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Gene Review

NTS  -  neurotensin

Bos taurus

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Disease relevance of NTS

  • The majority of NTS from humans (137; 90.7%) were Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and S [1].
  • (NTS) isolated from patients and 78 from animals, environmental or food specimens obtained within or near the homes of patients with invasive salmonellosis [1].
  • Its immunological properties were indistinguishable from those of neurotensin and its potency in stimulating hypotension in anesthetized rats was comparable to that of synthetic neurotensin [2].
  • In contrast to chicken NT which induced hypotension, hyperglycemia, increased vascular permeability, and cyanosis when injected intravenously into anesthetized rats, synthetic LANT-6 brought about primarily a hypertensive response and had little ability to promote hyperglycemia, increased vascular permeability, and cyanosis [3].
  • NT did not alter the disappearance rate of [14C]glucose from plasma during the development of the hyperglycemia [4].

High impact information on NTS


Chemical compound and disease context of NTS

  • The catestatin and neurotensin evoked histamine release were suppressed by pertussis toxin (PTX), suggesting involvement of a G(i) subunit [7].

Biological context of NTS


Anatomical context of NTS

  • The relative combined levels of the mRNAs in various brain and intestine regions correspond roughly with the relative levels of immunologically detectable neurotensin except in the cerebral cortex where mRNA levels are 6 times higher than anticipated [9].
  • Characterization of radioimmunoassayable neurotensin in the rat. Its differential distribution in the central nervous system, small intestine, and stomach [13].
  • Neurotensin levels were up-regulated by elevated potassium, forskolin, and phorbol ester in bovine chromaffin cells [14].
  • The finding of neurotensin-like immunoreactivity in noradrenaline-containing cells of the cat adrenal medulla provides further evidence in support of the postulated existence of heterogeneous subpopulations of noradrenaline-containing cells and suggests a possible functional interrelationship between neurotensin and catecholamine [15].
  • Neurotensin-like immunoreactivity in a subpopulation of noradrenaline-containing cells of the cat adrenal gland [15].

Associations of NTS with chemical compounds

  • The neurotensin and neuromedin N coding domains are tandemly positioned on exon 4 [9].
  • Bovine NRP was identified as H-Ile-Ala-Arg-Arg-His-Pro-Tyr-Phe-Leu-OH, which is similar in structure to both neurotensin and angiotensin I [16].
  • Rat jejuno-ileal R-NT co-chromatographed with neurotensin on Sephadex G-25, displayed equal immunological potency with the antisera utilized, and was destroyed by enzymes known to cleave neurotensin [13].
  • Isolation, biological and chemical characterization, and synthesis of a neurotensin-related hexapeptide from chicken intestine [3].
  • A highly sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay for neurotensin has been developed which utilizes 125I-labeled neurotensin and rabbit antisera raised toward synthetic neurotensin which has been coupled specifically through its lysine side chain to several proteins [17].

Other interactions of NTS


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of NTS

  • Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of XbaI-digested genomic DNA of NTS from the humans and the chickens were different [1].
  • Radioimmunoassay for neurotensin, a hypothalamic peptide [17].
  • The pure peptides also cross-reacted very effectively at nanomolar concentrations in a radioreceptor assay for neurotensin [16].
  • Throughout the purification procedures which involved adsorption onto sulfopropyl (SP)-Sephadex, chromatography on Sephadex G-25 and SP-Sephadex, immunoadsorption on neurotensin-antibody Sepharose and high voltage paper electrophoresis, R-NT displayed the chromatographic and electrophoretic properties of neurotensin [2].
  • Although iNT generated in avian and mammalian gastric extracts could be distinguished chromatographically from NT in that species, the partially purified gastric iNT was active in a bioassay for NT which quantitates changes in vascular permeability after intradermal injection into rats [21].


  1. Lack of clonal relationship between non-typhi Salmonella strain types from humans and those isolated from animals living in close contact. Kariuki, S., Revathi, G., Gakuya, F., Yamo, V., Muyodi, J., Hart, C.A. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Isolation of a tridecapeptide from bovine intestinal tissue and its partial characterization as neurotensin. Kitabgi, P., Carraway, R., Leeman, S.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1976) [Pubmed]
  3. Isolation, biological and chemical characterization, and synthesis of a neurotensin-related hexapeptide from chicken intestine. Carraway, R.E., Ferris, C.F. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  4. Hyperglycemic effect of neurotensin, a hypothalamic peptide. Carraway, R.E., Demers, L.M., Leeman, S.E. Endocrinology (1976) [Pubmed]
  5. Effect of neurotensin on gastric function in man. Blackburn, A.M., Fletcher, D.R., Bloom, S.R., Christofides, N.D., Long, R.G., Fitzpatrick, M.L., Baron, J.H. Lancet (1980) [Pubmed]
  6. Cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA for the canine neurotensin/neuromedin N precursor. Dobner, P.R., Barber, D.L., Villa-Komaroff, L., McKiernan, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  7. Catestatin (CgA344-364) stimulates rat mast cell release of histamine in a manner comparable to mastoparan and other cationic charged neuropeptides. Krüger, P.G., Mahata, S.K., Helle, K.B. Regul. Pept. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. The amino acid sequence of a hypothalamic peptide, neurotensin. Carraway, R., Leeman, S.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1975) [Pubmed]
  9. The rat gene encoding neurotensin and neuromedin N. Structure, tissue-specific expression, and evolution of exon sequences. Kislauskis, E., Bullock, B., McNeil, S., Dobner, P.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  10. Differential regulation of gene expression of neurotensin and prohormone convertases PC1 and PC2 in the bovine ocular ciliary epithelium: possible implications on neurotensin processing. Ortego, J., Wollmann, G., Coca-Prados, M. Neurosci. Lett. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Characterization of neurotensin binding sites in intact and solubilized bovine brain membranes. Mills, A., Demoliou-Mason, C.D., Barnard, E.A. J. Neurochem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. Pancreatic endocrine responses to exogenous neurotensin in the conscious calf. Blackburn, A.M., Bloom, S.R., Edwards, A.V. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1981) [Pubmed]
  13. Characterization of radioimmunoassayable neurotensin in the rat. Its differential distribution in the central nervous system, small intestine, and stomach. Carraway, R., Leeman, S.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1976) [Pubmed]
  14. Transsynaptic regulation of galanin, neurotensin, and substance P in the adrenal medulla: combinatorial control by second-messenger signaling pathways. Fischer-Colbrie, R., Eskay, R.L., Eiden, L.E., Maas, D. J. Neurochem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Neurotensin-like immunoreactivity in a subpopulation of noradrenaline-containing cells of the cat adrenal gland. Terenghi, G., Polak, J.M., Varndell, I.M., Lee, Y.C., Wharton, J., Bloom, S.R. Endocrinology (1983) [Pubmed]
  16. Structure of a biologically active neurotensin-related peptide obtained from pepsin-treated albumin(s). Carraway, R.E., Mitra, S.P., Cochrane, D.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  17. Radioimmunoassay for neurotensin, a hypothalamic peptide. Carraway, R., Leeman, S.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1976) [Pubmed]
  18. Receptor stimulated formation of inositol phosphates in cultures of bovine adrenal medullary cells: the effects of bradykinin, bombesin and neurotensin. Bunn, S.J., Marley, P.D., Livett, B.G. Neuropeptides (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. Interleukin-1 alpha and tumor necrosis factor-alpha differentially regulate enkephalin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, neurotensin, and substance P biosynthesis in chromaffin cells. Eskay, R.L., Eiden, L.E. Endocrinology (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Pancreatic endocrine responses to physiological changes in plasma neurotensin concentration in the calf. Blackburn, A.M., Bloom, S.R., Edwards, A.V. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1981) [Pubmed]
  21. Rapid proteolytic generation of neurotensin-related peptide(s) and biologic activity during extraction of rat and chicken gastric tissues. Carraway, R.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1984) [Pubmed]
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