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Gene Review

TAT  -  tyrosine aminotransferase

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: L-tyrosine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase, Tyrosine aminotransferase


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Disease relevance of TAT


Psychiatry related information on TAT

  • The variations of FVII, PAI-1, TAT complexes, fibrinopeptide A, D-Dimers and beta thromboglobulin plasma levels were studied on 30 sedentary men, smokers and non-smokers, who were admitted to a 6 months' program of physical training and smoking cessation [6].
  • Moreover the selected TAT card responses provide some evidences of 'pensée opératoire' or alexithymia in 'A' group subjects whatever its metapsychological implication [7].
  • Deficiency of the hepatic cytosolic enzyme tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) causes marked hypertyrosinaemia leading to painful palmoplantar hyperkeratoses, pseudodendritic keratitis and variable mental retardation (oculocutaneous tyrosinaemia type II or Richner-Hanhart syndrome) [8].
  • Fifty men completed the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT; Murray, 1943) and the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS; Straus, 1979), a self-report measure of strategies (including violence) for resolving conflicts with partners and strangers [9].
  • Personal problem-solving scoring of the TAT: sensitivity to training [10].

High impact information on TAT


Chemical compound and disease context of TAT


Biological context of TAT

  • Of these three markers, only the HP locus was found to be codeleted with the TAT locus on the del(16) chromosome [1].
  • Two functional glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) reside 2.5 kb upstream of the rat TAT gene [18].
  • The non-coding region of the 3' exon contains a complete Alu element which is absent in the rat TAT gene but present in apes and old world monkeys [18].
  • A minor human TAT mRNA results from the use of an alternative polyadenylation signal in the 3' exon which is present but not used at the corresponding position in the rat TAT gene [18].
  • These results indicate that GGTase increases with proliferation, whereas TAT, once it has been expressed, is not suppressed during cell proliferation [19].

Anatomical context of TAT


Associations of TAT with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of TAT


Regulatory relationships of TAT

  • HIV-I TAT inhibits PKR activity by both RNA-dependent and RNA-independent mechanisms [32].
  • These studies suggest that the RB gene represses HIV LTR directed CAT gene expression by interfering with the expression of HIV TAT gene [33].
  • Use of the TAT-based inhibitor provides a specific means to suppress a single group of Cdc42 and Rac effectors, which is useful in analyzing their function [34].
  • Growth hormone induced the hyperexpression of tyrosine aminotransferase, thus suggesting an amplifying effect on the glucocorticoid action [35].

Other interactions of TAT

  • The TAT-mediated protein transduction technology may be valuable in studies of proteins such as myocilin in the TM [20].
  • The activity of gamma-GT declined while TAT activity increased obviously, and the levels of alpha-FP and PCNA decreased [36].
  • The activities of gamma-glutamyltransferase (gamma-GT) and tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) were assayed with biochemical methods [36].
  • Subsequently, 20-24 weeks gestational hepatocytes were cultured in media supplemented with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin with or without glucagon and dexamethasone to investigate the proliferation and differentiation of fetal hepatocyte in vitro using GGTase and TAT as biochemical markers [19].
  • Transduction of TAT-p16 wild-type peptides into cells resulted in the loss of active, hypophosphorylated pRb and elicited an early G1 cell cycle arrest, provided cyclin E:Cdk2 complexes were inactive [24].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TAT

  • METHODS: Normal human TM cell cultures, human tissues in organ cultures, and bovine eyes in perfusion organ cultures were incubated or perfused for various lengths of time with TAT- and hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged fusion proteins, TAT-HA-beta-galactosidase (TAT-HA-beta-gal), TAT-HA-myocilin, and TAT-HA-myocilin-EGFP [20].
  • Southern blot analysis using a human TAT cDNA probe revealed a complete deletion of both TAT alleles in the patient [1].
  • To test whether TAT acts on transcription and/or posttranscriptionally, we produced TAT in yeast and monitored its activity after microinjection into the nucleus or cytoplasm of Xenopus oocytes [37].
  • Here it is shown that intraperitoneal injection of the 120-kilodalton beta-galactosidase protein, fused to the protein transduction domain from the human immunodeficiency virus TAT protein, results in delivery of the biologically active fusion protein to all tissues in mice, including the brain [38].
  • Ability of the hydrophobic FGF and basic TAT peptides to promote cellular uptake of recombinant Cre recombinase: a tool for efficient genetic engineering of mammalian genomes [39].


  1. Inherited and de novo deletion of the tyrosine aminotransferase gene locus at 16q22.1----q22.3 in a patient with tyrosinemia type II. Natt, E., Westphal, E.M., Toth-Fejel, S.E., Magenis, R.E., Buist, N.R., Rettenmeier, R., Scherer, G. Hum. Genet. (1987) [Pubmed]
  2. Tip60 is a nuclear hormone receptor coactivator. Brady, M.E., Ozanne, D.M., Gaughan, L., Waite, I., Cook, S., Neal, D.E., Robson, C.N. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Dehydroepiandrosterone activates mutant androgen receptors expressed in the androgen-dependent human prostate cancer xenograft CWR22 and LNCaP cells. Tan, J., Sharief, Y., Hamil, K.G., Gregory, C.W., Zang, D.Y., Sar, M., Gumerlock, P.H., deVere White, R.W., Pretlow, T.G., Harris, S.E., Wilson, E.M., Mohler, J.L., French, F.S. Mol. Endocrinol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Markers of hypercoagulability and inflammation predict mortality in patients with heart failure. Marcucci, R., Gori, A.M., Giannotti, F., Baldi, M., Verdiani, V., Del Pace, S., Nozzoli, C., Abbate, R. J. Thromb. Haemost. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Characterization of two cis-acting DNA elements involved in the androgen regulation of the probasin gene. Rennie, P.S., Bruchovsky, N., Leco, K.J., Sheppard, P.C., McQueen, S.A., Cheng, H., Snoek, R., Hamel, A., Bock, M.E., MacDonald, B.S. Mol. Endocrinol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Impact of smoking, physical training and weight reduction on FVII, PAI-1 and hemostatic markers in sedentary men. Gris, J.C., Schved, J.F., Feugeas, O., Aguilar-Martinez, P., Arnaud, A., Sanchez, N., Sarlat, C. Thromb. Haemost. (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. Alexithymia, 'pensée opéatoire' and predisposition to coronopathy. Pattern 'A' of Friedman and Rosenman. Defourny, M., Hubin, P., Luminet, D. Psychotherapy and psychosomatics. (1976) [Pubmed]
  8. TAT gene mutation analysis in three Palestinian kindreds with oculocutaneous tyrosinaemia type II; characterization of a silent exonic transversion that causes complete missplicing by exon 11 skipping. Maydan, G., Andresen, B.S., Madsen, P.P., Zeigler, M., Raas-Rothschild, A., Zlotogorski, A., Gutman, A., Korman, S.H. J. Inherit. Metab. Dis. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Defense mechanisms and self-reported violence toward partners and strangers. Porcerelli, J.H., Cogan, R., Kamoo, R., Leitman, S. Journal of personality assessment. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Personal problem-solving scoring of the TAT: sensitivity to training. Roman, G.F., Date, A.L., Weisbrod, M. Journal of personality assessment. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. A cyclic AMP response element mediates repression of tyrosine aminotransferase gene transcription by the tissue-specific extinguisher locus Tse-1. Boshart, M., Weih, F., Schmidt, A., Fournier, R.E., Schütz, G. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  12. Cooperativity of glucocorticoid response elements located far upstream of the tyrosine aminotransferase gene. Jantzen, H.M., Strähle, U., Gloss, B., Stewart, F., Schmid, W., Boshart, M., Miksicek, R., Schütz, G. Cell (1987) [Pubmed]
  13. BH4 domain of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members closes voltage-dependent anion channel and inhibits apoptotic mitochondrial changes and cell death. Shimizu, S., Konishi, A., Kodama, T., Tsujimoto, Y. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Stimulation of cellular signaling and G protein subunit dissociation by G protein betagamma subunit-binding peptides. Goubaeva, F., Ghosh, M., Malik, S., Yang, J., Hinkle, P.M., Griendling, K.K., Neubig, R.R., Smrcka, A.V. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Modulation of transcription factor activity by a distant steroid modulatory element. Oshima, H., Simons, S.S. Mol. Endocrinol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. The effects of metabolic inhibitors on the synthesis of inducible tyrosine aminotransferase in cultured hepatoma cells. Dethlefsen, L.A. J. Cell. Physiol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  17. Hypercoagulable state in patients with Takayasu's arteritis. Akazawa, H., Ikeda, U., Yamamoto, K., Kuroda, T., Shimada, K. Thromb. Haemost. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Isolation and characterization of the human tyrosine aminotransferase gene. Rettenmeier, R., Natt, E., Zentgraf, H., Scherer, G. Nucleic Acids Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. Tyrosine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transferase activity in human fetal hepatocyte primary cultures under proliferative conditions. Rehman, K.K., Ayesha, Q., Khan, A.A., Ahmed, N., Habibullah, C.M. Cell Biochem. Funct. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Transduction of TAT Fusion Proteins into the Human and Bovine Trabecular Meshwork. Sakai, H., Park, B.C., Shen, X., Yue, B.Y. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Production of cell lines secreting TAT fusion proteins. Barka, T., Gresik, E.S., Henderson, S.C. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. The TAT protein transduction domain enhances the neuroprotective effect of glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor after optic nerve transection. Kilic, U., Kilic, E., Dietz, G.P., Bähr, M. Neuro-degenerative diseases. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Extinction of tyrosine aminotransferase gene activity in somatic cell hybrids involves modification and loss of several essential transcriptional activators. Nitsch, D., Boshart, M., Schütz, G. Genes Dev. (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Transduced p16INK4a peptides inhibit hypophosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein and cell cycle progression prior to activation of Cdk2 complexes in late G1. Gius, D.R., Ezhevsky, S.A., Becker-Hapak, M., Nagahara, H., Wei, M.C., Dowdy, S.F. Cancer Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. A benign polymorphism in the aspartoacylase gene may cause misinterpretation of Canavan gene testing. Propheta, O., Magal, N., Shohat, M., Eyal, N., Navot, N., Horowitz, M. Eur. J. Hum. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. Selective activation of the probasin androgen-responsive region by steroid hormones. Kasper, S., Rennie, P.S., Bruchovsky, N., Lin, L., Cheng, H., Snoek, R., Dahlman-Wright, K., Gustafsson, J.A., Shiu, R.P., Sheppard, P.C., Matusik, R.J. J. Mol. Endocrinol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Theoretical mechanisms for synthesis of carcinogen-induced embryonic proteins: XIX. Embryonic genes. Hancock, R.L. Med. Hypotheses (1988) [Pubmed]
  28. The HIV transactivator TAT binds to the CDK-activating kinase and activates the phosphorylation of the carboxy-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II. Cujec, T.P., Okamoto, H., Fujinaga, K., Meyer, J., Chamberlin, H., Morgan, D.O., Peterlin, B.M. Genes Dev. (1997) [Pubmed]
  29. Signalling properties of an HIV-encoded angiogenic peptide mimicking vascular endothelial growth factor activity. Scheidegger, P., Weiglhofer, W., Suarez, S., Console, S., Waltenberger, J., Pepper, M.S., Jaussi, R., Ballmer-Hofer, K. Biochem. J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. Recombinant hirudin for the treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation in patients with haematological malignancy. Saito, M., Asakura, H., Jokaji, H., Uotani, C., Kumabashiri, I., Morishita, E., Yamazaki, M., Aoshima, K., Matsuda, T. Blood Coagul. Fibrinolysis (1995) [Pubmed]
  31. Preferential consumption of heparin cofactor II in disseminated intravascular coagulation associated with acute promyelocytic leukemia. Kario, K., Matsuo, T., Kodama, K., Katayama, S., Kobayashi, H. Thromb. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  32. HIV-I TAT inhibits PKR activity by both RNA-dependent and RNA-independent mechanisms. Cai, R., Carpick, B., Chun, R.F., Jeang, K.T., Williams, B.R. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. Retinoblastoma gene inhibits transactivation of HIV-LTR linked gene expression upon co-transfection in He La cells. Prasad, M.V., Shanmugam, G. Biochem. Mol. Biol. Int. (1993) [Pubmed]
  34. Production and use of a cell permeable inhibitor of group A Paks (TAT-PID) to analyze signal transduction. Beeser, A., Chernoff, J. Methods (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. Effect of growth hormone in an experimental model of protein hypercatabolism induced by glucocorticoids. Cantón, A., Trainer, P.J., Martinez-Cáceres, E., Simó, R. Horm. Metab. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  36. Effects of tachyplesin on proliferation and differentiation of human hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 cells. Ouyang, G.L., Li, Q.F., Peng, X.X., Liu, Q.R., Hong, S.G. World J. Gastroenterol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  37. HIV-1 TAT "activates" presynthesized RNA in the nucleus. Braddock, M., Chambers, A., Wilson, W., Esnouf, M.P., Adams, S.E., Kingsman, A.J., Kingsman, S.M. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  38. In vivo protein transduction: delivery of a biologically active protein into the mouse. Schwarze, S.R., Ho, A., Vocero-Akbani, A., Dowdy, S.F. Science (1999) [Pubmed]
  39. Ability of the hydrophobic FGF and basic TAT peptides to promote cellular uptake of recombinant Cre recombinase: a tool for efficient genetic engineering of mammalian genomes. Peitz, M., Pfannkuche, K., Rajewsky, K., Edenhofer, F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
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