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Gene Review

RTN4  -  reticulon 4

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ASY, Foocen, KIAA0886, My043, NI220/250, ...
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Disease relevance of RTN4


Psychiatry related information on RTN4

  • Expression pattern of NOGO and NgR genes during human development [5].
  • The Nogo gene maps to 2p14-p13, a region consistently associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder [6].
  • The possibility that the Nogo system contributes to pathologic and compensatory plasticity in Alzheimer's Disease is considered [7].
  • The experiment was repeated for one of the subjects using a 151 whole-head biomagnetometer; the same auditory GO/NOGO choice reaction time paradigm as in the first experiment was used, extended to include repetitions of identical runs and additional control conditions [8].
  • Individual differences in error processing: a review and reanalysis of three event-related fMRI studies using the GO/NOGO task [9].

High impact information on RTN4


Biological context of RTN4


Anatomical context of RTN4

  • Over the last few years, the widely distributed family of reticulons (RTNs) is receiving renewed interest because of the implication of RTN4/Nogo in neurite regeneration [19].
  • Nogo-A, a splice variant of the ASY, has been reported to have an inhibitory effect on neuronal regeneration in the central nervous system [16].
  • Nogo is a potent inhibitor of regeneration following spinal cord injury [20].
  • Despite predominant localization in the endoplasmic reticulum, Nogo on the cell surface appears to play a critical role as an inhibitory molecule for axonal growth and regeneration in humans and rodents [17].
  • Messenger RNA encoding Nogo is expressed in oligodendrocytes and central and peripheral neurons, but not in astrocytes or Schwann cells [21].

Associations of RTN4 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of RTN4

  • By applying this method of "affinity fingerprinting" to the NgR ligand binding domain we were able to detect a distinct region important for binding to Nogo [18].

Co-localisations of RTN4


Regulatory relationships of RTN4


Other interactions of RTN4


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of RTN4


  1. Nogo-A and nogo receptor expression in demyelinating lesions of multiple sclerosis. Satoh, J., Onoue, H., Arima, K., Yamamura, T. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Nogo-66 and myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) inhibit the adhesion and migration of Nogo-66 receptor expressing human glioma cells. Liao, H., Duka, T., Teng, F.Y., Sun, L., Bu, W.Y., Ahmed, S., Tang, B.L., Xiao, Z.C. J. Neurochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Nogo-A is a myelin-associated neurite outgrowth inhibitor and an antigen for monoclonal antibody IN-1. Chen, M.S., Huber, A.B., van der Haar, M.E., Frank, M., Schnell, L., Spillmann, A.A., Christ, F., Schwab, M.E. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Nogo provides a molecular marker for diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Dupuis, L., Gonzalez de Aguilar, J.L., di Scala, F., Rene, F., de Tapia, M., Pradat, P.F., Lacomblez, L., Seihlan, D., Prinjha, R., Walsh, F.S., Meininger, V., Loeffler, J.P. Neurobiol. Dis. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Expression pattern of NOGO and NgR genes during human development. Al Halabiah, H., Delezoide, A.L., Cardona, A., Moalic, J.M., Simonneau, M. Gene Expr. Patterns (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Nogo CAA 3'UTR Insertion polymorphism is not associated with Schizophrenia nor with bipolar disorder. Gregório, S.P., Mury, F.B., Ojopi, E.B., Sallet, P.C., Moreno, D.H., Yacubian, J., Tavares, H., Santos, F.R., Gattaz, W.F., Dias-Neto, E. Schizophr. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Modulation of axonal regeneration in neurodegenerative disease: focus on Nogo. Strittmatter, S.M. J. Mol. Neurosci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Neuromagnetic localization of CMV generators using incomplete and full-head biomagnetometer. Dammers, J., Ioannides, A.A. Neuroimage (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Individual differences in error processing: a review and reanalysis of three event-related fMRI studies using the GO/NOGO task. Hester, R., Fassbender, C., Garavan, H. Cereb. Cortex (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Brain repair by endogenous progenitors. Kruger, G.M., Morrison, S.J. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Reticulon family members modulate BACE1 activity and amyloid-beta peptide generation. He, W., Lu, Y., Qahwash, I., Hu, X.Y., Chang, A., Yan, R. Nat. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. A new role for Nogo as a regulator of vascular remodeling. Acevedo, L., Yu, J., Erdjument-Bromage, H., Miao, R.Q., Kim, J.E., Fulton, D., Tempst, P., Strittmatter, S.M., Sessa, W.C. Nat. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein is a Nogo receptor ligand that inhibits neurite outgrowth. Wang, K.C., Koprivica, V., Kim, J.A., Sivasankaran, R., Guo, Y., Neve, R.L., He, Z. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Identification of a receptor mediating Nogo-66 inhibition of axonal regeneration. Fournier, A.E., GrandPre, T., Strittmatter, S.M. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Assignment of the human reticulon 4 gene (RTN4) to chromosome 2p14-->2p13 by radiation hybrid mapping. Yang, J., Yu, L., Bi, A.D., Zhao, S.Y. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Pro-apoptotic ASY/Nogo-B protein associates with ASYIP. Qi, B., Qi, Y., Watari, A., Yoshioka, N., Inoue, H., Minemoto, Y., Yamashita, K., Sasagawa, T., Yutsudo, M. J. Cell. Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Reticulon proteins: emerging players in neurodegenerative diseases. Yan, R., Shi, Q., Hu, X., Zhou, X. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Identification of a functional epitope of the Nogo receptor by a combinatorial approach using ribosome display. Schimmele, B., Plückthun, A. J. Mol. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Tissue specificity and regulation of the N-terminal diversity of reticulon 3. Di Scala, F., Dupuis, L., Gaiddon, C., De Tapia, M., Jokic, N., Gonzalez de Aguilar, J.L., Raul, J.S., Ludes, B., Loeffler, J.P. Biochem. J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Identification and characterization of a novel Nogo-interacting mitochondrial protein (NIMP). Hu, W.H., Hausmann, O.N., Yan, M.S., Walters, W.M., Wong, P.K., Bethea, J.R. J. Neurochem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Nogo-receptor gene activity: cellular localization and developmental regulation of mRNA in mice and humans. Josephson, A., Trifunovski, A., Widmer, H.R., Widenfalk, J., Olson, L., Spenger, C. J. Comp. Neurol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Nogos and the Nogo-66 receptor: factors inhibiting CNS neuron regeneration. Ng, C.E., Tang, B.L. J. Neurosci. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Cytokines and neurotrophic factors fail to affect Nogo-A mRNA expression in differentiated human neurones: implications for inflammation-related axonal regeneration in the central nervous system. Satoh, J.I., Kuroda, Y. Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Nogo and the Nogo-66 receptor. Fournier, A.E., GrandPré, T., Gould, G., Wang, X., Strittmatter, S.M. Prog. Brain Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. ER Ca2+ depletion triggers apoptotic signals for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) overload response induced by overexpressed reticulon 3 (RTN3/HAP). Kuang, E., Wan, Q., Li, X., Xu, H., Liu, Q., Qi, Y. J. Cell. Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. NOGO mRNA expression in adult and fetal human and rat nervous tissue and in weight drop injury. Josephson, A., Widenfalk, J., Widmer, H.W., Olson, L., Spenger, C. Exp. Neurol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. RTN4-C gene expression in hepatocellular carcinoma and its influence on SMMC7721 cell growth and apoptosis. Chen, Y.C., Lu, D.D., Cao, X.R., Zhang, X.R. Yi Chuan Xue Bao (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Nogo-A at CNS paranodes is a ligand of Caspr: possible regulation of K(+) channel localization. Nie, D.Y., Zhou, Z.H., Ang, B.T., Teng, F.Y., Xu, G., Xiang, T., Wang, C.Y., Zeng, L., Takeda, Y., Xu, T.L., Ng, Y.K., Faivre-Sarrailh, C., Popko, B., Ling, E.A., Schachner, M., Watanabe, K., Pallen, C.J., Tang, B.L., Xiao, Z.C. EMBO J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Nogo-A expression in the human hippocampus in normal aging and in Alzheimer disease. Gil, V., Nicolas, O., Mingorance, A., Ureña, J.M., Tang, B.L., Hirata, T., Sáez-Valero, J., Ferrer, I., Soriano, E., del Río, J.A. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  30. Olfactory ensheathing cell phenotype following implantation in the lesioned spinal cord. Woodhall, E., West, A.K., Vickers, J.C., Chuah, M.I. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Membrane vesicles shed by oligodendroglioma cells induce neuronal apoptosis. D'Agostino, S., Salamone, M., Di Liegro, I., Vittorelli, M.L. Int. J. Oncol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  32. Nogo (Reticulon 4) expression in innervated and denervated mouse skeletal muscle. Magnusson, C., Libelius, R., Tågerud, S. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. Increased expression of Nogo-A in hippocampal neurons of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Bandtlow, C.E., Dlaska, M., Pirker, S., Czech, T., Baumgartner, C., Sperk, G. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
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