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Gene Review

SNORA62  -  small nucleolar RNA, H/ACA box 62

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: E2, E2-1, RNE2, RNU108
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Disease relevance of SNORA62


Psychiatry related information on SNORA62

  • E1/E2 dimers and the HCV-LPs of 1b did not bind CD81-LEL, consistent with the notion that CD81 recognition by E2 is strain-specific and does not correlate with permissiveness of infection [6].

High impact information on SNORA62


Chemical compound and disease context of SNORA62


Biological context of SNORA62

  • Binding of E1 to the origin was increased by E2 proteins and required the presence of E2 binding sites [13].
  • To examine the interplay of these replication proteins, we have analyzed the binding of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 31b E1 and E2 proteins to the origin of replication [13].
  • These observations suggest a model whereby modulation of the relative levels of E1 and E2 during the viral life cycle may alter the pattern of origin binding and possibly episomal copy number [13].
  • The origins of DNA replication in bovine and human papillomavirus genomes have been localized to a specific part of the upstream regulatory region (URR) which includes recognition sites for E1 and E2 proteins [1].
  • Sequence components adjacent to the E1 and E2 binding sites, comprising AT-rich and purine-rich elements and the consensus TATA box sequence, probably contribute to the overall efficiency of replication, though they are nonessential [1].

Anatomical context of SNORA62

  • To address the mechanisms by which the viral DNA is stably propagated in the transformed cells, we have constructed a cell line CH04.15 expressing constitutively the viral proteins E1 and E2, that are required for initiation of viral DNA replication [14].
  • In this study, we have corrected this mutation and have evaluated the effect of mutations of either the E1 or the E2 gene on the efficiency of HPV-16 immortalization of human keratinocytes [15].
  • The human E1 alpha and the previously isolated human E2 cDNAs were used as probes in Northern blot analysis with cultured fibroblasts and lymphoblasts from seven unrelated MSUD patients [16].
  • This association may explain the ability of E2 protein to activate transcription, since GRP78 has been postulated to be a sensor of stress in the endoplasmic reticulum [17].
  • Since overexpression of GRP78 has been shown to decrease the sensitivity of cells to killing by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and to increase tumorigenicity and resistance to antitumor drugs, this activity of E2 protein may be involved in the pathogenesis of hepatitis C virus-induced diseases [17].

Associations of SNORA62 with chemical compounds

  • Several amino acid substitutions in the phosphate-binding loop (P loop), which is implicated in binding the triphosphate moiety of ATP, abolished E2 binding, indicating that the structural integrity of this domain is essential for the interaction [18].
  • No evidence of O-linked glycans was found on either the E1 or the E2 glycoprotein [19].
  • The monovalent ionophore monensin, which inhibits intracellular transport of proteins through the ER-Golgi complex, was used to block the transport of E1 and E2 glycoproteins through the Golgi complex [20].
  • For O-linked glycosylation, addition of N-acetylgalactosamine and galactose to E2 protein was found to take place in the medial to the trans Golgi [20].
  • Significant loss of antigenicity (greater than 90%) of RV E1 and E2 proteins was observed when IB assays were performed in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol as compared with assays under nonreducing conditions [21].

Physical interactions of SNORA62

  • The mechanism by which these proteins are recruited to the origin and the role of the E1/E2 complex in replication remain undefined [13].

Regulatory relationships of SNORA62

  • Binding of the human papillomavirus E1 origin-recognition protein is regulated through complex formation with the E2 enhancer-binding protein [13].
  • The results suggest that immunization of Ad.CMV.HCV virus combined with E2 protein is an effective modality to induce humoral as well as cellular immune response to E2 antigen [22].
  • These results suggest that YY1 can inhibit HPV ori replication by interfering with E2 protein functions [23].
  • The E2 protein expressed in both insect and mammalian cells was a glycoprotein of 60 kDa (gp60) and removal of the sugar residues by N-glycanase yielded 38- and 40-kDa proteins [24].

Other interactions of SNORA62

  • Therefore, changes in the relative amounts of E1 and E2 proteins can dramatically alter the pattern of binding of viral replication factors to the origin [13].
  • Abrogation of a mitotic checkpoint by E2 proteins from oncogenic human papillomaviruses correlates with increased turnover of the p53 tumor suppressor protein [25].
  • The sera of mice immunized with the E1E2 inhibited the binding of E2 protein to the major extracellular loop of human CD81 [22].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of SNORA62


  1. cis-Acting components of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA replication: linker substitution analysis of the HPV type 11 origin. Russell, J., Botchan, M.R. J. Virol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Two E2 binding sites alone are sufficient to function as the minimal origin of replication of human papillomavirus type 18 DNA. Sverdrup, F., Khan, S.A. J. Virol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Human papillomavirus type 16 integration in cervical carcinoma in situ and in invasive cervical cancer. Arias-Pulido, H., Peyton, C.L., Joste, N.E., Vargas, H., Wheeler, C.M. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Apolipoprotein E phenotypes in patients with myocardial infarction. Utermann, G., Hardewig, A., Zimmer, F. Hum. Genet. (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. Activation of BPV-1 replication in vitro by the transcription factor E2. Yang, L., Li, R., Mohr, I.J., Clark, R., Botchan, M.R. Nature (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Structural features of envelope proteins on hepatitis C virus-like particles as determined by anti-envelope monoclonal antibodies and CD81 binding. Triyatni, M., Vergalla, J., Davis, A.R., Hadlock, K.G., Foung, S.K., Liang, T.J. Virology (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Targeting the E1 replication protein to the papillomavirus origin of replication by complex formation with the E2 transactivator. Mohr, I.J., Clark, R., Sun, S., Androphy, E.J., MacPherson, P., Botchan, M.R. Science (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. ChlR1 Is Required for Loading Papillomavirus E2 onto Mitotic Chromosomes and Viral Genome Maintenance. Parish, J.L., Bean, A.M., Park, R.B., Androphy, E.J. Mol. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Antibodies to E1 and E2/Protein X components of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in sera of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Kuroda, M., Morito, T., Takagi, T., Ohira, H., Kokubun, M., Kojima, T., Ono, K., Kochi, H., Kasukawa, R. J. Hepatol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Uterine bleeding in postmenopausal women on continuous therapy with estradiol and norethindrone acetate. Endometrium Study Group. Archer, D.F., Dorin, M.H., Heine, W., Nanavati, N., Arce, J.C. Obstetrics and gynecology. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Construction of recombinant swinepox viruses and expression of the classical swine fever virus E2 protein. Hahn, J., Park, S.H., Song, J.Y., An, S.H., Ahn, B.Y. J. Virol. Methods (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Effect of a unique constant-estrogen, pulsed-progestin hormone replacement therapy containing 17beta-estradiol and norgestimate on endometrial histology. Corson, S.L., Richart, R.M., Caubel, P., Lim, P. International journal of fertility and women's medicine. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Binding of the human papillomavirus E1 origin-recognition protein is regulated through complex formation with the E2 enhancer-binding protein. Frattini, M.G., Laimins, L.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Cis and trans requirements for stable episomal maintenance of the BPV-1 replicator. Piirsoo, M., Ustav, E., Mandel, T., Stenlund, A., Ustav, M. EMBO J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Disruption of either the E1 or the E2 regulatory gene of human papillomavirus type 16 increases viral immortalization capacity. Romanczuk, H., Howley, P.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Molecular phenotypes in cultured maple syrup urine disease cells. Complete E1 alpha cDNA sequence and mRNA and subunit contents of the human branched chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex. Fisher, C.W., Chuang, J.L., Griffin, T.A., Lau, K.S., Cox, R.P., Chuang, D.T. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Activation of the grp78 and grp94 promoters by hepatitis C virus E2 envelope protein. Liberman, E., Fong, Y.L., Selby, M.J., Choo, Q.L., Cousens, L., Houghton, M., Yen, T.S. J. Virol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Role of the ATP-binding domain of the human papillomavirus type 11 E1 helicase in E2-dependent binding to the origin. Titolo, S., Pelletier, A., Sauvé, F., Brault, K., Wardrop, E., White, P.W., Amin, A., Cordingley, M.G., Archambault, J. J. Virol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Structural protein relationships among eastern equine encephalitis viruses. Strizki, J.M., Repik, P.M. J. Gen. Virol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. Brefeldin A and monensin arrest cell surface expression of membrane glycoproteins and release of rubella virus. Qiu, Z., Tufaro, F., Gillam, S. J. Gen. Virol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Detection of rubella virus-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA antibodies by immunoblot assays. Zhang, T., Mauracher, C.A., Mitchell, L.A., Tingle, A.J. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Immunogenicity of the E1E2 proteins of hepatitis C virus expressed by recombinant adenoviruses. Seong, Y.R., Choi, S., Lim, J.S., Lee, C.H., Lee, C.K., Im, D.S. Vaccine (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Transcription factor YY1 represses cell-free replication from human papillomavirus origins. Lee, K.Y., Broker, T.R., Chow, L.T. J. Virol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Processing of E1 and E2 glycoproteins of hepatitis C virus expressed in mammalian and insect cells. Matsuura, Y., Suzuki, T., Suzuki, R., Sato, M., Aizaki, H., Saito, I., Miyamura, T. Virology (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Abrogation of a mitotic checkpoint by E2 proteins from oncogenic human papillomaviruses correlates with increased turnover of the p53 tumor suppressor protein. Frattini, M.G., Hurst, S.D., Lim, H.B., Swaminathan, S., Laimins, L.A. EMBO J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. Inhibition of human papillomavirus DNA replication by small molecule antagonists of the E1-E2 protein interaction. White, P.W., Titolo, S., Brault, K., Thauvette, L., Pelletier, A., Welchner, E., Bourgon, L., Doyon, L., Ogilvie, W.W., Yoakim, C., Cordingley, M.G., Archambault, J. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Selective tolerance to the E1 protein of rubella virus in congenital rubella syndrome. Mauracher, C.A., Mitchell, L.A., Tingle, A.J. J. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  28. Genome amplification of human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 in cervical carcinomas is related to the retention of E1/E2 genes. Berumen, J., Casas, L., Segura, E., Amezcua, J.L., Garcia-Carranca, A. Int. J. Cancer (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. Expression of hepatitis C virus envelope glycoproteins by herpes simplex virus type 1-based amplicon vectors. Tsitoura, E., Lucas, M., Revol-Guyot, V., Epstein, A.L., Manservigi, R., Mavromara, P. J. Gen. Virol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. Regulation of human papillomavirus type 1 replication by the viral E2 protein. Van Horn, G., Sheikh, S., Khan, S.A. Virology (2001) [Pubmed]
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