The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

Kcnj5  -  potassium channel, inwardly rectifying...

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: CIR, Cardiac inward rectifier, G protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 4, GIRK-4, Girk4, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Kcnj5

  • KATP channels are important regulators of secretory processes and muscle contraction, and are targets for therapeutic treatment of type II diabetes by the inhibitory sulphonylureas and for hypertension by activators such as pinacidil [1].
  • Using anti-CIR antiserum, the CIR was detected in myocardial cells of the atrium and the ventricular subendocardial layer, and in the cardiac ganglion [2].
  • Myocardial ischemia induces differential regulation of KATP channel gene expression in rat hearts [3].
  • We conclude that both local and systemic glucose availability influences nigral GABA release via an effect on KATP channels and that inhibition of GABA release may in part mediate the hyperexcitability associated with hypoglycemia [4].
  • The lack of the sarcolemma KATP current observed in these patients explains the symptoms of the disease, i.e., hypokalemia, depolarization of the fibers, and possibly the paralysis following insulin administration [5].

High impact information on Kcnj5

  • In the consensus model of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, ATP is generated by mitochondrial metabolism, promoting closure of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels, which depolarizes the plasma membrane [6].
  • It is now shown that IKACh is a heteromultimer of two distinct inwardly rectifying K(+)-channel subunits, GIRK1 and a newly cloned member of the family, CIR [7].
  • Potassium channels that are ATP-sensitive (KATP) couple membrane potential to the metabolic status of the cell [1].
  • We have mapped the distribution of ATP-regulated K+ channels (KATP channels) in cardiac myocytes [8].
  • In the present work, we demonstrate the involvement of the muscular KATP channel in a skeletal muscle disorder known as hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HOPP), which is caused by mutations of the dihydropyridine receptor of the Ca2+ channel [5].

Chemical compound and disease context of Kcnj5


Biological context of Kcnj5

  • The point mutation I331R in the GIRK1 C terminus or L337R in the GIRK4 C terminus decreased the association between the N and C termini [14].
  • To identify the PKC phosphorylation sites, we performed systematic mutagenesis analysis on GIRK4 and GIRK1 subunits expressed in Xenopus oocytes [15].
  • In the present study, we have manipulated the subunit composition of the K((ACh)) channels in cultured atrial myocytes from hearts of adult rats by transient transfection of vectors encoding for GIRK1 or GIRK4 subunits or GIRK4 concatemeric constructs and investigated the effects on properties of macroscopic I(K(ACh)) [16].
  • Mutant GIRK1/GIRK4 channels in which the 40 COOH-terminal amino acids (which contain a strong PKA phosphorylation consensus site) were deleted were also modulated by cAMP injections [17].
  • The CIR/GIRK1 channel showed differences from the native muscarinic K+ channel in that the basal level before m2 receptor activation is significantly large, and that the activation kinetics are much faster [2].

Anatomical context of Kcnj5

  • Deletion of the GIRK1 C-terminal residues 330-384, as well as the point mutation I331R, resulted in a decrease in channel function when coexpressed with GIRK4 in oocytes and in COS-7 cells [14].
  • Overexpression of monomeric and multimeric GIRK4 subunits in rat atrial myocytes removes fast desensitization and reduces inward rectification of muscarinic K(+) current (I(K(ACh))). Evidence for functional homomeric GIRK4 channels [16].
  • Transcripts of a gene, GIRK4, that encodes for a 419-amino-acid protein and shows high structural similarity to other subfamily members of G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying K+ channels (GIRK) have been identified in the human hippocampus [18].
  • The adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive K+ (KATP) channel is the most abundant K+ channel active in the skeletal muscle fibers of humans and animals [5].
  • Aortic cGMP and eNOS protein expression in the aorta and mesenteric artery were increased in CIR as compared with CIR-NAME [19].

Associations of Kcnj5 with chemical compounds

  • Adenoviral recombinants containing the cDNAs for GIRK1, GIRK2, GIRK4, and the serotonin 1A receptor were constructed [20].
  • In addition, uKATP-1 is activated by the KATP channel opener, diazoxide [21].
  • GIRK1 and GIRK4 subunits combine to form the heterotetrameric acetylcholine-activated potassium current (IKACh) channel in pacemaker cells of the heart [22].
  • Such activation was eliminated when a histidine residue in the M1-H5 linker was mutated to a non-titratable glutamine, i.e. H116Q in GIRK1 and H120Q in GIRK4 [23].
  • 3. Co-expression of YFP-beta 1/CFP-gamma 2 with G-protein-gated inwardly rectifying K(+) channels (GIRK1 and GIRK4) resulted in tonic GIRK currents that were blocked by Ba(2+) [24].

Regulatory relationships of Kcnj5

  • Surface protein expression of GIRK1 I331R coexpressed with GIRK4 was comparable with wild type, indicating that subunits assemble and are correctly localized to the membrane [14].

Other interactions of Kcnj5

  • Intracellular domain associations resulted in the coimmunoprecipitation of the GIRK1 N and C termini and GIRK4 N and C termini [14].
  • Subsequent mutation of homologous residues in both the GIRK4 subunit and Kir2.1 (Gbetagamma-independent inward rectifier) also resulted in a decrease in channel function [14].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Kcnj5


  1. Cloning and functional expression of a rat heart KATP channel. Ashford, M.L., Bond, C.T., Blair, T.A., Adelman, J.P. Nature (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Functional characterization and localization of a cardiac-type inwardly rectifying K+ channel. Iizuka, M., Kubo, Y., Tsunenari, I., Pan, C.X., Akiba, I., Kono, T. Recept. Channels (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Myocardial ischemia induces differential regulation of KATP channel gene expression in rat hearts. Akao, M., Otani, H., Horie, M., Takano, M., Kuniyasu, A., Nakayama, H., Kouchi, I., Murakami, T., Sasayama, S. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Glucose modulates rat substantia nigra GABA release in vivo via ATP-sensitive potassium channels. During, M.J., Leone, P., Davis, K.E., Kerr, D., Sherwin, R.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Impairment of skeletal muscle adenosine triphosphate-sensitive K+ channels in patients with hypokalemic periodic paralysis. Tricarico, D., Servidei, S., Tonali, P., Jurkat-Rott, K., Camerino, D.C. J. Clin. Invest. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Mitochondrial glutamate acts as a messenger in glucose-induced insulin exocytosis. Maechler, P., Wollheim, C.B. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. The G-protein-gated atrial K+ channel IKACh is a heteromultimer of two inwardly rectifying K(+)-channel proteins. Krapivinsky, G., Gordon, E.A., Wickman, K., Velimirović, B., Krapivinsky, L., Clapham, D.E. Nature (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Functional localization of single active ion channels on the surface of a living cell. Korchev, Y.E., Negulyaev, Y.A., Edwards, C.R., Vodyanoy, I., Lab, M.J. Nat. Cell Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Altered control of vascular tone by adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels in rats with cirrhosis. Moreau, R., Komeichi, H., Kirstetter, P., Ohsuga, M., Cailmail, S., Lebrec, D. Gastroenterology (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Impaired glucose sensitivity of ATP-sensitive K+ channels in pancreatic beta-cells in streptozotocin-induced NIDDM rats. Tsuura, Y., Ishida, H., Okamoto, Y., Tsuji, K., Kurose, T., Horie, M., Imura, H., Okada, Y., Seino, Y. Diabetes (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Syntaxin-1A binds the nucleotide-binding folds of sulphonylurea receptor 1 to regulate the KATP channel. Pasyk, E.A., Kang, Y., Huang, X., Cui, N., Sheu, L., Gaisano, H.Y. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Blockade of cerebral blood flow response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia by caffeine and glibenclamide in conscious rats. Horinaka, N., Kuang, T.Y., Pak, H., Wang, R., Jehle, J., Kennedy, C., Sokoloff, L. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Adenosine A(1) receptor antagonist and mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker attenuate the tolerance to focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Yoshida, M., Nakakimura, K., Cui, Y.J., Matsumoto, M., Sakabe, T. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Mutation of critical GIRK subunit residues disrupts N- and C-termini association and channel function. Sarac, R., Hou, P., Hurley, K.M., Hriciste, D., Cohen, N.A., Nelson, D.J. J. Neurosci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Molecular basis for the inhibition of G protein-coupled inward rectifier K(+) channels by protein kinase C. Mao, J., Wang, X., Chen, F., Wang, R., Rojas, A., Shi, Y., Piao, H., Jiang, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Overexpression of monomeric and multimeric GIRK4 subunits in rat atrial myocytes removes fast desensitization and reduces inward rectification of muscarinic K(+) current (I(K(ACh))). Evidence for functional homomeric GIRK4 channels. Bender, K., Wellner-Kienitz, M.C., Inanobe, A., Meyer, T., Kurachi, Y., Pott, L. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Heterologous facilitation of G protein-activated K(+) channels by beta-adrenergic stimulation via cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Müllner, C., Vorobiov, D., Bera, A.K., Uezono, Y., Yakubovich, D., Frohnwieser-Steinecker, B., Dascal, N., Schreibmayer, W. J. Gen. Physiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. A G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying K+ channel (GIRK4) from human hippocampus associates with other GIRK channels. Spauschus, A., Lentes, K.U., Wischmeyer, E., Dissmann, E., Karschin, C., Karschin, A. J. Neurosci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition for one week improves renal sodium and water excretion in cirrhotic rats with ascites. Martin, P.Y., Ohara, M., Gines, P., Xu, D.L., St John, J., Niederberger, M., Schrier, R.W. J. Clin. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Activation of heteromeric G protein-gated inward rectifier K+ channels overexpressed by adenovirus gene transfer inhibits the excitability of hippocampal neurons. Ehrengruber, M.U., Doupnik, C.A., Xu, Y., Garvey, J., Jasek, M.C., Lester, H.A., Davidson, N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Cloning and functional characterization of a novel ATP-sensitive potassium channel ubiquitously expressed in rat tissues, including pancreatic islets, pituitary, skeletal muscle, and heart. Inagaki, N., Tsuura, Y., Namba, N., Masuda, K., Gonoi, T., Horie, M., Seino, Y., Mizuta, M., Seino, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. GIRK4 confers appropriate processing and cell surface localization to G-protein-gated potassium channels. Kennedy, M.E., Nemec, J., Corey, S., Wickman, K., Clapham, D.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Molecular determinants for activation of G-protein-coupled inward rectifier K+ (GIRK) channels by extracellular acidosis. Mao, J., Li, L., McManus, M., Wu, J., Cui, N., Jiang, C. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Functional expression and FRET analysis of green fluorescent proteins fused to G-protein subunits in rat sympathetic neurons. Ruiz-Velasco, V., Ikeda, S.R. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. Differential sensitivity of venular and arteriolar alpha-adrenergic receptor constriction to inhibition by hypoxia. Role of receptor subtype and coupling heterogeneity. Leech, C.J., Faber, J.E. Circ. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Morphine mimics the cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning via a glibenclamide-sensitive mechanism in the rat heart. Schultz, J.E., Hsu, A.K., Gross, G.J. Circ. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities