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Gene Review

MAG  -  myelin associated glycoprotein

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: GMA, Myelin-associated glycoprotein, S-MAG, SIGLEC-4A, SIGLEC4A, ...
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Disease relevance of MAG


Psychiatry related information on MAG

  • Seizure-provoking factors, especially sleep deprivation, were significantly (P=0.001) more common in patients with GMA (52/68, 77%) than in the group with RGM (13/30, 43%) [5].
  • After short-listing, but immediately before interview, all candidates for senior house officer posts in basic surgical training and in geriatric medicine were asked to undertake psychometric tests of numerical (GMA) and spatial (SIT7) reasoning, personality type (MBTI), and self-rating of competency [6].

High impact information on MAG


Chemical compound and disease context of MAG


Biological context of MAG


Anatomical context of MAG

  • In adult CNS, periaxonal regions of myelin sheaths were immunostained in paraffin sections and semithin epon sections treated with monoclonal and polyclonal anti-MAG [2].
  • In paraffin sections of developing CNS, both monoclonal and polyclonal MAG antisera stained oligodendroglia and myelin [2].
  • Untreated patients with optic neuritis and multiple sclerosis had similarly raised levels of T cells recognising MBP, PLP, and MAG in peripheral blood [3].
  • In contrast, MAG promotes neurite outgrowth from DRG neurons from animals younger than PND4 [21].
  • When cultured on MAG-expressing cells, dorsal root ganglia neurons (DRG) older than post-natal day 4 (PND4) extend neurites 50% shorter on average than when cultured on control cells [21].

Associations of MAG with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of MAG


Regulatory relationships of MAG


Other interactions of MAG

  • CTLs specific for MBP 110-118 and MAG 556-564 could recognize endogenously processed antigens presented by HLA-A2 [28].
  • We found decreased expression of MAG, QKI, TF, and CNP transcripts in white matter [29].
  • In outer periplaque regions, MBP and PLP were close to control levels, but MAG was significantly reduced to a mean of 57% of control [1].
  • MAG-, CA C- and NSE-positivities were found in a number of tumor cells in a few oligodendrogliomas [30].
  • Whether T and B cell reactivities to these autoantigens, and to myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) which is another possible target for autoimmune attack, occur in MS and then especially in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with its close relation to the nervous tissue, is not clear [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of MAG

  • MAG in the various regions was qualitatively examined on Western blots by binding of lectins and by immunostaining with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against carbohydrate and protein epitopes of MAG [1].
  • The procedure involved immunoprecipitation with rabbit polyclonal anti-MAG antiserum followed by immune staining of electroblots with the monoclonal antibody HNK-1 [32].
  • We have analysed nerve biopsies from eight patients with polyneuropathy and anti-MAG antibodies by quantitative immunohistochemistry and find a concordant pattern of reduced expression of myelin markers with the loss of myelinated fibres [33].
  • Double immunofluorescence staining of paraproteinaemic polyneuropathy (PPN) nerves shows anti-MAG IgM deposited on the periphery of myelinated fibres associated with or lacking MAG staining [33].
  • However, an inverse relationship was noted between degree of reactivity to MAG by ELISA and response to IVIg [34].


  1. Myelin-associated glycoprotein in multiple sclerosis lesions: a quantitative and qualitative analysis. Möller, J.R., Yanagisawa, K., Brady, R.O., Tourtellotte, W.W., Quarles, R.H. Ann. Neurol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  2. Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) distribution in human central nervous tissue studied immunocytochemically with monoclonal antibody. Favilla, J.T., Frail, D.E., Palkovits, C.G., Stoner, G.L., Braun, P.E., Webster, H.D. J. Neuroimmunol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  3. Autoimmune T cell repertoire in optic neuritis and multiple sclerosis: T cells recognising multiple myelin proteins are accumulated in cerebrospinal fluid. Söderström, M., Link, H., Sun, J.B., Fredrikson, S., Wang, Z.Y., Huang, W.X. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Immunocytochemical studies in canine neuroectodermal brain tumors. Vandevelde, M., Fankhauser, R., Luginbühl, H. Acta Neuropathol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  5. Idiopathic generalized epilepsies with pure grand mal: clinical data and genetics. Unterberger, I., Trinka, E., Luef, G., Bauer, G. Epilepsy Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Square pegs in round holes: has psychometric testing a place in choosing a surgical career? A preliminary report of work in progress. Gilligan, J.H., Welsh, F.K., Watts, C., Treasure, T. Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Complement-mediated demyelination in patients with IgM monoclonal gammopathy and polyneuropathy. Monaco, S., Bonetti, B., Ferrari, S., Moretto, G., Nardelli, E., Tedesco, F., Mollnes, T.E., Nobile-Orazio, E., Manfredini, E., Bonazzi, L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. Oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein is a Nogo receptor ligand that inhibits neurite outgrowth. Wang, K.C., Koprivica, V., Kim, J.A., Sivasankaran, R., Guo, Y., Neve, R.L., He, Z. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. The B-cell antigen CD22 mediates monocyte and erythrocyte adhesion. Stamenkovic, I., Seed, B. Nature (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Myelin-associated glycoprotein in human retina. Stefansson, K., Molnar, M.L., Marton, L.S., Molnar, G.K., Mihovilovic, M., Tripathi, R.C., Richman, D.P. Nature (1984) [Pubmed]
  11. A p75(NTR) and Nogo receptor complex mediates repulsive signaling by myelin-associated glycoprotein. Wong, S.T., Henley, J.R., Kanning, K.C., Huang, K.H., Bothwell, M., Poo, M.M. Nat. Neurosci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls exert selective effects on cellular composition of white matter in a manner inconsistent with thyroid hormone insufficiency. Sharlin, D.S., Bansal, R., Zoeller, R.T. Endocrinology (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Terminal latency index and modified F ratio in distinction of chronic demyelinating neuropathies. Attarian, S., Azulay, J.P., Boucraut, J., Escande, N., Pouget, J. Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Pathogenesis and therapy of neuropathies associated with monoclonal gammopathies. Latov, N. Ann. Neurol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. Polyneuropathy syndromes associated with serum antibodies to sulfatide and myelin-associated glycoprotein. Pestronk, A., Li, F., Griffin, J., Feldman, E.L., Cornblath, D., Trotter, J., Zhu, S., Yee, W.C., Phillips, D., Peeples, D.M. Neurology (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. Comparative binding of murine and human monoclonal antibodies reacting with myelin-associated glycoprotein to myelin and human lymphocytes. Miller, S.L., Kahn, S.N., Perussia, B., Trinchieri, G. J. Neuroimmunol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  17. Temporal and spatial expression of major myelin proteins in the human fetal spinal cord during the second trimester. Weidenheim, K.M., Bodhireddy, S.R., Rashbaum, W.K., Lyman, W.D. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Cell-mediated immunity to myelin-associated glycoprotein, proteolipid protein, and myelin basic protein in multiple sclerosis. Johnson, D., Hafler, D.A., Fallis, R.J., Lees, M.B., Brady, R.O., Quarles, R.H., Weiner, H.L. J. Neuroimmunol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  19. Characterization of binding properties of the myelin-associated glycoprotein to extracellular matrix constituents. Fahrig, T., Landa, C., Pesheva, P., Kühn, K., Schachner, M. EMBO J. (1987) [Pubmed]
  20. Microtubule-associated protein 1B: a neuronal binding partner for myelin-associated glycoprotein. Franzen, R., Tanner, S.L., Dashiell, S.M., Rottkamp, C.A., Hammer, J.A., Quarles, R.H. J. Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Overcoming inhibitors in myelin to promote axonal regeneration. Domeniconi, M., Filbin, M.T. J. Neurol. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Myelin proteolipid protein, basic protein, the small isoform of myelin-associated glycoprotein, and p42MAPK are associated in the Triton X-100 extract of central nervous system myelin. Arvanitis, D.N., Yang, W., Boggs, J.M. J. Neurosci. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Myelin-associated glycoprotein interacts with the Nogo66 receptor to inhibit neurite outgrowth. Domeniconi, M., Cao, Z., Spencer, T., Sivasankaran, R., Wang, K., Nikulina, E., Kimura, N., Cai, H., Deng, K., Gao, Y., He, Z., Filbin, M. Neuron (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. In vivo detection of Egr2 binding to target genes during peripheral nerve myelination. Jang, S.W., LeBlanc, S.E., Roopra, A., Wrabetz, L., Svaren, J. J. Neurochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Fibronectin is a binding partner for the myelin-associated glycoprotein (siglec-4a). Strenge, K., Brossmer, R., Ihrig, P., Schauer, R., Kelm, S. FEBS Lett. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Binding specificities of the sialoadhesin family of I-type lectins. Sialic acid linkage and substructure requirements for binding of myelin-associated glycoprotein, Schwann cell myelin protein, and sialoadhesin. Collins, B.E., Kiso, M., Hasegawa, A., Tropak, M.B., Roder, J.C., Crocker, P.R., Schnaar, R.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Nogo-66 and myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) inhibit the adhesion and migration of Nogo-66 receptor expressing human glioma cells. Liao, H., Duka, T., Teng, F.Y., Sun, L., Bu, W.Y., Ahmed, S., Tang, B.L., Xiao, Z.C. J. Neurochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Autoreactive CD8+ T-cell responses to human myelin protein-derived peptides. Tsuchida, T., Parker, K.C., Turner, R.V., McFarland, H.F., Coligan, J.E., Biddison, W.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. Expression of transcripts for myelination-related genes in the anterior cingulate cortex in schizophrenia. McCullumsmith, R.E., Gupta, D., Beneyto, M., Kreger, E., Haroutunian, V., Davis, K.L., Meador-Woodruff, J.H. Schizophr. Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  30. Immunohistochemical characterization of oligodendrogliomas: an analysis of multiple markers. Nakagawa, Y., Perentes, E., Rubinstein, L.J. Acta Neuropathol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  31. Autoreactive T and B cells in nervous system diseases. Sun, J.B. Acta Neurol. Scand., Suppl. (1993) [Pubmed]
  32. A derivative of myelin-associated glycoprotein in cerebrospinal fluid of normal subjects and patients with neurological disease. Yanagisawa, K., Quarles, R.H., Johnson, D., Brady, R.O., Whitaker, J.N. Ann. Neurol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  33. Selective loss of myelin-associated glycoprotein from myelin correlates with anti-MAG antibody titre in demyelinating paraproteinaemic polyneuropathy. Gabriel, J.M., Erne, B., Miescher, G.C., Miller, S.L., Vital, A., Vital, C., Steck, A.J. Brain (1996) [Pubmed]
  34. Variability in the binding of anti-MAG and anti-SGPG antibodies to target antigens in demyelinating neuropathy and IgM paraproteinemia. Weiss, M.D., Dalakas, M.C., Lauter, C.J., Willison, H.J., Quarles, R.H. J. Neuroimmunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
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