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Gene Review

Egr1  -  early growth response 1

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: EGR-1, Early growth response protein 1, Krox-24, NGFI-A, Nerve growth factor-induced protein A, ...
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Disease relevance of Egr1

  • Early growth response (EGR) transactivators act as critical regulators of several physiological processes, including peripheral nerve myelination and progression of prostate cancer [1].
  • We hypothesized that egr-1 is a key mediator gene in the multifactorial mechanisms of duodenal ulcer development and healing because its protein, transcription factor product Egr-1, regulates the expression of angiogenic growth factors [2].
  • The S1P-induced Egr-1 expression was partially inhibited by treatment of the cells with either calphostin C, an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC), or pertussis toxin (PTX), and completely inhibited by the combination of these agents [3].
  • Egr-1 in turn might play an important role in up-regulating the expression of endo-bFGF which overlapped with the expression of bFGFR to ensure the combination of ligand and receptor to protect against brain ischemia [4].
  • The NGFI-A gene encodes a "zinc-finger" protein that is rapidly induced by nerve growth factor (NGF) in PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells [5].

Psychiatry related information on Egr1


High impact information on Egr1


Chemical compound and disease context of Egr1


Biological context of Egr1


Anatomical context of Egr1

  • Treatment of PC12 cells with phorbol ester (2 micrometer 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)) gives rise to a new Egr1-containing complex [16].
  • In contrast, extracts from the adrenal medulla of IMO-treated rats form a novel complex (II) that contains the Egr1 protein [19].
  • Activity-dependent expression of Egr1 mRNA in somatosensory cortex of developing rats [20].
  • Role for early growth response-1 protein in alpha(1)-adrenergic stimulation of fibroblast growth factor-2 promoter activity in cardiac myocytes [21].
  • The induction of Egr-1 in rat neonatal ventricular myocytes with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate or in HeLa S3 cells by regulated expression of Egr-1 in a tetracycline-responsive promoter, suppressed expression from the beta(1)-AR promoter [22].

Associations of Egr1 with chemical compounds

  • Using gel mobility shift assays, we observed a transient increase in a complex between nuclear extracts from neonatal rat cardiac myocytes treated with inducers of Egr-1, including the alpha-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine, angiotensin II, and phorbol ester, and a consensus Egr-1 DNA element [21].
  • Angiotensin II (1, 10, 100 ng) induced a dose-dependent expression of c-Fos and Krox-24 in the subfornical organ, the median preoptic area and in the paraventricular nucleus and supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus, regions known to be involved in the central osmoregulatory and neuroendocrine actions of angiotensin II [23].
  • An antisense oligonucleotide to egr-1 was used to inhibit the synthesis of Egr-1 and to determine its effect on ulcer formation in the rat model of cysteamine-induced duodenal ulceration [2].
  • We also demonstrated that Egr-1 expression relates to the ulcerogenic effect of cysteamine because these actions were not exerted by the toxic analog ethanolamine [2].
  • Membrane depolarization selectively induced a sustained increase in early growth response-1 (Egr-1) mRNA and protein, which were inhibited by the VDCC blocker nimodipine and the SOCC inhibitor 2-aminoethoxydiphenylborate (2-APB) [24].

Physical interactions of Egr1

  • In conclusion, the findings demonstrate that Egr-1 actually binds to the regulatory upstream region of the LH receptor gene and positively regulates receptor gene expression [25].
  • NGFI-A-binding protein 2 (NAB2) is an example of a negative transcriptional cofactor capable of binding directly to Egr-1 and repressing Egr-1-mediated transcription [26].
  • Mutations that abolish the Sp1 binding activity also impair the transactivation of the NGFI-A promoter by COUP-TF [27].
  • Differences in the DNA methylation pattern between the offspring of High and Low licking/grooming--arched-back mothers emerge over the first week of life, are reversed with cross-fostering, persist into adulthood and are associated with altered histone acetylation and transcription factor (NGFI-A) binding to the glucocorticoid receptor promoter [28].
  • The promoter region of the NMDAR-1 receptor has a cis-regulatory element that is capable of binding to the NGFI-A family of transcription factors [29].

Enzymatic interactions of Egr1

  • Moreover, on treatment with NGF, Trk-A is phosphorylated and early responsive genes such as NGFI-A, c-fos and c-jun are induced [30].

Regulatory relationships of Egr1


Other interactions of Egr1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Egr1


  1. NAB2 represses transcription by interacting with the CHD4 subunit of the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD) complex. Srinivasan, R., Mager, G.M., Ward, R.M., Mayer, J., Svaren, J. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Suppression of early growth response factor-1 with egr-1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide aggravates experimental duodenal ulcers. Khomenko, T., Szabo, S., Deng, X., Jadus, M.R., Ishikawa, H., Osapay, K., Sandor, Z., Chen, L. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Sphingosine 1-phosphate induces expression of early growth response-1 and fibroblast growth factor-2 through mechanism involving extracellular signal-regulated kinase in astroglial cells. Sato, K., Ishikawa, K., Ui, M., Okajima, F. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Permeability of injured blood brain barrier for exogenous bFGF and protection mechanism of bFGF in rat brain ischemia. Liu, Y., Lu, J.B., Ye, Z.R. Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Structure of the NGFI-A gene and detection of upstream sequences responsible for its transcriptional induction by nerve growth factor. Changelian, P.S., Feng, P., King, T.C., Milbrandt, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. Exposure to lead elevates induction of zif268 and Arc mRNA in rats after electroconvulsive shock: the involvement of protein kinase C. Kim, K.A., Chakraborti, T., Goldstein, G., Johnston, M., Bressler, J. J. Neurosci. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Induction of hippocampal long-term potentiation during waking leads to increased extrahippocampal zif-268 expression during ensuing rapid-eye-movement sleep. Ribeiro, S., Mello, C.V., Velho, T., Gardner, T.J., Jarvis, E.D., Pavlides, C. J. Neurosci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Activation of the cGMP pathway in dopaminergic structures reduces cocaine-induced EGR-1 expression and locomotor activity. Jouvert, P., Revel, M.O., Lazaris, A., Aunis, D., Langley, K., Zwiller, J. J. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. The locus coeruleus and immediate-early genes in spontaneous and forced wakefulness. Tononi, G., Pompeiano, M., Cirelli, C. Brain Res. Bull. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Transcription factor Egr-1 supports FGF-dependent angiogenesis during neovascularization and tumor growth. Fahmy, R.G., Dass, C.R., Sun, L.Q., Chesterman, C.N., Khachigian, L.M. Nat. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. New DNA enzyme targeting Egr-1 mRNA inhibits vascular smooth muscle proliferation and regrowth after injury. Santiago, F.S., Lowe, H.C., Kavurma, M.M., Chesterman, C.N., Baker, A., Atkins, D.G., Khachigian, L.M. Nat. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Down-regulation of immediate early gene egr-1 expression in rat C6 glioma cells by short-term exposure to high salt culture medium. Morita, K., Arimochi, H., Yoshida, S. Cell Biol. Int. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Sustained induction of prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase-2 by seizures in hippocampus. Inhibition by a platelet-activating factor antagonist. Marcheselli, V.L., Bazan, N.G. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Alpha- and beta-adrenergic stimulation induces distinct patterns of immediate early gene expression in neonatal rat myocardial cells. fos/jun expression is associated with sarcomere assembly; Egr-1 induction is primarily an alpha 1-mediated response. Iwaki, K., Sukhatme, V.P., Shubeita, H.E., Chien, K.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. FK 409 ameliorates small-for-size liver graft injury by attenuation of portal hypertension and down-regulation of Egr-1 pathway. Man, K., Lee, T.K., Liang, T.B., Lo, C.M., Fung, P.C., Tsui, S.H., Li, X.L., Ng, K.T., Fan, S.T. Ann. Surg. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Ability of Egr1 to activate tyrosine hydroxylase transcription in PC12 cells. Cross-talk with AP-1 factors. Papanikolaou, N.A., Sabban, E.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Interactions between Egr1 and AP1 factors in regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase transcription. Nakashima, A., Ota, A., Sabban, E.L. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Fibroblast growth factor-2 induction of platelet-derived growth factor-C chain transcription in vascular smooth muscle cells is ERK-dependent but not JNK-dependent and mediated by Egr-1. Midgley, V.C., Khachigian, L.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Sp1/Egr1 motif: a new candidate in the regulation of rat tyrosine hydroxylase gene transcription by immobilization stress. Papanikolaou, N.A., Sabban, E.L. J. Neurochem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Activity-dependent expression of Egr1 mRNA in somatosensory cortex of developing rats. Patra, R.C., Blue, M.E., Johnston, M.V., Bressler, J., Wilson, M.A. J. Neurosci. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Role for early growth response-1 protein in alpha(1)-adrenergic stimulation of fibroblast growth factor-2 promoter activity in cardiac myocytes. Jin, Y., Sheikh, F., Detillieux, K.A., Cattini, P.A. Mol. Pharmacol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Reciprocal regulation of beta(1)-adrenergic receptor gene transcription by Sp1 and early growth response gene 1: induction of EGR-1 inhibits the expression of the beta(1)-adrenergic receptor gene. Bahouth, S.W., Beauchamp, M.J., Vu, K.N. Mol. Pharmacol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Angiotensin II induces a complex activation of transcription factors in the rat brain: expression of Fos, Jun and Krox proteins. Lebrun, C.J., Blume, A., Herdegen, T., Seifert, K., Bravo, R., Unger, T. Neuroscience (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. Ca2+ source-dependent transcription of CRE-containing genes in vascular smooth muscle. Pulver-Kaste, R.A., Barlow, C.A., Bond, J., Watson, A., Penar, P.L., Tranmer, B., Lounsbury, K.M. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Early growth response gene-1 regulates the expression of the rat luteinizing hormone receptor gene. Yoshino, M., Mizutani, T., Yamada, K., Tsuchiya, M., Minegishi, T., Yazawa, T., Kawata, H., Sekiguchi, T., Kajitani, T., Miyamoto, K. Biol. Reprod. (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. Vascular smooth muscle cells express the transcriptional corepressor NAB2 in response to injury. Silverman, E.S., Khachigian, L.M., Santiago, F.S., Williams, A.J., Lindner, V., Collins, T. Am. J. Pathol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. COUP-TF upregulates NGFI-A gene expression through an Sp1 binding site. Pipaón, C., Tsai, S.Y., Tsai, M.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Maternal programming of steroid receptor expression and phenotype through DNA methylation in the rat. Szyf, M., Weaver, I.C., Champagne, F.A., Diorio, J., Meaney, M.J. Frontiers in neuroendocrinology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  29. Cortical NMDAR-1 gene expression is rapidly upregulated after seizure. Jensen, P.J., Millan, N., Mack, K.J. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. Pancreatic acinar AR42J cells express functional nerve growth factor receptors. Miralles, F., Czernichow, P., Scharfmann, R. J. Endocrinol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Sp1 and egr-1 have opposing effects on the regulation of the rat Pgp2/mdr1b gene. Thottassery, J.V., Sun, D., Zambetti, G.P., Troutman, A., Sukhatme, V.P., Schuetz, E.G., Schuetz, J.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. Photic stimulation inhibits growth hormone secretion in rats: a hypothalamic mechanism for transient entrainment. Davies, J.S., Carter, D.A., Wells, T. Endocrinology (2004) [Pubmed]
  33. Transcriptional regulation of FGF-2 gene expression in cardiac myocytes. Jimenez, S.K., Sheikh, F., Jin, Y., Detillieux, K.A., Dhaliwal, J., Kardami, E., Cattini, P.A. Cardiovasc. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. The phyto-chemical (-)-epigallocatechin gallate suppresses gene expression of epidermal growth factor receptor in rat hepatic stellate cells in vitro by reducing the activity of Egr-1. Fu, Y., Chen, A. Biochem. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  35. Effect of cysteamine on redox-sensitive thiol-containing proteins in the duodenal mucosa. Khomenko, T., Deng, X., Jadus, M.R., Szabo, S. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2003) [Pubmed]
  36. Differential regulation by MK801 of immediate-early genes, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and trk receptor mRNA induced by a kindling after-discharge. Hughes, P.E., Young, D., Preston, K.M., Yan, Q., Dragunow, M. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
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