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Gene Review

MLN  -  motilin

Sus scrofa

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Disease relevance of MLN

  • In contrast immunization via BALT (respiratory infection with PRCV) elicited systemic type responses (high numbers of IgG ASC in the BLN), but few ASC and low LPA responses in the gut LP or MLN and induced only partial protection against enteric TGEV challenge [1].
  • The origin and fall of plasma motilin during Escherichia coli endotoxin shock in pigs [2].

Psychiatry related information on MLN


High impact information on MLN


Biological context of MLN


Anatomical context of MLN

  • Virulent TGEV exposure resulted in increased percentages of T cell subsets, especially in the lamina propria and MLN, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues in proximity to the primary replication site of TGEV in the small intestine [14].
  • Primary inoculation of 11-day-old pigs with PRCV induced moderate, transient virus-specific lymphocyte proliferation (> 47,000 cpm) in MLN from both suckling and weaned pigs after TGEV challenge [14].
  • Immunization via GALT (gut infection with TGEV) elicited high numbers of IgA ASC and high LPA responses in GALT (gut lamina propria, LP or mesenteric lymph nodes, MLN), but lower responses in BALT (bronchial lymph nodes, BLN) and induced complete protection against enteric TGEV challenge [1].
  • Virus-specific lymphocyte proliferation in spleens was delayed in onset and of lower magnitude than that observed in MLN and BLN [14].
  • 7. Our results suggest that LMT and porcine motilin stimulate the release of ACh from enteric neurones through the same receptor, and that the release of ACh plays a role in tonic components of contraction in the rabbit duodenum [15].

Associations of MLN with chemical compounds

  • Sequence-specific assignments of the proton NMR spectrum of porcine motilin in 30% hexafluoro-2-propanol have been made by using two-dimensional NMR techniques [16].
  • The peptide hormone motilin was synthesised with a 13C-enriched alpha-carbon in the leucine at position 10 [17].
  • EM-523, an erythromycin derivative, and motilin show similar contractile activity in isolated rabbit intestine [18].
  • The results with acetylated derivatives support an ionic interaction between E119 of the MTLR with the N+ of the desosamine sugar in EM-A, but not with the N+ of the free amine group in motilin [11].
  • However, bradykinin, porcine motilin and norepinephrine failed to elicit any contraction [19].

Regulatory relationships of MLN

  • These findings argue against a major role of circulating PP, gastrin and somatostatin-like components in the control of fasted and post absorptive duodenal motility in pigs while the role of motilin remains equivocal [20].

Other interactions of MLN

  • Motilin, a 22-amino acid gastrointestinal peptide, and ghrelin, the natural ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, form a new group of structurally related peptides [12].
  • In the present experimental conditions, duodenal motilin-producing sites were less sensitive to graded luminal acidification than secretin cells [21].
  • Circular dichroism spectroscopy has been used to study the behaviour of the cytolytic peptide melittin, the intestinal peptide hormone motilin (porcine) and the neuropeptide galanin (porcine) in various reversed micellar systems [22].
  • The effects of atropine (a muscarinic receptor antagonist), spantide (a substance P receptor antagonist) and loxiglumide (a CCK-receptor antagonist) were also examined to determine whether the motilin-induced contraction was independent of those receptors [23].
  • To this end, plasma levels of substance P, GRP, motilin, PYY, somatostatin-28, gastrin, and neurotensin were followed for up to 5 days in pigs after a 16-Gy whole-body X-irradiation, completed by a histopathological study performed at 5 days [24].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of MLN


  1. Mucosal immunity: an overview and studies of enteric and respiratory coronavirus infections in a swine model of enteric disease. Saif, L.J. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. The origin and fall of plasma motilin during Escherichia coli endotoxin shock in pigs. Jenssen, T.G., Revhaug, A., Burhol, P.G., Giercksky, K.E., Lygren, I. Acta Physiol. Scand. (1985) [Pubmed]
  3. Heterogeneity of motilin immunoreactivity in mammalian tissue. Nilaver, G., Beinfeld, M.C., Bond, C.T., Daikh, D., Godfrey, B., Adelman, J.P. Synapse (1988) [Pubmed]
  4. Synthesis of the hexadecapeptide corresponding to positions 1 through 16 of porcine motilin, a gastric motor activity stimulating polypeptide. Ueda, K., Kitagawa, K., Akita, T., Honma, S., Segawa, T. Chem. Pharm. Bull. (1977) [Pubmed]
  5. Effects of motilin, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide on the migrating myoelectric complex in pig and dog. Bueno, L., Fioramonti, J., Rayner, V., Ruckebusch, Y. Gastroenterology (1982) [Pubmed]
  6. Characterization of complementary deoxyribonucleic acid for precursor of porcine motilin. Bond, C.T., Nilaver, G., Godfrey, B., Zimmerman, E.A., Adelman, J.P. Mol. Endocrinol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  7. Letter: Diphenyl phosphorazidate (DPPA) and diethyl phosphorocyanidate (DEPC). Two new reagents for solid-phase peptide synthesis and their application to the synthesis of porcine motilin. Yamada, S.I., Ikota, N., Shioiri, T., Tachibana, S. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1975) [Pubmed]
  8. Three-dimensional structure and position of porcine motilin in sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles determined by 1H NMR. Jarvet, J., Zdunek, J., Damberg, P., Gräslund, A. Biochemistry (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Construction of internal cDNA competitors for measuring IL-10 and IL-12 cytokine gene expression in swine. Mansfield, L.S., Urban, J.F., Holley-Shanks, R.R., Murtaugh, M.P., Zarlenga, D.S., Foss, D., Canals, A., Gause, W., Lunney, J.K. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. High protein diets are associated with increased bacterial translocation in septic guinea pigs. Nelson, J.L., Alexander, J.W., Gianotti, L., Chalk, C.L., Pyles, T. Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.) (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Motilin and erythromycin-A share a common binding site in the third transmembrane segment of the motilin receptor. Xu, L., Depoortere, I., Vertongen, P., Waelbroeck, M., Robberecht, P., Peeters, T.L. Biochem. Pharmacol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Evidence for the presence of motilin, ghrelin, and the motilin and ghrelin receptor in neurons of the myenteric plexus. Xu, L., Depoortere, I., Tomasetto, C., Zandecki, M., Tang, M., Timmermans, J.P., Peeters, T.L. Regul. Pept. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Motilin increases food intake in mice. Asakawa, A., Inui, A., Momose, K., Ueno, N., Fujino, M.A., Kasuga, M. Peptides (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Cellular immune responses of pigs after primary inoculation with porcine respiratory coronavirus or transmissible gastroenteritis virus and challenge with transmissible gastroenteritis virus. Brim, T.A., VanCott, J.L., Lunney, J.K., Saif, L.J. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. The Leu13-motilin (KW-5139)-evoked release of acetylcholine from enteric neurones in the rabbit duodenum. Kitazawa, T., Ishii, A., Taniyama, K. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Sequence-specific 1H NMR assignments and secondary structure of porcine motilin. Khan, N., Graslund, A., Ehrenberg, A., Shriver, J. Biochemistry (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. Mapping of the spectral density function of a C alpha-H alpha bond vector from NMR relaxation rates of a 13C-labelled alpha-carbon in motilin. Allard, P., Jarvet, J., Ehrenberg, A., Gräslund, A. J. Biomol. NMR (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. EM-523, an erythromycin derivative, and motilin show similar contractile activity in isolated rabbit intestine. Satoh, T., Inatomi, N., Satoh, H., Marui, S., Itoh, Z., Omura, S. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. Release of acetylcholine mediated by cholecystokinin receptor from the guinea pig sphincter of Oddi. Harada, T., Katsuragi, T., Furukawa, T. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1986) [Pubmed]
  20. Variations of plasma immunoreactive motilin, pancreatic polypeptide, gastrin and somatostatin along the duodenal motility cycle in the pig. Cuber, J.C., Laplace, J.P., Laredo, C., Levenez, F., Chayvialle, J.A. Regul. Pept. (1988) [Pubmed]
  21. Comparative assessment of secretin and motilin responses to graded duodenal acidification in anaesthetised pigs. Cuber, J.C., Bernard, C., Laplace, J.P., Chayvialle, J.A. Digestion (1985) [Pubmed]
  22. A study of melittin, motilin and galanin in reversed micellar environments, using circular dichroism spectroscopy. Ohman, A., Davydov, R., Backlund, B.M., Langel, U., Gräslund, A. Biophys. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Direct contractile effect of motilin on isolated smooth muscle cells of guinea pig small intestine. Harada, N., Chijiiwa, Y., Misawa, T., Yoshinaga, M., Nawata, H. Life Sci. (1992) [Pubmed]
  24. Screening of a large panel of gastrointestinal peptide plasma levels is not adapted for the evaluation of digestive damage following irradiation. Dublineau, I., Dudoignon, N., Monti, P., Combes, O., Wysocki, J., Grison, S., Baudelin, C., Griffiths, N.M., Scanff, P. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Quantitative determination of the polypeptide motilin in rat plasma by externally calibrated liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Delinsky, D.C., Hill, K.T., White, C.A., Bartlett, M.G. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. D-amino acid and alanine scans of the bioactive portion of porcine motilin. Peeters, T.L., Macielag, M.J., Depoortere, I., Konteatis, Z.D., Florance, J.R., Lessor, R.A., Galdes, A. Peptides (1992) [Pubmed]
  27. Biochemical and immunohistochemical evidence for the presence of motilin in pig cerebellum. Fratta, W., Panula, P., Yang, H.Y., Costa, E. Brain Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
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