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Gene Review

Pen  -  Pendulin

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: 2.1, CG4799, DPend, Dalpha2, Dimp-alpha2, ...
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Disease relevance of Pen

  • The interstitial deletion D14 affecting the importin-alpha 2 gene of Drosophila, or imp-alpha 2(D14), causes recessive female sterility characterized by a block of nurse cell-oocyte transport during oogenesis [1].
  • In contrast, sterility of alpha2 null females was rescued only by importin alpha2 transgenes, suggesting that it plays a paralog-specific role in oogenesis [2].
  • We analyzed 2.1 kilobases of the 5'-flanking region of the human LTC(4)S gene, which contains three DNase I hypersensitivity sites, for its transcriptional activity when fused to a promoterless and enhancerless luciferase gene [3].
  • The crystal structure of the MoaB protein from E. coli was determined by multiple anomalous dispersion at 2.1 angstroms A resolution and refined to an R factor of 20.4% (Rfree = 25.0%) [4].

High impact information on Pen

  • Messenger RNA molecules of 2.4, 2.55 and 3.05 kb code for the 68,000, 70,000 and 83,000 dalton heat shock proteins and hybridize to apparently uninterrupted DNA sequences of 2.1, 2.25 and 2.6 kb, respectively [5].
  • One clone (HHO.c10) is selectively expressed in a 2.1 kilobase (kb) polyadenylated transcript in the spinal cord of human embryos and fetuses 5-10 weeks after fertilization [6].
  • Here we report the results of a search made in the Dayhoff sequence bank, which reveals a lesser but apparently significant homology between the homoeo domain and the amino acids coded from parts of the a 1 and alpha 2 mating type genes of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae [7].
  • At the transition between G2 and M-phase, Pendulin rapidly translocates into the nuclei where it is distributed throughout the nucleoplasm and the areas around the chromosomes [8].
  • The nuclear import of OHO31 is, however, less pronounced during later developmental stages [9].

Biological context of Pen


Anatomical context of Pen

  • In wild-type egg chambers, the Imp-alpha 2 protein is uniformly distributed in the nurse cell cytoplasm with a moderate accumulation along the oocyte cortex [1].
  • In pupal testes Imp-alpha2 is essentially present in the spermatocyte nucleus but is localised in the cytoplasm of spermatocytes from adult testes [10].
  • Hematopoietic cells of mutant larvae overproliferate and form melanotic tumors, suggesting that Pendulin normally acts as a blood cell tumor suppressor [8].
  • A major polyadenylated transcript of approximately 2.1 kilobases (kb), as well as RNA species of higher relative molecular mass (Mr), are specifically expressed at a constant level in spinal cord throughout this developmental period [11].
  • Using 3'-RACE we have isolated four novel c-erbB3 cDNA clones of 1.6, 1.7, 2.1 and 2.3 kb from a human ovarian carcinoma-derived cell line [12].

Associations of Pen with chemical compounds

  • This allergen, named Pen a I, was isolated by SDS-PAGE; its amino acid composition was rich in aspartic and glutamic acids [13].
  • The enzyme displays positive cooperativity in phosphate buffer, a Hill number of 2.1, but only slight cooperativity in Tris buffer, a Hill number of 1.2 [14].
  • The heterologous expression of HFRC1 in the yeast revealed the multisubstrate specific transport activity of HFRC1 (for UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), UDP-glucose (UDP-Glc), and GDP-mannose (GDP-Man), with apparent K(m) values of 8.0, 2.1, and 0.14 microm, respectively) [15].
  • Crystals of the enzymes from Dictyostelium discoideum and from Drosophila melanogaster were treated with phosphoramidate, and their X-ray structures were determined at 2.1 and 2.2 A resolution, respectively [16].
  • 2. Replacement of the cyano group by a methyl group in (+)-DPI 201-106 ((+)-BDF 8784) increases the IC50 value for inhibition of phenylalkylamine labelling of Drosophila Ca2(+)-channels from 0.29 to 2.1 nM but decreases the IC50 value for inhibition of phenylalkylamine labelling of mammalian skeletal muscle Ca2(+)-channels from 3480 to 49 nM [17].

Physical interactions of Pen


Other interactions of Pen

  • Immunohistochemistry shows that, although the Imp-alpha2 protein cannot be detected on the ring canals, the Kelch protein, a known ring canal component, fails to bind to ring canals in imp-alpha 2(D14) egg chambers [1].
  • A 21-residue peptide, obtained from endoproteinase Lys-C digested Pen a I by high-performance liquid chromatography, demonstrated significant homology (60-87%) with the muscle protein tropomyosin from various species and origins [13].
  • These results suggest that biologically active regions in the G domain are conserved in the laminin alpha1 and alpha2 chains, and that these regions in laminin play an important role in cell surface receptor interactions [19].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Pen

  • A strong reduction in the expression of oho31 by a P element inserted in the 5' untranslated region of the oho31 transcript or a complete inactivation of oho31 by imprecise P element excision leads to malignant development of the hematopoietic organs and the genital disc, as shown by their growth autonomy in transplantation assays [9].
  • We isolated a cDNA of about 2.1 kb from a bullfrog brain cDNA library by screening with a partial cry2 cDNA probe obtained by RT-PCR using degenerate primers [20].
  • Northern blot analysis demonstrated three transcripts (3.1, 2.6 and 2.1 kb) in mRNA from adult mouse tissues brain, liver, and kidney as well as in mRNA from developing mouse embryos (days 7, 11, 15 and 17 post coitus, p.c.). In vitro transcription/translation yielded a product with an Mr of 59 kD [21].
  • We describe the molecular cloning and identification of the gene, and show that it encodes overlapping sex-specific transcripts of 2.9 kb in the male and 2.1 kb in the female [22].
  • An inverse PCR fragment of genomic DNA was generated, containing the exon 1 coding region plus approximately 2.1 kb of upstream sequence, encompassing the putative promoter of the gene [23].


  1. Importin-alpha 2 is critically required for the assembly of ring canals during Drosophila oogenesis. Gorjánácz, M., Adám, G., Török, I., Mechler, B.M., Szlanka, T., Kiss, I. Dev. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Drosophila melanogaster importin alpha1 and alpha3 can replace importin alpha2 during spermatogenesis but not oogenesis. Mason, D.A., Fleming, R.J., Goldfarb, D.S. Genetics (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Cell-specific transcription of leukotriene C(4) synthase involves a Kruppel-like transcription factor and Sp1. Zhao, J.L., Austen, K.F., Lam, B.K. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Structure of the molybdenum-cofactor biosynthesis protein MoaB of Escherichia coli. Bader, G., Gomez-Ortiz, M., Haussmann, C., Bacher, A., Huber, R., Fischer, M. Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Studies of cloned sequences from four Drosophila heat shock loci. Holmgren, R., Livak, K., Morimoto, R., Freund, R., Meselson, M. Cell (1979) [Pubmed]
  6. Differential and stage-related expression in embryonic tissues of a new human homoeobox gene. Mavilio, F., Simeone, A., Giampaolo, A., Faiella, A., Zappavigna, V., Acampora, D., Poiana, G., Russo, G., Peschle, C., Boncinelli, E. Nature (1986) [Pubmed]
  7. Fly and frog homoeo domains show homologies with yeast mating type regulatory proteins. Shepherd, J.C., McGinnis, W., Carrasco, A.E., De Robertis, E.M., Gehring, W.J. Nature (1984) [Pubmed]
  8. Pendulin, a Drosophila protein with cell cycle-dependent nuclear localization, is required for normal cell proliferation. Küssel, P., Frasch, M. J. Cell Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. The overgrown hematopoietic organs-31 tumor suppressor gene of Drosophila encodes an Importin-like protein accumulating in the nucleus at the onset of mitosis. Török, I., Strand, D., Schmitt, R., Tick, G., Török, T., Kiss, I., Mechler, B.M. J. Cell Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Patterns of importin-alpha expression during Drosophila spermatogenesis. Giarrè, M., Török, I., Schmitt, R., Gorjánácz, M., Kiss, I., Mechler, B.M. J. Struct. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. A human homoeo box gene specifically expressed in spinal cord during embryonic development. Simeone, A., Mavilio, F., Bottero, L., Giampaolo, A., Russo, G., Faiella, A., Boncinelli, E., Peschle, C. Nature (1986) [Pubmed]
  12. Isolation and characterization of four alternate c-erbB3 transcripts expressed in ovarian carcinoma-derived cell lines and normal human tissues. Lee, H., Maihle, N.J. Oncogene (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Identification of the major brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) allergen as the muscle protein tropomyosin. Daul, C.B., Slattery, M., Reese, G., Lehrer, S.B. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Purification and characterization of GTP cyclohydrolase I from Drosophila melanogaster. Weisberg, E.P., O'Donnell, J.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  15. Molecular cloning and characterization of a human multisubstrate specific nucleotide-sugar transporter homologous to Drosophila fringe connection. Suda, T., Kamiyama, S., Suzuki, M., Kikuchi, N., Nakayama, K., Narimatsu, H., Jigami, Y., Aoki, T., Nishihara, S. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Mechanism of phosphate transfer by nucleoside diphosphate kinase: X-ray structures of the phosphohistidine intermediate of the enzymes from Drosophila and Dictyostelium. Moréra, S., Chiadmi, M., LeBras, G., Lascu, I., Janin, J. Biochemistry (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Very high affinity interaction of DPI 201-106 and BDF 8784 enantiomers with the phenylalkylamine-sensitive Ca2(+)-channel in Drosophila head membranes. Glossmann, H., Zech, C., Striessnig, J., Staudinger, R., Hall, L., Greenberg, R., Armah, B.I. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Domains of Importin-alpha2 required for ring canal assembly during Drosophila oogenesis. Gorjánácz, M., Török, I., Pomozi, I., Garab, G., Szlanka, T., Kiss, I., Mechler, B.M. J. Struct. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Active peptides from the carboxyl-terminal globular domain of laminin alpha2 and Drosophila alpha chains. Nomizu, M., Song, S.Y., Kuratomi, Y., Tanaka, M., Kim, W.H., Kleinman, H.K., Yamada, Y. FEBS Lett. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Cloning and expression of cryptochrome2 in the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana). Eun, B.K., Kang, H.M. Mol. Cells (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Praja1, a novel gene encoding a RING-H2 motif in mouse development. Mishra, L., Tully, R.E., Monga, S.P., Yu, P., Cai, T., Makalowski, W., Mezey, E., Pavan, W.J., Mishra, B. Oncogene (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. The exuperantia gene is required for Drosophila spermatogenesis as well as anteroposterior polarity of the developing oocyte, and encodes overlapping sex-specific transcripts. Hazelrigg, T., Watkins, W.S., Marcey, D., Tu, C., Karow, M., Lin, X.R. Genetics (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. The white gene of the tephritid fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni is characterized by a long untranslated 5' leader and a 12kb first intron. Bennett, C.L., Frommer, M. Insect Mol. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
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