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MeSH Review

Egg White

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Disease relevance of Egg White


Psychiatry related information on Egg White

  • RESULTS: We now report the use of subtilisin to resynthesize hen egg-white lysozyme from a mixture of its proteolyzed fragments in high yield and with rapid reaction times [6].

High impact information on Egg White

  • In contrast, transcription from the conalbumin gene is fully induced by estrogen in the presence or absence of peptide factors or serum, despite the fact that these two egg white genes are both transcribed in the same cells in response to the same steroid hormones [7].
  • Butyrate and related inhibitors of histone deacetylation block the induction of egg white genes by steroid hormones [8].
  • The less potent deacetylase inhibitor isobutyrate is correspondingly less effective in blocking egg white mRNA induction; acetate has little effect at concentrations up to 15 mM [8].
  • Butyrate does not appear to alter estrogen receptor binding in the nucleus, total RNA synthesis, or protein synthesis during the early hours of treatment when its specific effects on deacetylation and egg white gene transcription are observed [8].
  • Catalysis by hen egg-white lysozyme proceeds via a covalent intermediate [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Egg White

  • Streptavidin is a biotin-binding analogue of egg-white avidin which is secreted by the bacterium Streptomyces avidinii [10].
  • Experimental (15)N-(1)H and (1)H-(1)H residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) for the asparagine (Asn) and glutamine (Gln) side chains of hen egg-white lysozyme are measured and analysed in conjunction with (1)N relaxation data, information about chi(1) torsion angles in solution and molecular dynamics simulations [11].
  • Whole egg white from pigeon, dove, and cockatiel eggs, as well as the ovomucoid fraction of pigeon egg white, exhibited strong P1 antigenic activities and inhibited agglutination of human P1 erythrocytes and of digalactoside-coated latex beads by P-fimbriated Escherichia coli strains [12].
  • RESULTS: The prevalence of egg allergy in the group studied was 79% and egg white was the allergen that showed the greatest diagnostic efficacy [13].
  • Omission of supplemental biotin from the casein-dextrin purified diet, with or without egg white, resulted in anorexia, reduced growth rate, lighter skin, hypersensitivity and reduced liver pyruvate carboxylase activity by this fish [14].

Biological context of Egg White

  • The structure of the complex between hen egg-white lysozyme and the Fab of a monoclonal anti-lysozyme antibody (D1.3) shows that the combining site of antibodies is not merely a cleft delineated by the complementarity-determining regions of the variable regions of the light and heavy chains, but is a larger area extending beyond it [15].
  • Here we examined the ability of upstream and downstream DNA sequences of ovalbumin, a protein produced exclusively in very high quantities in chicken egg white, to drive tissue-specific expression of human mAb in chicken eggs [16].
  • By the application of the same algorithm for finding compact structural units encoded by exons as applied previously to hemoglobin, five units, M1-M5, were identified in chicken egg white lysozyme [17].
  • A method for immobilizing protein crystals has been devised for determining face growth rates, and used to investigate the growth kinetics of hen egg white lysozyme crystals [18].
  • The resonances of nonprotonated aromatic carbons in natural abundance 13C NMR spectra of hen egg white lysozyme are assigned to specific residues of the amino acid sequence [19].

Anatomical context of Egg White

  • Ak- or Ek-restricted T cells, generated by immunization with a 23-amino-acid peptide of hen egg-white lysozyme (amino acid 74-96), showed a strict correlation between the minimal peptide determinant recognized and the Ia molecule restricting recognition [20].
  • Fine specificity of regulatory T cells. II. Suppressor and helper T cells are induced by different regions of hen egg-white lysozyme in a genetically nonresponder mouse strain [21].
  • Acute withdrawal of estrogen from chicks leads to a precipitous decline in egg white protein synthesis and egg white mRNAs in the oviduct [22].
  • Biotin-binding protein from egg yolk. A protein distinct from egg white avidin [23].
  • To test this hypothesis, we have compared the Ag presentation activity of multiple clones of TAP-negative and TAP-positive tumor cells transfected with I-Ak genes and the model Ag hen egg white lysozyme targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum or cytoplasm [24].

Associations of Egg White with chemical compounds


Gene context of Egg White

  • Ovomucoid mean wheal diameters were significantly greater than wheal diameters in response to ovalbumin, lysozyme, and egg white extract at the three most concentrated of five dilutions tested: 0.01, 0.03, and 0.1 mg/ml (p < 0.01) [30].
  • These results suggest that ovomucoid is the immunodominant protein fraction in egg white and that the use of commercially purified ovalbumin has led to an overestimation of the dominance of ovalbumin as a major egg allergen and antigen in human beings [30].
  • In this study, the major endosomal/lysosomal proteases cathepsin D and cathepsin B were tested on their ability to release T cell stimulatory peptides from hen egg white lysozyme (HEL) in vitro [31].
  • Cloning and sequencing of the chicken egg-white avidin-encoding gene and its relationship with the avidin-related genes Avr1-Avr5 [32].
  • Ovoglycoprotein from chicken egg whites (OGCHI) has been used as a chiral selector to separate drug enantiomers [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Egg White


  1. Induction of plasmacytomas secreting antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies with a retrovirus expressing v-abl and c-myc. Weissinger, E.M., Mischak, H., Largaespada, D.A., Kaehler, D.A., Mitchell, T., Smith-Gill, S.J., Risser, R., Mushinski, J.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Isolation and characterization of major glycoproteins of pigeon egg white: ubiquitous presence of unique N-glycans containing Galalpha1-4Gal. Suzuki, N., Khoo, K.H., Chen, H.C., Johnson, J.R., Lee, Y.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Intracellular interference with antigen presentation. Leyva-Cobian, F., Unanue, E.R. J. Immunol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  4. Relation between hen egg white lysozyme and bacteriophage T4 lysozyme: evolutionary implications. Matthews, B.W., Remington, S.J., Grütter, M.G., Anderson, W.F. J. Mol. Biol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  5. Three-dimensional structure of the tetragonal crystal form of egg-white avidin in its functional complex with biotin at 2.7 A resolution. Pugliese, L., Coda, A., Malcovati, M., Bolognesi, M. J. Mol. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Subtilisin-catalyzed religation of proteolyzed hen egg-white lysozyme: investigation of the role of disulfides. Vogel, K., Cook, J., Chmielewski, J. Chem. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. A somatomedin-like peptide hormone is required during the estrogen-mediated induction of ovalbumin gene transcription. Evans, M.I., Hager, L.J., McKnight, G.S. Cell (1981) [Pubmed]
  8. Butyrate and related inhibitors of histone deacetylation block the induction of egg white genes by steroid hormones. McKnight, G.S., Hager, L., Palmiter, R.D. Cell (1980) [Pubmed]
  9. Catalysis by hen egg-white lysozyme proceeds via a covalent intermediate. Vocadlo, D.J., Davies, G.J., Laine, R., Withers, S.G. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Streptavidin blocks immune reactions mediated by fibronectin-VLA-5 recognition through an Arg-Gly-Asp mimicking site. Alon, R., Hershkoviz, R., Bayer, E.A., Wilchek, M., Lider, O. Eur. J. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Asparagine and glutamine side-chain conformation in solution and crystal: a comparison for hen egg-white lysozyme using residual dipolar couplings. Higman, V.A., Boyd, J., Smith, L.J., Redfield, C. J. Biomol. NMR (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Avian P1 antigens inhibit agglutination mediated by P fimbriae of uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Johnson, J.R., Swanson, J.L., Neill, M.A. Infect. Immun. (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. Validity of specific IgE antibodies in children with egg allergy. Boyano Martínez, T., García-Ara, C., Díaz-Pena, J.M., Muñoz, F.M., García Sánchez, G., Esteban, M.M. Clin. Exp. Allergy (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Biotin supplementation of practical diets for channel catfish. Lovell, R.T., Buston, J.C. J. Nutr. (1984) [Pubmed]
  15. Three-dimensional structure of an antigen-antibody complex at 6 A resolution. Amit, A.G., Mariuzza, R.A., Phillips, S.E., Poljak, R.J. Nature (1985) [Pubmed]
  16. Production of human monoclonal antibody in eggs of chimeric chickens. Zhu, L., van de Lavoir, M.C., Albanese, J., Beenhouwer, D.O., Cardarelli, P.M., Cuison, S., Deng, D.F., Deshpande, S., Diamond, J.H., Green, L., Halk, E.L., Heyer, B.S., Kay, R.M., Kerchner, A., Leighton, P.A., Mather, C.M., Morrison, S.L., Nikolov, Z.L., Passmore, D.B., Pradas-Monne, A., Preston, B.T., Rangan, V.S., Shi, M., Srinivasan, M., White, S.G., Winters-Digiacinto, P., Wong, S., Zhou, W., Etches, R.J. Nat. Biotechnol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Modular structural units, exons, and function in chicken lysozyme. Go, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1983) [Pubmed]
  18. Protein crystal growth. Growth kinetics for tetragonal lysozyme crystals. Pusey, M.L., Snyder, R.S., Naumann, R. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  19. Studies of individual carbon sites of hen egg white lysozyme by natural abundance carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Assignment of the nonprotonated aromatic carbon resonances to specific residues in the sequence. Allerhand, A., Norton, R.S., Childers, R.F. J. Biol. Chem. (1977) [Pubmed]
  20. Ia molecule-associated selectivity in T cell recognition of a 23-amino-acid peptide of lysozyme. Shastri, N., Gammon, G., Miller, A., Sercarz, E.E. J. Exp. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  21. Fine specificity of regulatory T cells. II. Suppressor and helper T cells are induced by different regions of hen egg-white lysozyme in a genetically nonresponder mouse strain. Adorini, L., Harvey, M.A., Miller, A., Sercarz, E.E. J. Exp. Med. (1979) [Pubmed]
  22. Commitment of chick oviduct tubular gland cells to produce ovalbumin mRNA during hormonal withdrawal and restimulation. Shepherd, J.H., Mulvihill, E.R., Thomas, P.S., Palmiter, R.D. J. Cell Biol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  23. Biotin-binding protein from egg yolk. A protein distinct from egg white avidin. Meslar, H.W., Camper, S.A., White, H.B. J. Biol. Chem. (1978) [Pubmed]
  24. Presentation of endogenously synthesized MHC class II-restricted epitopes by MHC class II cancer vaccines is independent of transporter associated with Ag processing and the proteasome. Dissanayake, S.K., Tuera, N., Ostrand-Rosenberg, S. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Crystal structure of ovalbumin as a model for the reactive centre of serpins. Stein, P.E., Leslie, A.G., Finch, J.T., Turnell, W.G., McLaughlin, P.J., Carrell, R.W. Nature (1990) [Pubmed]
  26. Interactions of C-reactive protein with the complement system. II. C-reactive protein-mediated consumption of complement by poly-L-lysine polymers and other polycations. Siegel, J., Osmand, A.P., Wilson, M.F., Gewurz, H. J. Exp. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  27. Avidin targeting of intraperitoneal tumor xenografts. Yao, Z., Zhang, M., Sakahara, H., Saga, T., Arano, Y., Konishi, J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Metalloproteases of human articular cartilage that digest cartilage proteoglycan at neutral and acid pH. Sapolsky, A.I., Keiser, H., Howell, D.S., Woessner, J.F. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
  29. Effect of water and fat on gastric emptying of solid meals. Kroop, H.S., Long, W.B., Alavi, A., Hansell, J.R. Gastroenterology (1979) [Pubmed]
  30. Allergenicity and antigenicity of chicken egg ovomucoid (Gal d III) compared with ovalbumin (Gal d I) in children with egg allergy and in mice. Bernhisel-Broadbent, J., Dintzis, H.M., Dintzis, R.Z., Sampson, H.A. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  31. Cathepsin D, but not cathepsin B, releases T cell stimulatory fragments from lysozyme that are functional in the context of multiple murine class II MHC molecules. van Noort, J.M., Jacobs, M.J. Eur. J. Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  32. Cloning and sequencing of the chicken egg-white avidin-encoding gene and its relationship with the avidin-related genes Avr1-Avr5. Wallén, M.J., Laukkanen, M.O., Kulomaa, M.S. Gene (1995) [Pubmed]
  33. Protein domain of chicken alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein is responsible for chiral recognition. Sadakane, Y., Matsunaga, H., Nakagomi, K., Hatanaka, Y., Haginaka, J. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2002) [Pubmed]
  34. Site-directed mutagenesis of the catalytic residues Asp-52 and Glu-35 of chicken egg white lysozyme. Malcolm, B.A., Rosenberg, S., Corey, M.J., Allen, J.S., de Baetselier, A., Kirsch, J.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  35. A family of lysozyme-like virulence factors in bacterial pathogens of plants and animals. Mushegian, A.R., Fullner, K.J., Koonin, E.V., Nester, E.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  36. Circular dichroism studies of diethyl pyrocarbonate-modified histidine in hen egg white lysozyme. Li, C., Moore, D.S., Rosenberg, R.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  37. Ovalbumin in developing chicken eggs migrates from egg white to embryonic organs while changing its conformation and thermal stability. Sugimoto, Y., Sanuki, S., Ohsako, S., Higashimoto, Y., Kondo, M., Kurawaki, J., Ibrahim, H.R., Aoki, T., Kusakabe, T., Koga, K. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  38. Assignment of disulfide bonds in proteins by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. Yazdanparast, R., Andrews, P.C., Smith, D.L., Dixon, J.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
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