunized with Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin. Riollet, C., Rainard, P., Poutrel, B. Inflamm. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Haptoglobin and serum amyloid A in milk and serum during acute and chronic experimentally induced Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. Grönlund, U., Hultén, C., Eckersall, P.D., Hogarth, C., Persson Waller, K. J. Dairy Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Electrophoresis of buffalo (bos bubalis) serum proteins including immunoglobulins. Satija, K.C., Rajpal, S., Pandey, R., Sharma, V.K. Infect. Immun. (1979) [Pubmed]
  23. Anti-inflammatory effects of ergotamine in steers. Filipov, N.M., Thompson, F.N., Stuedemann, J.A., Elsasser, T.H., Kahl, S., Stanker, L.H., Young, C.R., Dawe, D.L., Smith, C.K. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Increased responsiveness to intravenous lipopolysaccharide challenge in steers grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue compared with steers grazing endophyte-free tall fescue. Filipov, N.M., Thompson, F.N., Stuedemann, J.A., Elsasser, T.H., Kahl, S., Sharma, R.P., Young, C.R., Stanker, L.H., Smith, C.K. J. Endocrinol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Haptoglobin concentrations in blood and milk after endotoxin challenge and quantification of mammary Hp mRNA expression. Hiss, S., Mielenz, M., Bruckmaier, R.M., Sauerwein, H. J. Dairy Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Acute phase proteins in cattle: discrimination between acute and chronic inflammation. Horadagoda, N.U., Knox, K.M., Gibbs, H.A., Reid, S.W., Horadagoda, A., Edwards, S.E., Eckersall, P.D. Vet. Rec. (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Early pathogenesis and inflammatory response in experimental bovine mastitis due to Streptococcus uberis. Pedersen, L.H., Aalbaek, B., Røntved, C.M., Ingvartsen, K.L., Sorensen, N.S., Heegaard, P.M., Jensen, H.E. J. Comp. Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. Acute phase response in heifers with experimentally induced mastitis. Hirvonen, J., Pyörälä, S., Jousimies-Somer, H. J. Dairy Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  29. C-reactive protein and antibacterial activity in blood plasma of colostrum-fed calves and the effect of lactulose. Schroedl, W., Jaekel, L., Krueger, M. J. Dairy Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. The main lytic factor of Trypanosoma brucei brucei in normal human serum is not high density lipoprotein. Raper, J., Nussenzweig, V., Tomlinson, S. J. Exp. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Detection of hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers in human serum for doping analysis: screening by electrophoresis. Lasne, F., Crepin, N., Ashenden, M., Audran, M., de Ceaurriz, J. Clin. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities