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Gene Review

Tfap2a  -  transcription factor AP-2 alpha

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: AP-2, AP-2 transcription factor, AP2-alpha, Activating enhancer-binding protein 2-alpha, Activator protein 2, ...
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Disease relevance of Tcfap2a_predicted

  • The 5' upstream region of the gene was characterized and some potential controlling elements for gene regulation, such as Sp-1, AP-2, and Hepatitis B virus enhancer, were found [1].
  • Other regions between -340 and 80 that bind proteins in the GH4C1 nuclear extracts include the major transcription initiation site, which has homology to the initiator sequence; the pituitary-specific transcription initiation sites (-101 and -105); and sequences with homology to NF-1, Pan-1, simian virus-40 enhancer core, and AP-2-binding sites [2].
  • Increases in AP-2 alpha and ATF-2 were sustained throughout the SON during water deprivation, suggesting that these transcription factors could play a role in the maintenance of VP and oxytocin gene transcription in response to dehydration [3].
  • High expression levels of AP-2 were observed in different cell types including mesangial cells of kidney samples from patients with proteinuria [4].
  • The results show that the cis-acting putative AP-2 site and the presence of serum are important in NHE-1 expression, whereas external acidosis had no direct effect on the promoter [5].

Psychiatry related information on Tcfap2a_predicted


High impact information on Tcfap2a_predicted


Biological context of Tcfap2a_predicted


Anatomical context of Tcfap2a_predicted


Associations of Tcfap2a_predicted with chemical compounds

  • In contrast, chronic administration of lithium-chloride (40 mg/kg) did not affect the amount of the two AP-2 isoforms [20].
  • Chronic administration of citalopram (10 mg/kg), imipramin (10 mg/kg) and lithium-chloride (40 mg/kg) significantly decreased DNA-binding activity of AP-2 [20].
  • The second pathway, however, uses AP2 instead of AP3 and is brefeldin A insensitive [15].
  • We have now cloned, sequenced, and overexpressed bovine alpha-COP, the 135-kD subunit of coatomer as well as delta-COP, the 57-kD subunit and have identified a yeast homolog of delta-COP by cDNA sequence comparison and by NH2-terminal peptide sequencing. delta-COP shows homologies to subunits of the clathrin adaptor complexes AP1 and AP2 [21].
  • This inhibition results from a reduction in phosphoinositide 4,5-bisphosphate levels which causes dissociation of AP2, clathrin, and dynamin from the plasma membrane [10].

Physical interactions of Tcfap2a_predicted


Other interactions of Tcfap2a_predicted


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Tcfap2a_predicted


  1. Expression of rat microsomal epoxide hydrolase gene during liver chemical carcinogenesis. Kondo, S., Carr, B.I., Takagi, K., Huang, T.H., Chou, Y.M., Yokoyama, K., Itakura, K. Cancer Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. Expression of the rat carboxypeptidase-E gene in neuroendocrine and nonneuroendocrine cell lines. Jung, Y.K., Kunczt, C.J., Pearson, R.K., Fricker, L.D., Dixon, J.E. Mol. Endocrinol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Sustained increases in activating transcription factor-2 and activator protein-2 in the rat supraoptic nucleus during water deprivation. Meeker, R.B., Fernandes, A. Neuroendocrinology (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Induction of transcription factor AP-2 by cytokines and prostaglandins in cultured mesangial cells. Suyama, K., Kabuyama, Y., Suzuki, S., Kawasaki, Y., Suzuki, J., Suzuki, H., Homma, Y. American journal of nephrology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Regulation of NHE-1 promoter in mammalian myocardium. Yang, W., Dyck, J.R., Wang, H., Fliegel, L. Am. J. Physiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Molecular architecture and functional model of the endocytic AP2 complex. Collins, B.M., McCoy, A.J., Kent, H.M., Evans, P.R., Owen, D.J. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. A polymorphism in the EAAT2 promoter is associated with higher glutamate concentrations and higher frequency of progressing stroke. Mallolas, J., Hurtado, O., Castellanos, M., Blanco, M., Sobrino, T., Serena, J., Vivancos, J., Castillo, J., Lizasoain, I., Moro, M.A., Dávalos, A. J. Exp. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Evolving nature of the AP2 alpha-appendage hub during clathrin-coated vesicle endocytosis. Praefcke, G.J., Ford, M.G., Schmid, E.M., Olesen, L.E., Gallop, J.L., Peak-Chew, S.Y., Vallis, Y., Babu, M.M., Mills, I.G., McMahon, H.T. EMBO J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. The AP2 binding site of synaptotagmin 1 is not an internalization signal but a regulator of endocytosis. Jarousse, N., Kelly, R.B. J. Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. The role of dynamin and its binding partners in coated pit invagination and scission. Hill, E., van Der Kaay, J., Downes, C.P., Smythe, E. J. Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Tumor suppressor activity of AP2alpha mediated through a direct interaction with p53. McPherson, L.A., Loktev, A.V., Weigel, R.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Transcriptional activation of the Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase gene through the AP2 site by ginsenoside Rb2 extracted from a medicinal plant, Panax ginseng. Kim, Y.H., Park, K.H., Rho, H.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. The rat alpha 1B adrenergic receptor gene middle promoter contains multiple binding sites for sequence-specific proteins including a novel ubiquitous transcription factor. Gao, B., Spector, M.S., Kunos, G. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Substrate specificity, gene structure, and tissue-specific distribution of multiple human 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases. Khanna, M., Qin, K.N., Wang, R.W., Cheng, K.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. Neuroendocrine synaptic vesicles are formed in vitro by both clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent pathways. Shi, G., Faúndez, V., Roos, J., Dell'Angelica, E.C., Kelly, R.B. J. Cell Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Synthesis of analogs of human platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex by chicken peripheral blood thrombocytes. Kunicki, T.J., Newman, P.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
  17. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB inhibits rat alpha1D-adrenergic receptor gene expression in vascular smooth muscle cells by inducing AP-2-like protein binding to alpha1D proximal promoter region. Xin, X., Yang, N., Faber, J.E. Mol. Pharmacol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Role of AP2 consensus sites in regulation of rat Npt2 (sodium-phosphate cotransporter) promoter. Shachaf, C., Skorecki, K.L., Tzukerman, M. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Ketanserin selectively blocks acute stress-induced changes in NGFI-A and mineralocorticoid receptor gene expression in hippocampal neurons. Olsson, T., Hakånsson, A., Seckl, J.R. Neuroscience (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Chronic pharmacological treatment with certain antidepressants alters the expression and DNA-binding activity of transcription factor AP-2. Damberg, M., Ekblom, J., Oreland, L. Life Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Architecture of coatomer: molecular characterization of delta-COP and protein interactions within the complex. Faulstich, D., Auerbach, S., Orci, L., Ravazzola, M., Wegchingel, S., Lottspeich, F., Stenbeck, G., Harter, C., Wieland, F.T., Tschochner, H. J. Cell Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. Both the cyclic AMP response element and the activator protein 2 binding site mediate basal and cyclic AMP-induced transcription from the dominant promoter of the rat alpha 1B-adrenergic receptor gene in DDT1MF-2 cells. Gao, B., Chen, J., Johnson, C., Kunos, G. Mol. Pharmacol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  23. V-Ha-Ras overexpression induces superoxide production and alters levels of primary antioxidant enzymes. Yang, J.Q., Li, S., Huang, Y., Zhang, H.J., Domann, F.E., Buettner, G.R., Oberley, L.W. Antioxid. Redox Signal. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. The leucine-based sorting motifs in the cytoplasmic domain of the invariant chain are recognized by the clathrin adaptors AP1 and AP2 and their medium chains. Hofmann, M.W., Höning, S., Rodionov, D., Dobberstein, B., von Figura, K., Bakke, O. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Regulation of the alpha inhibin gene by cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate after transfection into rat granulosa cells. Pei, L., Dodson, R., Schoderbek, W.E., Maurer, R.A., Mayo, K.E. Mol. Endocrinol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  26. Transcription factor AP-2 gene expression in adult rat hippocampal regions: effects of environmental manipulations. Olsson, T., Mohammed, A.K., Donaldson, L.F., Seckl, J.R. Neurosci. Lett. (1995) [Pubmed]
  27. Assessing chronic exposure to fumonisin mycotoxins: the use of hair as a suitable noninvasive matrix. Sewram, V., Nair, J.J., Nieuwoudt, T.W., Gelderblom, W.C., Marasas, W.F., Shephard, G.S. Journal of analytical toxicology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Rat beta 1-adrenergic receptor regulatory region containing consensus AP-2 elements recognizes novel transactivator proteins. Kirigiti, P., Yang, Y.F., Li, X., Li, B., Midson, C.N., Machida, C.A. Mol. Cell Biol. Res. Commun. (2000) [Pubmed]
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