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Gene Review

MEA1  -  male-enhanced antigen 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: HYS, MEA, MEA-1, Male-enhanced antigen 1
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Disease relevance of MEA1


Psychiatry related information on MEA1

  • Twenty-seven symptoms of 859 treated hypertensive patients were evaluated using a self-administered questionnaire and correlated with the depression (DEP), free-floating anxiety (FFA), phobic anxiety (PHO), obsessionality (OBS) and extraversion (HYS) scores of the Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire [5].
  • MEAP was inversely correlated to systemic pain thresholds [6].

High impact information on MEA1

  • Like the MEA gene, genes A and B were coordinately transcribed in the testis, which suggests that MEA and genes A and B are members of a gene family [7].
  • Sequence properties of the MEA protein include an acidic activation domain, a proline-rich region and two coiled-coil domains indicating protein binding and activation functions [8].
  • Purification of MEA, a mast cell growth-enhancing activity, to apparent homogeneity and its partial amino acid sequencing [9].
  • MEA was characterized as a glycoprotein with a Mr range between 37,000 and 43,000 [9].
  • Inasmuch as MEA was N-terminally blocked during automated Edman-degradation, peptide fragments after digestion with trypsin were used for partial amino acid sequence determination [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of MEA1


Biological context of MEA1

  • The genetic conservation and testis-specific expression of the MEA gene support the hypothesis that it plays an important role in mammalian spermatogenesis and/or testis development [7].
  • Analysis of vomitus indicated that hydrolysis of the phosphate group of MEAP occurs in the stomach [10].
  • HYS was positively associated with the frequency of sexual intercourse in men and negatively with complaints of dyspnoea, tingling in the limbs and a slow walking pace [5].
  • In part, this protection seems to have been induced by oxygen consumption in the system due to MEA autoxidation under formation of H2O2 [15].
  • However, gpb1-disrupted haploid cells mated and sporulated faster than wild-type cells, both in sporulation (MEA) and in complex medium (YE): when examined 23 h after transfer to sporulation medium, 35% of gpb1-disrupted haploid pairs had undergone conjugation and sporulation, whereas only 3-5% of wild-type haploid pairs had done so [16].

Anatomical context of MEA1

  • We have shown that both rat and human liver microsomes metabolize MEA (0.035 nmol/min/mg and 0.069 nmol/min/mg, respectively) and DEA (0.041 nmol/min/mg and 0.040 nmol/min/mg, respectively) [17].
  • The percent decrease in leukocyte cystine content obtained with MEA administration (61.9%) was not significantly different from the decrease observed when MEAP was administered (65.3%) [10].
  • The syndrome of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN or MEA) type 2b is characterized by the association of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, phaeochromocytoma, ganglioneuromatosis and Marfan-like features [18].
  • Conservative treatment of parathyroid gland hyperplasia in the MEA II syndrome is substantiated [19].
  • Statistical analysis showed that the Slit sampler and the N6-Andersen sampler in combination with DG18 and MEA gave the best precision and the highest yield in terms of colony forming units per square cubic meter of air (CFU/m3) and number of species isolated [20].

Associations of MEA1 with chemical compounds

  • Experiments demonstrated that a thiol-containing reducing agent, mercaptoethylamine (MEA or cysteamine), was the most effective, among other commonly known radical quenchers or singlet oxygen scavengers, in suppressing photobleaching of fluorescein while not reducing the fluorescence quantum yield [21].
  • The triplet lifetime of fluorescein was reduced upon adding MEA [21].
  • Persistent gestational trophoblastic disease: results of MEA (methotrexate, etoposide and dactinomycin) as first-line chemotherapy in high risk disease and EA (etoposide and dactinomycin) as second-line therapy for low risk disease [4].
  • We have determined that both rat and human livers metabolize both CMEPA to MEA (0.308 nmol/min/mg and 0.541 nmol/min/mg, respectively) and CDEPA to DEA (0.350 nmol/min/mg and 0.841 nmol/min/mg, respectively) [17].
  • MEA and MEAP appear to be equally effective in their cystine-depleting properties [10].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of MEA1

  • In conclusion, the MEA and EA chemotherapy regimens for persistent trophoblastic disease are very well tolerated, do not appear to affect future fertility and are associated with excellent, sustained complete response rates [4].
  • The cardiac enkephalin, methionine-enkephalin-arginine-phenylalanine (MEAP), alters vagally induced bradycardia when introduced by microdialysis into the sinoatrial (SA) node [22].
  • MEA was determined by sodium borohydride reduction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography separation and electrochemical detection [10].
  • Cells directly on the top and on the edges of the stimulating microelectrodes in the MEA were preferentially transfected with PI as predicted by the simulations [23].
  • Bilateral adrenalectomy is recommended for proved adrenal medullary disease in the MEA II syndrome [19].


  1. Multiple endocrine adenomatosis type IIb. Diagnosis and treatment. Block, M.B., Roberts, J.P., Kadair, R.G., Seyfer, A.E., Hull, S.F., Nofeldt, F.D. JAMA (1975) [Pubmed]
  2. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: special considerations. Hardy, J.D., Doolittle, P.D. Ann. Surg. (1977) [Pubmed]
  3. Hyperprolactinemia in multiple endocrine adenomatosis, type 1. Carlson, H.E., Levine, G.A., Goldberg, N.J., Hershman, J.M. Arch. Intern. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  4. Persistent gestational trophoblastic disease: results of MEA (methotrexate, etoposide and dactinomycin) as first-line chemotherapy in high risk disease and EA (etoposide and dactinomycin) as second-line therapy for low risk disease. Dobson, L.S., Lorigan, P.C., Coleman, R.E., Hancock, B.W. Br. J. Cancer (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. The contribution of psychological features to the symptoms of treated hypertensive patients. Bulpitt, C.J., Dollery, C.T., Hoffbrand, B.I. Psychological medicine. (1977) [Pubmed]
  6. Cerebrospinal fluid levels of opioid peptides in fibromyalgia and chronic low back pain. Baraniuk, J.N., Whalen, G., Cunningham, J., Clauw, D.J. BMC musculoskeletal disorders [electronic resource]. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Male-enhanced antigen gene is phylogenetically conserved and expressed at late stages of spermatogenesis. Lau, Y.F., Chan, K.M., Sparkes, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. cDNA cloning and chromosomal mapping of a predicted coiled-coil proline-rich protein immunogenic in meningioma patients. Heckel, D., Brass, N., Fischer, U., Blin, N., Steudel, I., Türeci, O., Fackler, O., Zang, K.D., Meese, E. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Purification of MEA, a mast cell growth-enhancing activity, to apparent homogeneity and its partial amino acid sequencing. Moeller, J., Hültner, L., Schmitt, E., Breuer, M., Dörmer, P. J. Immunol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. A comparison of the effectiveness of cysteamine and phosphocysteamine in elevating plasma cysteamine concentration and decreasing leukocyte free cystine in nephropathic cystinosis. Smolin, L.A., Clark, K.F., Thoene, J.G., Gahl, W.A., Schneider, J.A. Pediatr. Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  11. Meal-stimulated and atropine-inhibited secretion of pancreatic polypeptide in healthy subjects, members of MEA I families and patients with malignant endocrine tumours of the gastrointestinal tract. Oberg, K., Lundqvist, G. Regul. Pept. (1983) [Pubmed]
  12. Biodegradation of fluoranthene by soil fungi. Salicis, F., Krivobok, S., Jack, M., Benoit-Guyod, J.L. Chemosphere (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Salvage chemotherapy for high-risk gestational trophoblastic tumor. Matsui, H., Iitsuka, Y., Suzuka, K., Yamazawa, K., Mitsuhashi, A., Sekiya, S. The Journal of reproductive medicine. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Nitrification-denitrification of opto-electronic industrial wastewater by anoxic/aerobic process. Chen, T.K., Ni, C.H., Chen, J.N. Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous substances & environmental engineering. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Effects of scavengers of reactive oxygen and radical species on cell survival following photodynamic treatment in vitro: comparison to ionizing radiation. Henderson, B.W., Miller, A.C. Radiat. Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  16. The G protein beta subunit Gpb1 of Schizosaccharomyces pombe is a negative regulator of sexual development. Kim, D.U., Park, S.K., Chung, K.S., Choi, M.U., Yoo, H.S. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Comparative metabolism of chloroacetamide herbicides and selected metabolites in human and rat liver microsomes. Coleman, S., Linderman, R., Hodgson, E., Rose, R.L. Environ. Health Perspect. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2b in twins. Galera, H., Gonzalez-Campora, R., Matilla, A., Martin, I. Histopathology (1982) [Pubmed]
  19. Dilemmas in the early diagnosis and treatment of multiple endocrine adenomatosis, type II. Freier, D.T., Thompson, N.W., Sisson, J.C., Nishiyama, R.H., Freitas, J.E. Surgery (1977) [Pubmed]
  20. Enumeration and identification of airborne viable mould propagules in houses. A field comparison of selected techniques. Verhoeff, A.P., van Wijnen, J.H., Boleij, J.S., Brunekreef, B., van Reenen-Hoekstra, E.S., Samson, R.A. Allergy (1990) [Pubmed]
  21. Influence of the triplet excited state on the photobleaching kinetics of fluorescein in microscopy. Song, L., Varma, C.A., Verhoeven, J.W., Tanke, H.J. Biophys. J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. The monosialosyl ganglioside GM-1 reduces the vagolytic efficacy of {delta}2-opioid receptor stimulation. Davis, S., Deo, S.H., Barlow, M., Yoshishige, D., Farias, M., Caffrey, J.L. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Microsystem for transfection of exogenous molecules with spatio-temporal control into adherent cells. Jain, T., Muthuswamy, J. Biosensors & bioelectronics (2007) [Pubmed]
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