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Gene Review

GAL  -  galanin/GMAP prepropeptide

Sus scrofa

 
 
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Disease relevance of GAL

  • The inhibitory effect of pertussis toxin on the GAL binding considers a G-protein-involved allosteric system, important for the clarification of essential steps in the G-protein-related signal transduction [1].
  • It may be suggested that GAL modulates the slow, long-lasting membrane depolarization of the principal ganglion cells caused by SP in the primary afferents related to the IMG [2].
  • The co-localization of GAL and dopamine beta-hydroxylase (D beta H--a key enzyme of the noradrenaline synthesis pathway) in perivascular nerve fibers could lead to considerable vasospasms in the pancreas, resulting in deeper hypoxia of the organ [3].
  • Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy detects galanin receptor diversity on insulinoma cells [1].
  • Galanin and its newly discovered relative galanin-like peptide (GALP) are neuropeptides that are implicated in the neuroendocrine regulation of body weight and reproduction [4].
 

Psychiatry related information on GAL

 

High impact information on GAL

 

Biological context of GAL

  • We describe below the construction of a 1.1-million-recombinant cDNA library derived from poly(A)+ RNA from pig adrenal medulla, rich in galanin-like immunoreactivity, and the isolation and characterization of clones encoding preprogalanin [8].
  • Sequencing of two recombinant plasmids shows that pig galanin mRNA in the adrenal medulla encodes a precursor protein of 123 amino acids that is comprised of a leader sequence, a single galanin sequence, and a 59-amino acid sequence (galanin message-associated peptide) of as yet unknown function [8].
  • Construction of a porcine adrenal medullary cDNA library and nucleotide sequence analysis of two clones encoding a galanin precursor [8].
  • Scatchard analysis of binding data reveal one binding process, assuming one binding site per Rh-GAL (n = 1) [1].
  • This study on anaesthetised cats compares the effects on cardiac vagal action and blood pressure of human, rat and porcine GAL [9].
 

Anatomical context of GAL

 

Associations of GAL with chemical compounds

 

Physical interactions of GAL

 

Co-localisations of GAL

  • DRG BG-projecting neurons contained mostly substance P (SP) and/or calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) which sometimes colocalized with GAL [12].
 

Regulatory relationships of GAL

  • Extirpation of the uterus reduced the expression of TH and induced the expression of GAL in the neurons [13].
  • 4. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and isoprenaline, known to induce cell relaxation through an increase in intracellular cAMP level, inhibited CCK-induced cell contraction at concentrations ranging from 1 pM to 1 microM but failed to inhibit cell contraction induced by galanin [14].
  • Galanin inhibits somatostatin release by the rat islet cell tumor in culture, Rin-m [15].
  • In conclusion the present study provides some evidence to ascribe a hypophysiotropic role to galanin in regulating LH but not GH secretion in the pig [16].
 

Other interactions of GAL

  • Pancreastatin was effective at all concentrations, but low concentration had more marked secretory effects whereas GAL failed to evoke any significant increases in either protein or amylase secretion [17].
  • Carotid-body-like paraganglia from the newborn pig showed cell bodies IR to TH, GAL and ENK [18].
  • Immunohistochemistry revealed that FB-positive (FB+) uterus-projecting neurons in control animals contained only immunoreactivities to NPY (ca. 50%) and GAL (single neurons) [19].
  • On the contrary, 10 microM forskolin abolished the contraction induced by 10 nM CCK but had no effect on galanin-induced contraction [14].
  • Pretreatment of Rin-m cells with pertussis toxin abolished the inhibitory effect of galanin on somatostatin release [15].
 

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GAL

  • In the present study an antiserum towards porcine GAL has been developed and used for radioimmunoassay and immunohistochemical studies [20].
  • The enteric neuropeptide galanin (GAL) increased the amplitude of spontaneous contractions in longitudinally oriented muscle strips and inhibited short-circuit current (Isc) elevations induced by transmural electrical stimulation (ES) of mucosal sheets from porcine jejunum in vitro [10].
  • Hyperacute rejection of hDAF-transgenic pig organ xenografts in cynomolgus monkeys: influence of pre-existing anti-pig antibodies and prevention by the alpha GAL glycoconjugate GAS914 [21].
  • Lacrimal gland segments obtained from the abattoir were fixed in paraformaldehyde-picric acid solution, cut into 40-50 microns thick sections and processed for immunohistochemistry using polyclonal antisera against GAL and LEU-ENK [22].
  • Infusion of 5.10(-10)-10(-8) M of GAL into the arterial line of the isolated perfused porcine ileum decreased the frequency of spontaneous phasic contractions in a dose-dependent manner [23].

References

  1. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy detects galanin receptor diversity on insulinoma cells. Pramanik, A., Olsson, M., Langel U, n.u.l.l., Bartfai, T., Rigler, R. Biochemistry (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Immunohistochemical demonstration of galanin-, and galanin message-associated peptide-like immunoreactivities in sympathetic ganglia and adrenal gland of the guinea pig. Elfvin, L.G., Hökfelt, T., Bartfai, T., Bedecs, K. Microsc. Res. Tech. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Effect of metabolic disorders accompanying gastroenteritis on the pancreatic exocrine function in piglets. C. Histopathological and immunohistochemical changes in the pancreas of piglets with gastroenteritis. Rychlik, A. Polish journal of veterinary sciences. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Presence of transient helical segments in the galanin-like peptide evident from (1)H NMR, circular dichroism, and prediction studies. Dastmalchi, S., Church, W.B., Morris, M.B., Iismaa, T.P., Mackay, J.P. J. Struct. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Distribution and effect of galanin on gallbladder and sphincter of Oddi motility in the pig. Harling, H., Messell, T., Jensen, S.L., Poulsen, S.S. HPB surgery : a world journal of hepatic, pancreatic and biliary surgery. (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Galanin contracts and relaxes guinea pig and canine intestinal smooth muscle cells through distinct receptors. Botella, A., Delvaux, M., Fioramonti, J., Frexinos, J., Bueno, L. Gastroenterology (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Purification of a galanin receptor from pig brain. Chen, Y., Fournier, A., Couvineau, A., Laburthe, M., Amiranoff, B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Construction of a porcine adrenal medullary cDNA library and nucleotide sequence analysis of two clones encoding a galanin precursor. Rökaeus, A., Brownstein, M.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  9. Effects of human, rat and porcine galanins on cardiac vagal action and blood pressure in the anaesthetised cat. Ulman, L.G., Evans, H.F., Iismaa, T.P., Potter, E.K., McCloskey, D.I., Shine, J. Neurosci. Lett. (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Effects of galanin on smooth muscle and mucosa of porcine jejunum. Brown, D.R., Hildebrand, K.R., Parsons, A.M., Soldani, G. Peptides (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Immunocytochemical localization of progesterone receptors in galanin neurons in the guinea pig hypothalamus. Warembourg, M., Jolivet, A. J. Neuroendocrinol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Immunohistochemical characteristics of neurons supplying the porcine bulbourethral gland. Klimczuk, M. Polish journal of veterinary sciences. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Changes in the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), galanin (GAL), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and substance P (SP) in the uterine cervix-projecting neurons located in the lumbar paravertebral ganglia of the pig. Wasowicz, K. Folia morphologica. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Intracellular pathways triggered by galanin to induce contraction of pig ileum smooth muscle cells. Botella, A., Delvaux, M., Bueno, L., Frexinos, J. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Galanin inhibits somatostatin release by the rat islet cell tumor in culture, Rin-m. Amiranoff, B., Lorinet, A.M., Laburthe, M. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. Stimulation of porcine pituitary luteinizing hormone release by galanin: putative auto/paracrine regulation. Elsaesser, F. Neuroendocrinology (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Immunohistochemical identification and effects of atrial natriuretic peptide, pancreastatin, leucine-enkephalin, and galanin in the porcine pancreas. Adeghate, E., Ember, Z., Donáth, T., Pallot, D.J., Singh, J. Peptides (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Galanin-, neuropeptide Y- and enkephalin-like immunoreactivities in catecholamine-storing paraganglia of the fetal guinea pig and newborn pig. Fried, G., Meister, B., Wikström, M., Terenius, L., Goldstein, M. Cell Tissue Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  19. Effect of total or partial uterus extirpation on sympathetic uterus-projecting neurons in porcine inferior mesenteric ganglion. B. Changes in expression of neuropeptide Y, galanin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, pituitary adenylate-cyclase activating peptide, somatostatin and substance P. Wasowicz, K. Polish journal of veterinary sciences. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. A galanin-like peptide in the central nervous system and intestine of the rat. Rökaeus, A., Melander, T., Hökfelt, T., Lundberg, J.M., Tatemoto, K., Carlquist, M., Mutt, V. Neurosci. Lett. (1984) [Pubmed]
  21. Hyperacute rejection of hDAF-transgenic pig organ xenografts in cynomolgus monkeys: influence of pre-existing anti-pig antibodies and prevention by the alpha GAL glycoconjugate GAS914. Lam, T.T., Hausen, B., Boeke-Purkis, K., Paniagua, R., Lau, M., Hook, L., Berry, G., Higgins, J., Duthaler, R.O., Katopodis, A.G., Robbins, R., Reitz, B., Borie, D., Schuurman, H.J., Morris, R.E. Xenotransplantation (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Immunohistochemical identification of galanin and leucin-enkephalin in the porcine lacrimal gland. Adeghate, E., Singh, J. Neuropeptides (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Galanin: distribution and effect on contractile activity and release of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide from the isolated perfused porcine ileum. Harling, H., Gregersen, H., Rasmussen, T.N., Poulsen, S.S., Holst, J.J., Jenson, S.L. Digestion (1990) [Pubmed]
 
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