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Gene Review

AHSG  -  alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein

Bos taurus

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Disease relevance of AHSG

  • While Diplococcus pneumoniae endo-alpha-DN-acetylgalactosaminidase acting on asialofetuin released the sialic acid-free tetra- and trisaccharides (Gal beta 1----3GalNAc), this enzyme did not cleave the peptide attachment of the asialohexasaccharide (Gal beta 1----3 [Gal beta 1----4GlcNAc beta 1----6] GalNAc) [1].
  • That these peptides are of functional significance is evidenced by the ability of both P30 and P10 to inhibit asialofetuin-mediated melanoma cell aggregation in vitro and to compete with peanut lectin for binding to T antigen displayed on the surface of MDA-MB-435 breast carcinoma cells in situ [2].
  • Interaction of HIV-1 rgp120 subunit with the two affinity matrices was also inhibited by M6P, but only rgp120 binding to heparin-agarose, and not that to SDB, was affected by fetuin and asialofetuin [3].
  • Administration of fetuin (5-500 mg/kg intraperitoneally) dose-dependently attenuated the development of paw edema as compared to either asialofetuin (500 mg/kg) or bovine albumin (500 mg/kg) [4].
  • Since the transglycosylation product, beta-D-Gal-(1-->3)-alpha-D-GalNAc-(1-->O)-hexyl, efficiently inhibits the binding of anti-T antigen monoclonal antibody to asialofetuin, it has potential as an agent for blocking T antigen-mediated cancer metastasis [5].

High impact information on AHSG


Chemical compound and disease context of AHSG


Biological context of AHSG


Anatomical context of AHSG

  • Fetuin-A uptake in bovine vascular smooth muscle cells is calcium dependent and mediated by annexins [9].
  • Additional studies demonstrated the calcium-dependent uptake was specific for fetuin-A and only observed in BVSMC and osteoblasts, but not epithelial, endothelial, or adipose cells [9].
  • MION-ASF is cleared from the circulation more than 300 times faster than MION, has a 3.7 times higher hepatic accumulation, increases liver R2 relaxivity 2.8-fold compared to MION, and accumulates in hepatocytes unlike MION, which accumulates only in macrophages [16].
  • A significantly greater number of capacitated acrosome-intact spermatozoa bound to the beads coated with functional ngps than the beads coated with non-functional ngps, BSA, OVA, or ASF [17].
  • These results suggest that the endocytosis of formaldehyde-treated bovine serum albumin in endothelial cells is maintained until the advanced stage of biliary obstruction, whereas the endocytic activity for asialofetuin in hepatocytes is impaired earlier [18].

Associations of AHSG with chemical compounds

  • Cross-linking activity of the 14-kilodalton beta-galactoside-specific vertebrate lectin with asialofetuin: comparison with several galactose-specific plant lectins [19].
  • Enzyme II appeared to be homogeneous in charge, in contrast to the heterogeneity observed for enzyme I. Studies on their specificity using natural substrates showed that enzyme I hydrolyzed GM1, asialofetuin and lactose [20].
  • Conversely, 3LL cells in s.c. tumors bound heparin and asialofetuin to greater extents than cancer cells in kidney tumors [21].
  • A portion of the labeling, representing 40-60% of the total, was sensitive to reagents which were known to inhibit carbohydrate binding by discoidin I, including GalNAc, asialofetuin, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid [22].
  • The explants were incubated (39 degrees C, 5% CO2) with fetuin, asialofetuin, ovalbumin, fucoidan, fucose, N-acetyl glucosamine, or N-acetyl glucosamine sulfate dissolved in a modified Tyrode's balanced salt solution, termed sperm-TALP (pH 7.4, 295 mOsm) for 10 min before frozen-thawed motile sperm obtained by swim-up were added [23].

Other interactions of AHSG

  • Adherence was saturable, time and dose dependent, and selectively blocked by glycoconjugates, in particular bovine submaxillary mucin, fetuin, and asialofetuin, suggesting that it may be mediated by a lectin type of interaction [24].
  • The plasma proteins found in bone include, but are not limited to albumin, apo A-I lipoprotein, IgG, IgM, transferrin, alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein, and hemoglobin [25].
  • The serum proteins alpha-2 HS glycoprotein, gamma-globulin and fetuin, and the proline-rich salivary protein termed P-B were also identified in the enamelin extract [26].
  • Treatment of asialofetuin with endo--alpha--N--acetylgalactosaminidase eliminated its affinity for the lectin column, and other proteins known to contain only N-linked oligosaccharides such as ovalbumin, transferrin, and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein were not retained by the lectin [27].
  • P. carinii erythrocyte-adherence was best inhibited by bovine submaxillary mucin and by a polysaccharide from the wall of group A Streptococcus, and to a lesser extent by Streptococcus group C polysaccharide, asialofetuin and fetuin [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of AHSG


  1. Presence of an O-glycosidically linked hexasaccharide in fetuin. Edge, A.S., Spiro, R.G. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  2. Characterization of peptides that bind the tumor-associated Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen selected from bacteriophage display libraries. Peletskaya, E.N., Glinsky, V.V., Glinsky, G.V., Deutscher, S.L., Quinn, T.P. J. Mol. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Interactions of HIV-1 and HIV-2 envelope glycoproteins with sulphated polysaccharides and mannose-6-phosphate. Mbemba, E., Gluckman, J.C., Gattegno, L. Glycobiology (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Fetuin, a negative acute phase protein, attenuates TNF synthesis and the innate inflammatory response to carrageenan. Ombrellino, M., Wang, H., Yang, H., Zhang, M., Vishnubhakat, J., Frazier, A., Scher, L.A., Friedman, S.G., Tracey, K.J. Shock (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Enzymatic syntheses of T antigen-containing glycolipid mimicry using the transglycosylation activity of endo-alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase. Ashida, H., Yamamoto, K., Kumagai, H. Carbohydr. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Model for specific rescue of normal hepatocytes during methotrexate treatment of hepatic malignancy. Wu, G.Y., Wu, C.H., Stockert, R.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1983) [Pubmed]
  7. Biosynthesis of the O-glycosidically linked oligosaccharide chains of fetuin. Indications for an alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminide alpha 2 leads to 6 sialyltransferase with a narrow acceptor specificity in fetal calf liver. Bergh, M.L., Hooghwinkel, G.J., van den Eijnden, D.H. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  8. Endogenous lectins from cultured cells. Isolation and characterization of carbohydrate-binding proteins from 3T3 fibroblasts. Roff, C.F., Wang, J.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  9. Fetuin-A uptake in bovine vascular smooth muscle cells is calcium dependent and mediated by annexins. Chen, N.X., O'neill, K.D., Chen, X., Duan, D., Wang, E., Sturek, M.S., Edwards, J.M., Moe, S.M. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  10. Inhibition by sugars of opsonization of Staphylococcus aureus in fetal calf serum. Umeda, T., Niijima, T., Egawa, K. Int. Arch. Allergy Appl. Immunol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  11. Interaction of immobilized recombinant mouse C-type macrophage lectin with glycopeptides and oligosaccharides. Yamamoto, K., Ishida, C., Shinohara, Y., Hasegawa, Y., Konami, Y., Osawa, T., Irimura, T. Biochemistry (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Photoaffinity labelled rat androgen-binding protein and human sex hormone steroid-binding protein bind specifically to rat germ cells. Felden, F., Guéant, J.L., Ennya, A., Gérard, A., Frémont, S., Nicolas, J.P., Gérard, H. J. Mol. Endocrinol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. Matrix protein profiles in calf bone development. Conn, K.M., Termine, J.D. Bone (1985) [Pubmed]
  14. Fetuin/alpha2-HS glycoprotein enhances phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and macropinocytosis by human macrophages. Jersmann, H.P., Dransfield, I., Hart, S.P. Clin. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Characterization of Thomsen-Friedenreich antibody subpopulations from normal human serum. Wolf, M.F., Koerner, U., Klumpp, B., Schumacher, K. Tumour Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. MION-ASF: biokinetics of an MR receptor agent. Schaffer, B.K., Linker, C., Papisov, M., Tsai, E., Nossiff, N., Shibata, T., Bogdanov, A., Brady, T.J., Weissleder, R. Magnetic resonance imaging. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Capacitated acrosome-intact mouse spermatozoa bind to Sepharose beads coated with functional neoglycoproteins. Bendahmane, M., Tulsiani, D.R. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Effects of biliary obstruction on the endocytic activity in hepatocyte and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells in rats. Tanabe, D., Kamimoto, Y., Kai, M., Hiraoka, T., Tashiro, S., Miyauchi, Y. European surgical research. Europäische chirurgische Forschung. Recherches chirurgicales européennes. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Cross-linking activity of the 14-kilodalton beta-galactoside-specific vertebrate lectin with asialofetuin: comparison with several galactose-specific plant lectins. Mandal, D.K., Brewer, C.F. Biochemistry (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Comparative studies of two acid beta-galactosidases from rabbit and bovine kidney. Martínez-Zorzano, V.S., Rodríguez Berrocal, F.J., Cabezas, J.A., Páez de la Cadena, M. Kidney Int. (1989) [Pubmed]
  21. Site-associated expression of endogenous tumor lectins. Glaves, D., Gabius, H.J., Weiss, L. Int. J. Cancer (1989) [Pubmed]
  22. Affinity labeling of the carbohydrate binding site of the lectin discoidin I using a photoactivatable radioiodinated monosaccharide. Kohnken, R.E., Berger, E.A. Biochemistry (1987) [Pubmed]
  23. Bovine sperm binding to oviductal epithelium involves fucose recognition. Lefebvre, R., Lo, M.C., Suarez, S.S. Biol. Reprod. (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. A novel in situ model to study Pneumocystis carinii adhesion to lung alveolar epithelial cells. Pavia-Ruz, N., Ortega-Barria, E., Alroy, J., Pereira, M.E. J. Immunol. Methods (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Identification of the noncollagenous proteins of bovine bone by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Delmas, P.D., Tracy, R.P., Riggs, B.L., Mann, K.G. Calcif. Tissue Int. (1984) [Pubmed]
  26. Tooth 'enamelins' identified mainly as serum proteins. Major 'enamelin' is albumin. Strawich, E., Glimcher, M.J. Eur. J. Biochem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  27. Lectin affinity chromatography of proteins bearing O-linked oligosaccharides: application of jacalin-agarose. Hortin, G.L., Trimpe, B.L. Anal. Biochem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  28. Identification of a lectin activity in Pneumocystis carinii. Ortega-Barria, E., Pereira, M.E. Trop. Med. Parasitol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  29. Binding of human IgA1 to rat peritoneal macrophages. Gorter, A., Hiemstra, P.S., van der Voort, E.A., van Es, L.A., Daha, M.R. Immunology (1988) [Pubmed]
  30. Differences in zero-force and force-driven kinetics of ligand dissociation from beta-galactoside-specific proteins (plant and animal lectins, immunoglobulin G) monitored by plasmon resonance and dynamic single molecule force microscopy. Dettmann, W., Grandbois, M., André, S., Benoit, M., Wehle, A.K., Kaltner, H., Gabius, H.J., Gaub, H.E. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (2000) [Pubmed]
  31. Changes in receptor-mediated endocytosis in liver sinusoidal cells after partial hepatectomy in the rat. Kamimoto, Y., Tanabe, D., Tashiro, S., Hiraoka, T., Miyauchi, Y. Liver (1994) [Pubmed]
  32. Quantitative estimation of interaction between carbohydrates and concanavalin A by surface plasmon resonance biosensor. Goto, S., Masuda, K., Miura, M., Kanazawa, K., Sasaki, M., Masui, M., Shiramizu, M., Terada, H., Chuman, H. Chem. Pharm. Bull. (2002) [Pubmed]
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