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Gene Review

IL1A  -  interleukin 1, alpha

Bos taurus

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Disease relevance of IL1A

  • Sequences encoding mature bovine IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta were inserted into E. coli expression plasmids and biologically active proteins were synthesized as judged by the ability of the recombinant proteins to induce proliferation of bovine thymocytes [1].
  • No disruption of the BBB occurred for up to 2 h after the i.v. injection of 2 micrograms/mouse of IL-2 (10(5) U/kg of body weight), 2 micrograms of IL-1 alpha (10(7) U/kg), or 2 micrograms of IL-1 beta (10(7) U/kg) [2].
  • Intraglomerular expressions of IL-1 alpha and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-B) mRNA in experimental immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis [3].
  • In this study we investigated intraglomerular expressions of PDGF-B and IL-1 alpha mRNA in mice with bovine serum albumin (BSA) nephritis, a model of immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis, using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method [3].
  • From these studies, we conclude that TNF and IL-1 alpha directly increase vascular endothelial cell permeability in vitro and speculate that these cytokines may be involved in the acute vascular endothelial injury associated with endotoxic shock [4].

High impact information on IL1A


Biological context of IL1A

  • The results indicated that PAX8 as well as interleukin beta and interleukin alpha (IL1B and IL1A) genes detected on the human chromosome segment HSA 2q13-->q21 maintain a similar order and location in these three related species [9].
  • 3. The genes for IL1A and IL1B were both assigned to Chromosome (Chr) 3, in the region q1.2-->q1.3 and q1.1-->q1.4, respectively [10].
  • TNF alpha also demonstrated a neuropeptide-specific pattern of modulation of second-messenger effects on chromaffin cell neuropeptide levels similar to those seen with IL-1 alpha [11].

Anatomical context of IL1A


Associations of IL1A with chemical compounds

  • Poly (A) + RNAs isolated from PBMCs by guanidium thiocyanate/oligo (dT)-cellulose chromatography extraction, were reverse-transcribed and the complementary DNAs amplified in a polymerase chain reaction primed with bovine IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta sequence-specific primers [16].
  • As a result of the amplification of specific cDNAs by 35 cycles of PCR, the IL-1 alpha mRNA was detected from 0.01 ng of poly (A) + RNA, and IL-1 beta mRNA was detected from 0.1 pg of poly (A) + RNA isolated from PBMCs stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 4 h [16].
  • The presence of a Factor Xa cleavage site in the IL-1 alpha proprotein suggests that Factor Xa may be involved in the processing of ovine IL-1 alpha to its mature form [17].
  • IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta stimulated a time (0-72 hr) and concentration-dependent (0.01-10 ng/ml) production of collagenase, gelatinase, caseinase, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in BNC monolayer cultures [18].
  • Stimulation of VIP and substance P biosynthesis by forskolin was markedly enhanced by IL-1 alpha, while forskolin stimulation of enkephalin and neurotensin biosynthesis was unaffected [11].

Other interactions of IL1A

  • There was an early increase in transcripts for genes encoding proinflammatory mediators (IFNG, IL1A, TNF, and IL12) in N'Dama by 14 days postinfection (dpi) compared with preinfection levels that was not detected in the susceptible Boran breed [19].
  • TREATMENT: Fibronectin fragments or IL-1 alpha, which potently cause proteoglycan (PG) loss from cartilage, were added to cultures also containing the catabolism-blocking agents: insulin-like growth factor-1, or N-acetylcysteine, or Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser peptide, and the effects of these agents on blocking PG loss determined [20].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of IL1A


  1. Cloning, sequence and expression of bovine interleukin 1 alpha and interleukin 1 beta complementary DNAs. Maliszewski, C.R., Baker, P.E., Schoenborn, M.A., Davis, B.S., Cosman, D., Gillis, S., Cerretti, D.P. Mol. Immunol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  2. The interleukins-1 alpha, -1 beta, and -2 do not acutely disrupt the murine blood-brain barrier. Banks, W.A., Kastin, A.J. Int. J. Immunopharmacol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Intraglomerular expressions of IL-1 alpha and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-B) mRNA in experimental immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis. Akai, Y., Iwano, M., Kitamura, Y., Shiiki, H., Dohi, Y., Dohi, K., Moriyama, T., Yonemasu, K. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Tumor necrosis factor and interleukin 1 alpha increase vascular endothelial permeability. Royall, J.A., Berkow, R.L., Beckman, J.S., Cunningham, M.K., Matalon, S., Freeman, B.A. Am. J. Physiol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. A glycosylation-deficient endothelial cell mutant with modified responses to transforming growth factor-beta and other growth inhibitory cytokines: evidence for multiple growth inhibitory signal transduction pathways. Fafeur, V., O'Hara, B., Böhlen, P. Mol. Biol. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Biologic effects of an interleukin-1 receptor antagonist protein on interleukin-1-stimulated cartilage erosion and chondrocyte responsiveness. Smith, R.J., Chin, J.E., Sam, L.M., Justen, J.M. Arthritis Rheum. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Proliferation of astrocytes in vitro in response to cytokines. A primary role for tumor necrosis factor. Selmaj, K.W., Farooq, M., Norton, W.T., Raine, C.S., Brosnan, C.F. J. Immunol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. Interleukin-1 inhibits human thyroid carcinoma cell growth. Kimura, H., Yamashita, S., Namba, H., Tominaga, T., Tsuruta, M., Yokoyama, N., Izumi, M., Nagataki, S. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. Physical mapping of the bovine, caprine and ovine homologues of the paired box gene PAX8. Lòpez-Corrales, N.L., Sonstegard, T.S., Smith, T.P. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Mapping of the regulatory type I alpha and catalytic beta subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and interleukin 1 alpha and 1 beta in the pig. Mellink, C., Lahbib-Mansais, Y., Yerle, M., Gellin, J. Mamm. Genome (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Interleukin-1 alpha and tumor necrosis factor-alpha differentially regulate enkephalin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, neurotensin, and substance P biosynthesis in chromaffin cells. Eskay, R.L., Eiden, L.E. Endocrinology (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. T cell activation by Theileria annulata-infected macrophages correlates with cytokine production. Brown, D.J., Campbell, J.D., Russell, G.C., Hopkins, J., Glass, E.J. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Effect of corticotropin-releasing factor on prostaglandin synthesis in endothelial cells and fibroblasts. Fleisher-Berkovich, S., Danon, A. Endocrinology (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Local delivery of IL-1 alpha polymeric microspheres for the immunotherapy of an experimental fibrosarcoma. Mullerad, J., Cohen, S., Benharroch, D., Apte, R.N. Cancer Invest. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. A bovine hyaline cartilage proteinase inhibitor is active against some serine proteinases and inhibits the IL-1 alpha-mediated matrix degradation of bovine articular cartilage explants. Arsenis, C. Matrix (Stuttgart, Germany). Supplement. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Detection of bovine interleukin 1 alpha and interleukin 1 beta gene expression by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Ito, T., Kodama, M. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Cloning, expression and characterization of ovine interleukins 1 alpha and beta. Fiskerstrand, C.E., Roy, D.J., Green, I., Sargan, D.R. Cytokine (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Induction of neutral proteinase and prostanoid production in bovine nasal chondrocytes by interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha: modulation of these cellular responses by interleukin-6 and platelet-derived growth factor. Smith, R.J., Justen, J.M., Ulrich, R.G., Lund, J.E., Sam, L.M. Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Cytokine mRNA profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from trypanotolerant and trypanosusceptible cattle infected with Trypanosoma congolense. O'Gorman, G.M., Park, S.D., Hill, E.W., Meade, K.G., Mitchell, L.C., Agaba, M., Gibson, J.P., Hanotte, O., Naessens, J., Kemp, S.J., MacHugh, D.E. Physiol. Genomics (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Agents that block fibronectin fragment-mediated cartilage damage also promote repair. Homandberg, G.A., Wen, C., Hui, F. Inflamm. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Cloning bovine cytokine cDNA fragments and measuring bovine cytokine mRNA using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Hutchinson, L.E., Stevens, M.G., Olsen, S.C. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Differential induction of stromelysin mRNA by bovine articular chondrocytes treated with interferon-gamma and interleukin-1 alpha. Quintavalla, J.C., Berg, R.A., Beavis, A.J., Piccoli, S.P., Rediske, J.J., Kurkinen, M., Patrick, R.A., Robertson, F.M. J. Cell. Physiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
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