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Gene Review

Tgfb2  -  transforming growth factor, beta 2

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: TGF-beta-2, Transforming growth factor beta-2
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Disease relevance of Tgfb2


High impact information on Tgfb2

  • Intraarticular injection of monoclonal antibody 1D11.16, which inhibits both TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 bioactivity, into animals receiving an arthropathic dose of bacterial cell walls significantly inhibits arthritis [5].
  • TGF-beta 2, a homologue of TGF-beta 1, was found to induce a similar level of synovitis and synovial hyperplasia consistent with its parallel monocyte and fibroblast chemotactic properties and ability to induce transcription and translation of monocyte/macrophage-derived growth factors [4].
  • Furthermore, we find that TGF beta 2, TGF beta 3, and GDNF are expressed sequentially as local and target-derived trophic factors and that subpopulations of dopaminergic neurons projecting to distinct targets have access to only one of these factors [6].
  • Moreover, bone resorption induced by the bone-resorbing agents IL 1 and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 was partially or completely inhibited by TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 during the second half of the 6-d incubation period [7].
  • TGF-beta 2 is a closely related polypeptide that was originally isolated from bone matrix [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of Tgfb2


Biological context of Tgfb2


Anatomical context of Tgfb2


Associations of Tgfb2 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Tgfb2

  • The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) receptor type III is a low abundance cell surface component that binds TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 with high affinity and specificity, and is present in many mammalian and avian cell types [21].
  • A comparable decrease in PTHrP binding was only observed after 24 h of incubation with 100 pM TGF beta 2 [22].

Regulatory relationships of Tgfb2


Other interactions of Tgfb2

  • In the in vivo condition, TGF-beta1 was increased in diabetic glomeruli, whereas TGF-beta2 was increased in diabetic aorta [14].
  • In bladders subjected to partial urethral outlet obstruction, there was a 2-fold increase in mRNA for TGF beta 2, a 5-fold increase in TGF beta 3, and a 10-fold increase TGF alpha mRNA [11].
  • Transforming growth factor (TGF) beta 1, TGF beta 2 and TGF beta 3 equipotently attenuated the IL-1 beta- and forskolin-induced elevation of PLA2 mRNA, as well as PLA2 synthesis and secretion [27].
  • We report here that, whereas TGF beta 2 potentiates the IL-1 beta- and TNF alpha-evoked PGE2 production, it strongly inhibits the phospholipase A2 secretion induced by both cytokines [28].
  • The activity cross-reacted to antisera specific for TGF-beta 1, beta 2 and for TGF-beta 2 exclusively, but not with antisera to rat interferon (alpha-beta) or rat interleukin 6 [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Tgfb2


  1. Selective expression of TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta3 isoforms in early mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis. Minto, A.W., Wilson, H.M., Rees, A.J., Quigg, R.J., Brown, P.A. Nephron Exp. Nephrol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Expression of transforming growth factor-beta mRNA in experimental choroidal neovascularization. Ogata, N., Yamamoto, C., Miyashiro, M., Yamada, H., Matsushima, M., Uyama, M. Curr. Eye Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Hypoxia regulates osteoblast gene expression. Warren, S.M., Steinbrech, D.S., Mehrara, B.J., Saadeh, P.B., Greenwald, J.A., Spector, J.A., Bouletreau, P.J., Longaker, M.T. J. Surg. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Rapid onset synovial inflammation and hyperplasia induced by transforming growth factor beta. Allen, J.B., Manthey, C.L., Hand, A.R., Ohura, K., Ellingsworth, L., Wahl, S.M. J. Exp. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Reversal of acute and chronic synovial inflammation by anti-transforming growth factor beta. Wahl, S.M., Allen, J.B., Costa, G.L., Wong, H.L., Dasch, J.R. J. Exp. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. TGF beta 2 and TGF beta 3 are potent survival factors for midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Poulsen, K.T., Armanini, M.P., Klein, R.D., Hynes, M.A., Phillips, H.S., Rosenthal, A. Neuron (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. Transforming growth factor beta inhibits bone resorption in fetal rat long bone cultures. Pfeilschifter, J., Seyedin, S.M., Mundy, G.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. 17Beta-estradiol confers a protective effect against transforming growth factor-beta2-induced cataracts in female but not male lenses. Chen, Z., John, M., Subramanian, S., Chen, H., Carper, D. Exp. Eye Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Differential expression of transforming growth factor-beta isoforms and receptors in experimental membranous nephropathy. Shankland, S.J., Pippin, J., Pichler, R.H., Gordon, K.L., Friedman, S., Gold, L.I., Johnson, R.J., Couser, W.G. Kidney Int. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Role of receptor complexes in resistance or sensitivity to growth inhibition by TGF beta in intestinal epithelial cell clones. Mulder, K.M., Segarini, P.R., Morris, S.L., Ziman, J.M., Choi, H.G. J. Cell. Physiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Growth factors and receptors in bladder development and obstruction. Baskin, L.S., Sutherland, R.S., Thomson, A.A., Hayward, S.W., Cunha, G.R. Lab. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. The effect of therapeutic hypothermia on the expression of inflammatory response genes following moderate traumatic brain injury in the rat. Truettner, J.S., Suzuki, T., Dietrich, W.D. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Rat testicular germ cells and Sertoli cells release different types of bioactive transforming growth factor beta in vitro. Haagmans, B.L., Hoogerbrugge, J.W., Themmen, A.P., Teerds, K.J. Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Involvement of transforming growth factor-beta in regulation of calcium transients in diabetic vascular smooth muscle cells. Sharma, K., Deelman, L., Madesh, M., Kurz, B., Ciccone, E., Siva, S., Hu, T., Zhu, Y., Wang, L., Henning, R., Ma, X., Hajnoczky, G. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Dynamic expression of transforming growth factor-betas (TGF-beta) and their type I and type II receptors in the synovial tissue of arthritic rats. Müssener, A., Funa, K., Kleinau, S., Klareskog, L. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Effects of TGF-betas and a specific antagonist on apoptosis of immature rat male germ cells in vitro. Konrad, L., Keilani, M.M., Laible, L., Nottelmann, U., Hofmann, R. Apoptosis (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Effects of dexamethasone and transforming growth factor-beta 2 on group II phospholipase A2 mRNA and activity levels in interleukin 1 beta- and forskolin-stimulated mesangial cells. Vervoordeldonk, M.J., Schalkwijk, C.G., Pfeilschifter, J., van den Bosch, H. Biochem. J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Complex regulation of TGF beta expression by retinoic acid in the vitamin A-deficient rat. Glick, A.B., McCune, B.K., Abdulkarem, N., Flanders, K.C., Lumadue, J.A., Smith, J.M., Sporn, M.B. Development (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Cellular sources of transforming growth factor-beta isoforms in early and chronic radiation enteropathy. Wang, J., Zheng, H., Sung, C.C., Richter, K.K., Hauer-Jensen, M. Am. J. Pathol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. TGF-beta 1, TGF-beta 2, and TGF-beta 3 exhibit distinct patterns of expression during cranial suture formation and obliteration in vivo and in vitro. Opperman, L.A., Nolen, A.A., Ogle, R.C. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. The transforming growth factor-beta receptor type III is a membrane proteoglycan. Domain structure of the receptor. Cheifetz, S., Andres, J.L., Massagué, J. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  22. Down-regulation of the receptor for parathyroid hormone (PTH) and PTH-related peptide by transforming growth factor-beta in primary fetal rat osteoblasts. Jongen, J.W., Willemstein-Van Hove, E.C., Van der Meer, J.M., Bos, M.P., Jüppner, H., Segre, G.V., Abou-Samra, A.B., Feyen, J.H., Herrmann-Erlee, M.P. Endocrinology (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Transforming growth factor beta 2 inhibits interleukin 1 beta- and tumour necrosis factor alpha-induction of nitric oxide synthase in rat renal mesangial cells. Pfeilschifter, J., Vosbeck, K. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1991) [Pubmed]
  24. Transforming growth factor beta activation of p44mapk in proliferating cultures of epithelial cells. Hartsough, M.T., Mulder, K.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Inhibition of prolactin gene transcription by transforming growth factor-beta in GH3 cells. Delidow, B.C., Billis, W.M., Agarwal, P., White, B.A. Mol. Endocrinol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  26. Transforming growth factor beta 2 stimulates acute and chronic activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in rat renal mesangial cells. Huwiler, A., Pfeilschifter, J. FEBS Lett. (1994) [Pubmed]
  27. Transforming growth factors type-beta and dexamethasone attenuate group II phospholipase A2 gene expression by interleukin-1 and forskolin in rat mesangial cells. Mühl, H., Geiger, T., Pignat, W., Märki, F., van den Bosch, H., Cerletti, N., Cox, D., McMaster, G., Vosbeck, K., Pfeilschifter, J. FEBS Lett. (1992) [Pubmed]
  28. Transforming growth factor beta 2 differentially modulates interleukin-1 beta- and tumour-necrosis-factor-alpha-stimulated phospholipase A2 and prostaglandin E2 synthesis in rat renal mesangial cells. Pfeilschifter, J., Pignat, W., Leighton, J., Märki, F., Vosbeck, K., Alkan, S. Biochem. J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  29. Glucocorticoid regulation of transforming growth factor-beta activation in urogenital sinus mesenchymal cells. Rowley, D.R. Endocrinology (1992) [Pubmed]
  30. Induction of transforming growth factor-beta during cardiac allograft rejection. Waltenberger, J., Wanders, A., Fellström, B., Miyazono, K., Heldin, C.H., Funa, K. J. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  31. TGF-betas upregulate NCAM and L1 expression in cultured Schwann cells, suppress cyclic AMP-induced expression of O4 and galactocerebroside, and are widely expressed in cells of the Schwann cell lineage in vivo. Stewart, H.J., Rougon, G., Dong, Z., Dean, C., Jessen, K.R., Mirsky, R. Glia (1995) [Pubmed]
  32. The effect of surgical trauma on rat tunica albuginea. El-Sakka, A.I., Selph, C.A., Yen, T.S., Dahiya, R., Lue, T.F. J. Urol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  33. Bladder acellular matrix graft in rats: its neurophysiologic properties and mRNA expression of growth factors TGF-alpha and TGF-beta. Dahms, S.E., Piechota, H.J., Dahiya, R., Gleason, C.A., Hohenfellner, M., Tanagho, E.A. Neurourology and urodynamics. (1998) [Pubmed]
  34. Expression of transforming growth factor-beta isoforms in the rat male accessory sex organs and epididymis. Desai, K.V., Flanders, K.C., Kondaiah, P. Cell Tissue Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
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