The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

TF  -  transferrin (ovotransferrin)

Gallus gallus

Synonyms: LTF, TFEW, conalbumin
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of TF

  • Delayed hypersensitivity (DH) and protective immunity were transferred to nonimmune 4- and 10-week-old broiler chickens with transfer factor (TF) prepared from splenic leukocytes of chickens immunized with CocciVac D [1].
  • The open reading frames from these cDNAs predict a 738 amino acid protein with homology to human melanotransferrin, a membrane-found, transferrin-like protein that is expressed at high levels by a subset of melanomas, tumor cell lines, fetal intestine, and liver, but not by most normal adult tissues [2].
  • The interference with Ag presentation induced by Listeria was found for a second Ag (conalbumin) [3].
  • We observed no effect of these hormones on the ability of E. coli RNA polymerase to transcribe specifically the conalbumin and ovalbumin genes 8 1/2 h after hormone administration when transcription of these genes by endogenous RNA polymerase was elevated 5- and 30-fold, respectively [4].
  • Diaphyseal chondrocyte maturation was indeed delayed in squalamine-treated humeri, as indicated by reduced cell hypertrophy and expression of type X collagen, transferrin, and Indian hedgehog (Ihh) [5].

High impact information on TF


Biological context of TF

  • Change in glycosylation of chicken transferrin glycans biosynthesized during embryogenesis and primary culture of embryo hepatocytes [11].
  • Moreover, comparative analysis of chicken serum transferrin and ovotransferrin glycans reinforces the idea that the glycosylation of two identical polypeptide chains is organ specific [11].
  • High and low frequency repetitive sequences are found both upstream from the conalbumin gene and within one intron [10].
  • The nucleotide sequence of an almost double-stranded cDNA copy [Cochet, M., Perrin, F., Gannon, F., Krust, A., Chambon, P., McKnight, G. S., Lee, D. C., Mayo, K. E., and Palmiter, R. D. (1979) Nucleic Acids Res. 6, 2435-2452] of chicken ovotransferrin (conalbumin) mRNA has been determined [12].
  • Transcription factors (TFs) are essential regulators of gene expression, and mutated TF genes have been shown to cause numerous human genetic diseases [13].

Anatomical context of TF

  • Conalbumin, when synthesized in a rabbit reticulocyte cell-free translation system, was found to contain an NH2-terminal extension of 19 amino acid residues [14].
  • The effects of TF on T-lymphocyte mediated protective immunity to coccidia in chickens are discussed [1].
  • Only chickens injected with the immune TF showed DH by wattle reaction to oocyst antigen and protective immunity to Eimeria tenella challenge infection [1].
  • The short chain aliphatic acid salts, butyrate and propionate, are effective inhibitors of histone deacetylation in chick oviduct at 2--5 mM; they also prevent the hormonal induction of the ovalbumin and transferrin genes [15].
  • We show that the microinjected ovalbumin and conalbumin promoter regions do not function in chicken fibroblasts, kidney cells and in a variety of non-chicken cells, irrespective of the presence of steroid hormone receptors [16].

Associations of TF with chemical compounds

  • The glycan structure of the transferrin secreted by the embryo hepatocytes in primary culture was marked by the presence of fucose (alpha 1-6) linked to the core N-acetylglucosamine, suggesting that expression of the fucosyltransferase activity is dependent on cell culture conditions [11].
  • In particular, the embryo serum transferrin glycan differed from that of chicken serum transferrin by the presence of a bisecting N-acetylglucosamine, suggesting a developmental change in glycosylation [11].
  • In the structure, both empty iron binding clefts are in the open conformation, lending weight to the theory that Fe(3+) binding or release in transferrin proceeds via a mechanism that involves domain opening and closure [17].
  • The overall structure of ovotransferrin is similar to those of human lactoferrin and rabbit serum transferrin, being folded into two homologous lobes, each containing two dissimilar domains with one Fe3+ and one CO3(2)- bound at a specific site in each interdomain cleft [18].
  • Structural evidence for a pH-sensitive dilysine trigger in the hen ovotransferrin N-lobe: implications for transferrin iron release [19].

Physical interactions of TF


Co-localisations of TF


Other interactions of TF

  • CVG cells were explanted from chick embryos after 90 h of incubation into a defined-medium containing BDNF, NT-3, or NT-4/5 and an insulin, transferrin, selenium, and progesterone supplement [23].
  • Conalbumin mRNA begins to accumulate within 30 min after estrogen administration, whereas there is a lag of approximately 3 hr before ovalbumin mRNA begins to accumulate, as measured by three independent assays [24].
  • The embryo synthesizes every plasma protein including fetoproteins and "adult" proteins (prealbumin, albumin, and transferrin) [25].
  • Whereas virtually all aspects of hemopexin, transferrin and albumin production in these cells corresponded to those of cultured primary hepatocytes, fibrinogen was not secreted [26].
  • Characterization of early and late endocytic compartments of the transferrin cycle. Transferrin receptor antibody blocks erythroid differentiation by trapping the receptor in the early endosome [27].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TF

  • Results indicate that DLE prepared from chickens contain transfer factor (TF) responsible for adoptive transfer of DWR to tuberculin, DT, and KLH [28].
  • Most of the controls exerted on the ovalbumin and conalbumin promoters in the whole animal appear to be reproduced in vitro by nuclear microinjection of the chimeric genes into the primary cultured cells [16].
  • When thermal denaturation of conalbumin solutions partially saturated with Fe(III) is observed by differential scanning calorimetry, four endotherms are observed between 40 and 100 degrees [29].
  • Restriction enzyme mapping of chicken genomic DNA reveals that the conalbumin gene is split and is contained in three EcoRI fragments "a", "b", "b" and "c" which have sizes of 10.7, 4 and 2.5 kb, respectively [30].
  • The fragments Eco "b", Eco "c" and part of Eco "a" have been isolated by molecular cloning from three different "libraries". Electron microscopic studies of hybrids between cloned DNA's and conalbumin mRNA show that one of the isolated clones, lambda C4-conl, contains the coding sequences for the first 940 nucleotides of the mRNA (out of 2400) [30].


  1. Adoptive transfer of delayed hypersensitivity and protective immunity to Eimeria tenella with chicken-derived transfer factor. Klesius, P.H., Giambrone, J.J. Poult. Sci. (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. The eosinophil-specific cell surface antigen, EOS47, is a chicken homologue of the oncofetal antigen melanotransferrin. McNagny, K.M., Rossi, F., Smith, G., Graf, T. Blood (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Intracellular interference with antigen presentation. Leyva-Cobian, F., Unanue, E.R. J. Immunol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  4. Regulation of gene transcription by estrogen and progesterone. Lack of hormonal effects on transcription by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase. Palmiter, R.D., Lee, D.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1980) [Pubmed]
  5. Antiangiogenic treatment delays chondrocyte maturation and bone formation during limb skeletogenesis. Yin, M., Gentili, C., Koyama, E., Zasloff, M., Pacifici, M. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Chicken oviduct progesterone receptor: location of specific regions of high-affinity binding in cloned DNA fragments of hormone-responsive genes. Mulvihill, E.R., LePennec, J.P., Chambon, P. Cell (1982) [Pubmed]
  7. Multiple mRNAs are generated from the chicken lysozyme gene. Grez, M., Land, H., Giesecke, K., Schütz, G., Jung, A., Sippel, A.E. Cell (1981) [Pubmed]
  8. A somatomedin-like peptide hormone is required during the estrogen-mediated induction of ovalbumin gene transcription. Evans, M.I., Hager, L.J., McKnight, G.S. Cell (1981) [Pubmed]
  9. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of a transforming gene detected by transfection of chicken B-cell lymphoma DNA. Goubin, G., Goldman, D.S., Luce, J., Neiman, P.E., Cooper, G.M. Nature (1983) [Pubmed]
  10. Organization and sequence studies of the 17-piece chicken conalbumin gene. Cochet, M., Gannon, F., Hen, R., Maroteaux, L., Perrin, F., Chambon, P. Nature (1979) [Pubmed]
  11. Change in glycosylation of chicken transferrin glycans biosynthesized during embryogenesis and primary culture of embryo hepatocytes. Jacquinot, P.M., Léger, D., Wieruszeski, J.M., Coddeville, B., Montreuil, J., Spik, G. Glycobiology (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. The complete nucleotide sequence of the chicken ovotransferrin mRNA. Jeltsch, J.M., Chambon, P. Eur. J. Biochem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  13. An ORFeome-based analysis of human transcription factor genes and the construction of a microarray to interrogate their expression. Messina, D.N., Glasscock, J., Gish, W., Lovett, M. Genome Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Identical precursors for serum transferrin and egg white conalbumin. Thibodeau, S.N., Lee, D.C., Palmiter, R.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1978) [Pubmed]
  15. Butyrate and related inhibitors of histone deacetylation block the induction of egg white genes by steroid hormones. McKnight, G.S., Hager, L., Palmiter, R.D. Cell (1980) [Pubmed]
  16. Cell-specificity of the chicken ovalbumin and conalbumin promoters. Dierich, A., Gaub, M.P., LePennec, J.P., Astinotti, D., Chambon, P. EMBO J. (1987) [Pubmed]
  17. Crystal structure of hen apo-ovotransferrin. Both lobes adopt an open conformation upon loss of iron. Kurokawa, H., Dewan, J.C., Mikami, B., Sacchettini, J.C., Hirose, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Crystal structure of diferric hen ovotransferrin at 2.4 A resolution. Kurokawa, H., Mikami, B., Hirose, M. J. Mol. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Structural evidence for a pH-sensitive dilysine trigger in the hen ovotransferrin N-lobe: implications for transferrin iron release. Dewan, J.C., Mikami, B., Hirose, M., Sacchettini, J.C. Biochemistry (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Butyrylcholinesterase is complexed with transferrin in chicken serum. Weitnauer, E., Ebert, C., Hucho, F., Robitzki, A., Weise, C., Layer, P.G. J. Protein Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Interaction of eukaryotic class-B transcription factors and chick progesterone-receptor complex with conalbumin promoter sequences. Davison, B.L., Mulvihill, E.R., Egly, J.M., Chambon, P. Cold Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  22. The identification of neurotrophic factor as a transferrin. Beach, R.L., Popiela, H., Festoff, B.W. FEBS Lett. (1983) [Pubmed]
  23. Quantitative analysis of long-term survival and neuritogenesis in vitro: cochleovestibular ganglion of the chick embryo in BDNF, NT-3, NT-4/5, and insulin. Sokolowski, B.H. Exp. Neurol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. A significant lag in the induction of ovalbumin messenger RNA by steroid hormones: a receptor translocation hypothesis. Palmiter, R.D., Moore, P.B., Mulvihill, E.R. Cell (1976) [Pubmed]
  25. Characterization of embryonic antigens in the plasma of developing chick embryos. Weller, E.M. Cancer Res. (1976) [Pubmed]
  26. Characterization of a chicken hepatoma cell line with a specific defect in fibrinogen secretion. Oddoux, C., Grieninger, G. Hepatology (1994) [Pubmed]
  27. Characterization of early and late endocytic compartments of the transferrin cycle. Transferrin receptor antibody blocks erythroid differentiation by trapping the receptor in the early endosome. Killisch, I., Steinlein, P., Römisch, K., Hollinshead, R., Beug, H., Griffiths, G. J. Cell. Sci. (1992) [Pubmed]
  28. Adoptive transfer of delayed wattle reactivity in chickens with a dialyzable leukocyte extract containing transfer factor. Giambrone, J.J., Klesius, P.H., Yu, M. Poult. Sci. (1983) [Pubmed]
  29. Iron binding to conalbumin. Calorimetric evidence for two distinct species with one bound iron atom. Donovan, J.W., Ross, K.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1975) [Pubmed]
  30. The chicken conalbumin gene: studies of the organization of cloned DNAs. Perrin, F., Cochet, M., Gerlinger, P., Cami, B., LePennec, J.P., Chambon, P. Nucleic Acids Res. (1979) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities