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Gene Review

TGFB2  -  transforming growth factor, beta 2

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Disease relevance of LOC534069

  • Hearts isolated from rats exposed to hyperthermia show an initial 20-fold decrease in TGF-beta 1 and 3 mRNA levels which return to control levels by 24 h and subsequently are elevated two- to threefold above normal 48-72 h after heat shock; there is little change in TGF-beta 2 mRNA [1].
  • When TGF-beta2 and the MBWE preparations were compared, on the basis of growth inhibition equivalents, MBWE protected cells against drug toxicity at concentrations an order of magnitude lower than with TGF-beta2 or A-MBWE [2].
  • The objective of the current study was to determine whether TGF-alpha, TGF-beta1, and TGF-beta2 milk concentrations were altered during the course of E. coli-induced mastitis [3].
  • A possible effect of transforming growth factor type-beta 2 (TGF-beta 2) on autoimmune inflammation of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) was evaluated in experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) in Lewis rats, a disease model of the human Guillain-Barré syndrome [4].
  • In contrast, none of the four melanoma lines responded to hypothalamic preparations containing MGF that consistently produced an approximately 30-fold increase in newborn melanocyte cell yield over a 2-week period [5].

High impact information on LOC534069

  • Neutralizing antisera to TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 were used to demonstrate that the majority of the activity was of the TGF-beta 2 isoform [6].
  • Spontaneous production of transforming growth factor-beta 2 by primary cultures of bronchial epithelial cells. Effects on cell behavior in vitro [6].
  • Two essential regions were identified by analysis of mutant constructions: one binds C/EBP-beta and the other binds MGF/STAT5 and an as-yet-unidentified binding protein [7].
  • Conversely, TGF-beta 2 mRNA was not detected in T47D:A18 cells cultured under estrogenic conditions; however, message was detected after the cells were cultured under estrogen-free conditions [8].
  • FP3 (0.2 microM) neutralized the activity of TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2 in fetal bovine heart endothelial (FBHE) cell proliferation assays; FP4 was inactive in this assay [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of LOC534069


Biological context of LOC534069

  • When analyzed by RT-PCR, porcine GC RNA from 1-3 mm follicles did not yield the expected 489 base pair (bp) TGF-beta 2 product but instead generated a smaller than anticipated 240 bp species; porcine testis RNA generated both the 240 and the anticipated 489 bp products [12].
  • This is the first reported nucleotide sequence for porcine TGF-beta 2; it is 90% and 91% identical to murine and human TGF-beta 2 sequences, respectively [12].
  • The doublet did not appear to be the result of glycosylation of a conventional 25-kDa TGF beta 2 and could be converted into the lower molecular mass form by incubation for 18 h at 37 degrees C, with pH 4.5 but not with pH 7.5 buffer; this incubation in the absence of decidual cells was not accompanied by increased immunosuppressive activity [13].
  • The 180-kDa TGF-beta 1 binding protein and the 60- and 140-kDa TGF-beta 2 binding proteins can be released from the cell surface by treatment with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C, suggesting that these proteins are attached to the plasma membrane through a phosphatidylinositol anchor [14].
  • OIF activity in the model used is substantially increased by addition of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta 1 or TGF-beta 2, suggesting an important role for TGF-beta 1 and -2 in bone regeneration and repair [15].

Anatomical context of LOC534069


Associations of LOC534069 with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of LOC534069


Other interactions of LOC534069


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of LOC534069


  1. Hyperthermia induces expression of transforming growth factor-beta s in rat cardiac cells in vitro and in vivo. Flanders, K.C., Winokur, T.S., Holder, M.G., Sporn, M.B. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. A milk growth factor extract reduces chemotherapeutic drug toxicity in epithelial cells in vitro. Taylor, V.L., Goddard, C., Read, L.C. In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Increased milk levels of transforming growth factor-alpha, beta1, and beta2 during Escherichia coli-induced mastitis. Chockalingam, A., Paape, M.J., Bannerman, D.D. J. Dairy Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Therapeutic effect of transforming growth factor-beta 2 on actively induced EAN but not adoptive transfer EAN. Jung, S., Schluesener, H.J., Schmidt, B., Fontana, A., Toyka, K.V., Hartung, H.P. Immunology (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Relative responsiveness of cultured human epidermal melanocytes and melanoma cells to selected mitogens. Gordon, P.R., Treloar, V.D., Vrabel, M.A., Gilchrest, B.A. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  6. Spontaneous production of transforming growth factor-beta 2 by primary cultures of bronchial epithelial cells. Effects on cell behavior in vitro. Sacco, O., Romberger, D., Rizzino, A., Beckmann, J.D., Rennard, S.I., Spurzem, J.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Characterization of BCE-1, a transcriptional enhancer regulated by prolactin and extracellular matrix and modulated by the state of histone acetylation. Myers, C.A., Schmidhauser, C., Mellentin-Michelotti, J., Fragoso, G., Roskelley, C.D., Casperson, G., Mossi, R., Pujuguet, P., Hager, G., Bissell, M.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Characterization of a receptor-negative, hormone-nonresponsive clone derived from a T47D human breast cancer cell line kept under estrogen-free conditions. Murphy, C.S., Pink, J.J., Jordan, V.C. Cancer Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Localization of the binding site for transforming growth factor-beta in human alpha2-macroglobulin to a 20-kDa peptide that also contains the bait region. Webb, D.J., Wen, J., Karns, L.R., Kurilla, M.G., Gonias, S.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Transforming Growth Factor-beta2 protects the small intestine during methotrexate treatment in rats possibly by reducing stem cell cycling. van't Land, B., Meijer, H.P., Frerichs, J., Koetsier, M., Jager, D., Smeets, R.L., M'Rabet, L., Hoijer, M. Br. J. Cancer (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. The results of vitreous surgery for chronic macular holes. Thompson, J.T., Sjaarda, R.N., Lansing, M.B. Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.) (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Porcine granulosa cells do not express transforming growth factor-beta 2 (TGF-beta 2) messenger ribonucleic acid: molecular basis for their inability to produce TGF-beta activity comparable to that of rat granulosa cells. Mulheron, G.W., Mulheron, J.G., Danielpour, D., Schomberg, D.W. Endocrinology (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. Characterization of murine pregnancy decidua transforming growth factor beta. I. Transforming growth factor beta 2-like molecules of unusual molecular size released in bioactive form. Clark, D.A., Flanders, K.C., Hirte, H., Dasch, J.R., Coker, R., McAnulty, R.J., Laurent, G.J. Biol. Reprod. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Isoform-specific transforming growth factor-beta binding proteins with membrane attachments sensitive to phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C. Cheifetz, S., Massagué, J. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. Purification and characterization of a unique osteoinductive factor from bovine bone. Bentz, H., Nathan, R.M., Rosen, D.M., Armstrong, R.M., Thompson, A.Y., Segarini, P.R., Mathews, M.C., Dasch, J.R., Piez, K.A., Seyedin, S.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  16. Expression of transforming growth factor type III receptor in vascular endothelial cells increases their responsiveness to transforming growth factor beta 2. Sankar, S., Mahooti-Brooks, N., Centrella, M., McCarthy, T.L., Madri, J.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Purification and characterization of transforming growth factor-beta 2.3 and -beta 1.2 heterodimers from bovine bone. Ogawa, Y., Schmidt, D.K., Dasch, J.R., Chang, R.J., Glaser, C.B. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Determination of transforming growth factor-beta 2 (TGF-beta 2) in bovine colostrum samples. Pakkanen, R. Journal of immunoassay. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Exogenous transforming growth factor-beta 2 enhances connective tissue formation and wound strength in guinea pig dermal wounds healing by secondary intent. Ksander, G.A., Ogawa, Y., Chu, G.H., McMullin, H., Rosenblatt, J.S., McPherson, J.M. Ann. Surg. (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. Mechanism of retinoid-induced activation of latent transforming growth factor-beta in bovine endothelial cells. Kojima, S., Rifkin, D.B. J. Cell. Physiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. Improved local delivery of TGF-beta2 by binding to injectable fibrillar collagen via difunctional polyethylene glycol. Bentz, H., Schroeder, J.A., Estridge, T.D. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. The interaction between retinoic acid and the transforming growth factors-beta in calf articular cartilage organ cultures. Morales, T.I., Roberts, A.B. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. Characterization of transforming growth factor-beta growth regulatory effects and receptors on bovine mammary cells. Woodward, T.L., Dumont, N., O'Connor-McCourt, M., Turner, J.D., Philip, A. J. Cell. Physiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. Transforming growth factor-beta 2 enhances the osteoinductive activity of a bovine bone-derived fraction containing bone morphogenetic protein-2 and 3. Bentz, H., Thompson, A.Y., Armstrong, R., Chang, R.J., Piez, K.A., Rosen, D.M. Matrix (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. Extracellular matrix production regulation by TGF-beta in corneal endothelial cells. Usui, T., Takase, M., Kaji, Y., Suzuki, K., Ishida, K., Tsuru, T., Miyata, K., Kawabata, M., Yamashita, H. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infection elicits increased production of transforming growth factor-alpha, beta1, and beta2. Bannerman, D.D., Paape, M.J., Chockalingam, A. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. The bovine innate immune response during experimentally-induced Pseudomonas aeruginosa mastitis. Bannerman, D.D., Chockalingam, A., Paape, M.J., Hope, J.C. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Isolation and characterisation of milk growth factor, a transforming-growth-factor-beta 2-related polypeptide, from bovine milk. Cox, D.A., Bürk, R.R. Eur. J. Biochem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  29. Separation, purification, and sequence identification of TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 from bovine milk. Jin, Y., Cox, D.A., Knecht, R., Raschdorf, F., Cerletti, N. J. Protein Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  30. Characterization of the activation of latent TGF-beta by co-cultures of endothelial cells and pericytes or smooth muscle cells: a self-regulating system. Sato, Y., Tsuboi, R., Lyons, R., Moses, H., Rifkin, D.B. J. Cell Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  31. The secretion of transforming growth factor-beta by bovine luteal cells in vitro. Gangrade, B.K., Gotcher, E.D., Davis, J.S., May, J.V. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1993) [Pubmed]
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