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Gene Review

Chat  -  choline O-acetyltransferase

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: CHOACTase, ChAT, Choline O-acetyltransferase, Choline acetylase
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Disease relevance of Chat_predicted


Psychiatry related information on Chat_predicted


High impact information on Chat_predicted


Chemical compound and disease context of Chat_predicted

  • We conclude that the rat is not a suitable laboratory animal to explore the role of aluminum toxicity in causing the GABA and ChAT deficits present in brains of hemodialyzed human patients [14].
  • Internalization of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) from Bacillus thuringiensis into rat hippocampal synaptosomes by the DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) freeze/thawing procedure caused an increase in cytosolic and a decrease in membrane-bound ChAT [15].
  • Thus, improvement in memory and learning tasks of the rasagiline-treated anoxia group finds correspondence in the activity of the cholinergic marker ChAT in two brain regions that have prominent cholinergic innervation [16].

Biological context of Chat_predicted

  • In the rat, alternative splicing generates common ChAT and peripheral ChAT (pChAT) [17].
  • The amount of acetylcholine synthesized, and the specific activity of choline O-acetyltransferase (acetyl-CoA:choline O-acetyltransferase, EC, varies as a function of the culture growth curve and is dependent on cell density [18].
  • Transgene expression in the spinal cord was developmentally regulated and responded to nerve injury in a similar way as the endogenous ChAT gene, indicating that the 2342-bp regulatory sequence contains elements controlling the plasticity of the cholinergic phenotype in developing and injured neurons [19].
  • A 2342-bp segment from the 5' flanking region of the ChAT gene behaved as an enhancer in cholinergic cells but as a repressor in noncholinergic cells in an orientation-independent manner [19].
  • In eight independent transgenic lines, the pattern of transgene expression paralleled qualitatively and quantitatively that displayed by endogenous ChAT mRNA in various regions of the rat central nervous system [19].

Anatomical context of Chat_predicted


Associations of Chat_predicted with chemical compounds

  • To assess the functional status of cholinergic neurons in the absence and presence of estrogen, the effects of ovx and estrogen replacement on ChAT mRNA levels were also examined and found to reflect the changes observed in trkA mRNA expression [23].
  • In experiments 1-3, excitotoxic lesions were made of the septum and VDB in rats using quisqualic acid, which resulted in significant reductions in ChAT activity in the hippocampus and cingulate cortex, but with no effects on cortical monoamines [24].
  • Based on previous examination of singly stained neighboring sections, five CNS areas were examined in detail in DFP-treated rats using the simultaneous procedure for localizing both ChAT and AChE in the same neurons in the same sections [25].
  • Although a potent irreversible inhibitor of high-affinity choline transport in rat brain synaptosomes, choline mustard aziridinium ion (ChM Az) appeared to be a relatively weak inhibitor of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in rat brain homogenates, and evidence for irreversible binding of this compound to the enzyme had not been established [26].
  • It could be concluded that none of the acetyl-CoA synthesizing enzymes decreased to the degree that ChAT did [27].

Other interactions of Chat_predicted

  • Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT, acetyl-CoA:choline O-acetyltransferase, EC, involved in the learning and memory processes is responsible for the synthesis of acetylcholine [22].
  • Cotreatment of NGF (20 ng/mL) with K252a (200 nM) abolished increases in ChAT activity and prevented enhancement of K(+)-stimulated ACh release beyond the level associated with K252a, suggesting the involvement of TrkA receptor signaling [28].
  • The development of cholinergic synapses in the rat olfactory bulb was investigated by measuring changes in the activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT; EC, a presynaptic cholinergic marker, and in the concentration of muscarinic receptors, components of cholinoceptive membranes [29].
  • To determine the mechanism accounting for the increase in ChAT, we labeled dividing precursors present in the cultures with a replication-deficient retrovirus expressing beta-galactosidase in the presence and absence of TGF-alpha [30].
  • Sections were double-labeled by ChAT and vimentin immunocytochemistry to visualize motor neurons and radial glial fibers, respectively [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Chat_predicted


  1. Disturbance of the cortical cholinergic innervation in Borna disease prior to encephalitis. Gies, U., Bilzer, T., Stitz, L., Staiger, J.F. Brain Pathol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Acetylcholine levels and choline acetyltransferase activity in rat cerebrovascular bed after uni- or bilateral sphenopalatine ganglionectomy. Dauphin, F., Richard, J.W., Seylaz, J., Quirion, R., Hamel, E. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1991) [Pubmed]
  3. Transcriptional regulation of choline acetyltransferase gene by cyclic AMP. Misawa, H., Takahashi, R., Deguchi, T. J. Neurochem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. High-level synthesis and fate of acetylcholine in baculovirus-infected cells: characterization and purification of recombinant rat choline acetyltransferase. Habert, E., Birman, S., Mallet, J. J. Neurochem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Thyroid hormone causes sexually distinct neurochemical and morphological alterations in rat septal-diagonal band neurons. Westlind-Danielsson, A., Gould, E., McEwen, B.S. J. Neurochem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Age-impaired impulse flow from nucleus basalis to cortex. Aston-Jones, G., Rogers, J., Shaver, R.D., Dinan, T.G., Moss, D.E. Nature (1985) [Pubmed]
  7. Cloning of the rat gene encoding choline acetyltransferase, a cholinergic neuron-specific marker. Hahn, M., Hahn, S.L., Stone, D.M., Joh, T.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Spatial discrimination learning and choline acetyltransferase activity in streptozotocin-treated rats: effects of chronic treatment with acetyl-L-carnitine. Prickaerts, J., Blokland, A., Honig, W., Meng, F., Jolles, J. Brain Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Differential effects of typical and atypical antipsychotics on nerve growth factor and choline acetyltransferase expression in the cortex and nucleus basalis of rats. Parikh, V., Khan, M.M., Terry, A., Mahadik, S.P. Journal of psychiatric research. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Firing properties of anatomically identified neurons in the medial septum of anesthetized and unanesthetized restrained rats. Simon, A.P., Poindessous-Jazat, F., Dutar, P., Epelbaum, J., Bassant, M.H. J. Neurosci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Two types of cholinergic innervation in cortex, one co-localized with vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. Eckenstein, F., Baughman, R.W. Nature (1984) [Pubmed]
  12. Rescue of motoneurons from cell death by a purified skeletal muscle polypeptide: effects of the ChAT development factor, CDF. McManaman, J.L., Oppenheim, R.W., Prevette, D., Marchetti, D. Neuron (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Choline acetyltransferase structure reveals distribution of mutations that cause motor disorders. Cai, Y., Cronin, C.N., Engel, A.G., Ohno, K., Hersh, L.B., Rodgers, D.W. EMBO J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Inability to produce a model of dialysis encephalopathy in the rat by aluminum administration. Perry, T.L., Yong, V.W., Godolphin, W.J., Sutter, M., Hansen, S., Kish, S.J., Foulks, J.G., Ito, M. Neurochem. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. Membrane-bound choline-O-acetyltransferase in rat hippocampal tissue is anchored by glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol. Smith, L.K., Carroll, P.T. Brain Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Sparing by rasagiline (TVP-1012) of cholinergic functions and behavior in the postnatal anoxia rat. Speiser, Z., Katzir, O., Rehavi, M., Zabarski, T., Cohen, S. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Peripheral Choline Acetyltransferase is Expressed by Monocytes and Upregulated During Renal Allograft Rejection in Rats. Hecker, A., Lips, K.S., Pfeil, U., Kummer, W., Padberg, W., Grau, V. J. Mol. Neurosci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Cholinergic metabolism and synapse formation by a rat nerve cell line. Schubert, D., Heinemann, S., Kidokoro, Y. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1977) [Pubmed]
  19. Regulatory region in choline acetyltransferase gene directs developmental and tissue-specific expression in transgenic mice. Lönnerberg, P., Lendahl, U., Funakoshi, H., Arhlund-Richter, L., Persson, H., Ibáñez, C.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Toll-Like Receptor Ligands and CD154 Stimulate Microglia to Produce a Factor(s) That Promotes Excess Cholinergic Differentiation in the Developing Rat Basal Forebrain: Implications for Neurodevelopmental Disorders. Ni, L., Acevedo, G., Muralidharan, B., Padala, N., To, J., Jonakait, G.M. Pediatr. Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  21. Complementary DNAs for choline acetyltransferase from spinal cords of rat and mouse: nucleotide sequences, expression in mammalian cells, and in situ hybridization. Ishii, K., Oda, Y., Ichikawa, T., Deguchi, T. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  22. Effects of aging and amyloid-beta peptides on choline acetyltransferase activity in rat brain. Zambrzycka, A., Alberghina, M., Strosznajder, J.B. Neurochem. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. The effects of ovariectomy and estrogen replacement on trkA and choline acetyltransferase mRNA expression in the basal forebrain of the adult female Sprague-Dawley rat. McMillan, P.J., Singer, C.A., Dorsa, D.M. J. Neurosci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Effects of excitotoxic lesions of the septum and vertical limb nucleus of the diagonal band of Broca on conditional visual discrimination: relationship between performance and choline acetyltransferase activity in the cingulate cortex. Marston, H.M., West, H.L., Wilkinson, L.S., Everitt, B.J., Robbins, T.W. J. Neurosci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Identification of central cholinergic neurons containing both choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase and of central neurons containing only acetylcholinesterase. Eckenstein, F., Sofroniew, M.V. J. Neurosci. (1983) [Pubmed]
  26. Studies on the alkylation of choline acetyltransferase by choline mustard aziridinium ion. Rylett, R.J., Colhoun, E.H. J. Neurochem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  27. Acetyl-CoA synthesizing enzymes in cholinergic nerve terminals. Sterri, S.H., Fonnum, F. J. Neurochem. (1980) [Pubmed]
  28. Neurotrophins differentially enhance acetylcholine release, acetylcholine content and choline acetyltransferase activity in basal forebrain neurons. Auld, D.S., Mennicken, F., Day, J.C., Quirion, R. J. Neurochem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  29. Parallel postnatal development of choline acetyltransferase activity and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the rat olfactory bulb. Large, T.H., Lambert, M.P., Gremillion, M.A., Klein, W.L. J. Neurochem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  30. Transforming growth factor-alpha expands progenitor cells of the basal forebrain, but does not promote cholinergic differentiation. Jonakait, G.M., Luskin, M.B., Ni, L. J. Neurobiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. Embryonic development of rat sympathetic preganglionic neurons: possible migratory substrates. Phelps, P.E., Barber, R.P., Vaughn, J.E. J. Comp. Neurol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  32. Expression of choline acetyltransferase mRNA in spermatogenic cells results in an accumulation of the enzyme in the postacrosomal region of mature spermatozoa. Ibáñez, C.F., Pelto-Huikko, M., Söder, O., Ritzèn, E.M., Hersh, L.B., Hökfelt, T., Persson, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  33. Nerve growth factor-independent reduction in choline acetyltransferase activity in PC12 cells expressing mutant presenilin-1. Pedersen, W.A., Guo, Q., Hartman, B.K., Mattson, M.P. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  34. Activation of rat choline acetyltransferase by limited proteolysis. Wu, D., Ahmed, S.N., Lian, W., Hersh, L.B. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  35. Age and sex-dependent decreases in ChAT in basal forebrain nuclei. Luine, V.N., Renner, K.J., Heady, S., Jones, K.J. Neurobiol. Aging (1986) [Pubmed]
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