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Gene Review

Atf2  -  activating transcription factor 2

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Activating transcription factor 2, Cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-2, cAMP response element-binding protein CRE-BP1, cAMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-2
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Disease relevance of Atf2


Psychiatry related information on Atf2


High impact information on Atf2


Chemical compound and disease context of Atf2


Biological context of Atf2


Anatomical context of Atf2

  • Transient increase in anti-p-ATF2 immunoreactivity in the late secretion ameloblasts apical to the transition zone of rat incisors [11].
  • Nuclear ATF-2 was expressed at high levels in apparently all neurons, but not glial cells, throughout the neuraxis except for those neuronal populations which exhibit a high basal level of c-Jun, i.e. dentate gyrus and the motoneurons of cranial and somatosensory neurons [4].
  • Following transection of peripheral or central nerve fibres such as optic nerve, medial forebrain bundle, vagal and facial nerve fibres, ATF-2 rapidly decreased in the axotomized neurons during that period when c-Jun was rapidly expressed [4].
  • In the enalapril-treated group, JNK-2, p38, phospho-JNK-2, phospho-p38, and ATF-2 protein expressions were significantly increased, and their immunoactivities were strongly detected in the proximal tubular epithelial cells in the cortex, compared with the control group [13].
  • This study shows that signaling by target-derived NGF to the cell bodies of sensory neurons consists, in part, of the modulation of levels and activation status of a retrogradely transported transcription factor, ATF2 [14].

Associations of Atf2 with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of Atf2

  • These findings indicate that p38 MAP kinase is functionally regulated not by synthesis but by phosphorylation and regulates the activation of ATF-2 in neurons, and this cascade plays some role in retrograde neuronal reactions [17].

Other interactions of Atf2


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Atf2


  1. Activating transcription factor 2 is necessary for maximal activity and serum induction of the cyclin A promoter in chondrocytes. Beier, F., Taylor, A.C., LuValle, P. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Crosstalk between Myc and activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2): Myc prolongs the half-life and induces phosphorylation of ATF2. Miethe, J., Schwartz, C., Wottrich, K., Wenning, D., Klempnauer, K.H. Oncogene (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Persistent phosphorylation of cyclic AMP responsive element-binding protein and activating transcription factor-2 transcription factors following transient cerebral ischemia in rat brain. Hu, B.R., Fux, C.M., Martone, M.E., Zivin, J.A., Ellisman, M.H. Neuroscience (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Expression of activating transcription factor-2, serum response factor and cAMP/Ca response element binding protein in the adult rat brain following generalized seizures, nerve fibre lesion and ultraviolet irradiation. Herdegen, T., Blume, A., Buschmann, T., Georgakopoulos, E., Winter, C., Schmid, W., Hsieh, T.F., Zimmermann, M., Gass, P. Neuroscience (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Sustained increases in activating transcription factor-2 and activator protein-2 in the rat supraoptic nucleus during water deprivation. Meeker, R.B., Fernandes, A. Neuroendocrinology (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Differential activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases by methyl methanesulfonate in the liver and brain of rats: implication for organ-specific carcinogenesis. Suh, Y., Kang, U.G., Kim, Y.S., Kim, W.H., Park, S.C., Park, J.B. Cancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. p38 MAPK-mediated transcriptional activation of inducible nitric-oxide synthase in glial cells. Roles of nuclear factors, nuclear factor kappa B, cAMP response element-binding protein, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-beta, and activating transcription factor-2. Bhat, N.R., Feinstein, D.L., Shen, Q., Bhat, A.N. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Activating transcription factor-2 mediates transcriptional regulation of gluconeogenic gene PEPCK by retinoic acid. Lee, M.Y., Jung, C.H., Lee, K., Choi, Y.H., Hong, S., Cheong, J. Diabetes (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Platelet-derived growth factor induces interleukin-6 transcription in osteoblasts through the activator protein-1 complex and activating transcription factor-2. Franchimont, N., Durant, D., Rydziel, S., Canalis, E. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Single and repeated immobilization stress differentially trigger induction and phosphorylation of several transcription factors and mitogen-activated protein kinases in the rat locus coeruleus. Hebert, M.A., Serova, L.I., Sabban, E.L. J. Neurochem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Transient increase in anti-p-ATF2 immunoreactivity in the late secretion ameloblasts apical to the transition zone of rat incisors. Nishikawa, S. Anatomical science international / Japanese Association of Anatomists. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in the rapid induction of the 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein in 9L rat brain tumor cells. Chen, K.D., Chen, L.Y., Huang, H.L., Lieu, C.H., Chang, Y.N., Chang, M.D., Lai, Y.K. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition modulates mitogen-activated protein kinase family expressions in the neonatal rat kidney. Choi, B.M., Yoo, K.H., Bae, I.S., Oh, M.H., Hong, Y.S., Lee, J.W., Kim, S.K. Pediatr. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Axonal transport of activating transcription factor-2 is modulated by nerve growth factor in nociceptive neurons. Delcroix, J.D., Averill, S., Fernandes, K., Tomlinson, D.R., Priestley, J.V., Fernyhough, P. J. Neurosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Activity and expression of JNK1, p38 and ERK kinases, c-Jun N-terminal phosphorylation, and c-jun promoter binding in the adult rat brain following kainate-induced seizures. Mielke, K., Brecht, S., Dorst, A., Herdegen, T. Neuroscience (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Mechanisms of inhibitory effects of cerivastatin on rat vascular smooth muscle cell growth. Igarashi, M., Yamaguchi, H., Hirata, A., Tsuchiya, H., Ohnuma, H., Tominaga, M., Daimon, M., Kato, T. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Changes in expression of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve and hypoglossal nucleus after axotomy in adult rats. Shimokawara, T., Yamada, E., Masui, K., Mishima, K., Enomoto, Y., Inoue, K., Sakaki, T., Ichijima, K. Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. TGF-beta1 induces cardiac hypertrophic responses via PKC-dependent ATF-2 activation. Lim, J.Y., Park, S.J., Hwang, H.Y., Park, E.J., Nam, J.H., Kim, J., Park, S.I. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Characterization of 5'-flanking region of rat somatostatin receptor sst2 gene: transcriptional regulatory elements and activation by Pitx1 and estrogen. Kimura, N., Tomizawa, S., Arai, K.N., Osamura, R.Y., Kimura, N. Endocrinology (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Interleukin-1 stimulates Jun N-terminal/stress-activated protein kinase by an arachidonate-dependent mechanism in mesangial cells. Huang, S., Konieczkowski, M., Schelling, J.R., Sedor, J.R. Kidney Int. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Changes in peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase activity and FK506 binding protein expression following neuroprotection by FK506 in the ischemic rat brain. Brecht, S., Schwarze, K., Waetzig, V., Christner, C., Heiland, S., Fischer, G., Sartor, K., Herdegen, T. Neuroscience (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Alteration of MAP kinase pathways after transient forebrain ischemia. Hu, B.R., Liu, C.L., Park, D.J. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (2000) [Pubmed]
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