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Gene Review

SST  -  somatostatin

Canis lupus familiaris

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Disease relevance of SST

  • When glucose was infused into dogs with insulin and glucagon levels clamped at basal levels (by means of infusion of somatostatin and replacement of the hormones), RaVLDL increased significantly in the control dogs, but it did not increase further in dogs with sepsis [1].
  • In six patients the pain relief was rated "excellent" or "good" and in two patients it was assessed "poor" or "fair". None of the patients demonstrated any evidence of neurologic deficit related to the SST treatment [2].
  • Whereas glucose disposal during steady state hyperglycemia was significantly diminished for both PPx and PAT/B in the absence of SST, IIGD was unaltered across all three groups studied [3].
  • These results suggest that SST confers better protection against influenza virus infection through augmentation of production of antiviral IgA antibody but not direct action to the virus, and can be used as an adjuvant to nasally inoculated influenza HA vaccine [4].
  • Somatostatin (SST) has been shown to induce cholestasis in the dog and in the rat [5].

Psychiatry related information on SST

  • To study possible physiologic relationships between somatostatin and the gastric interdigestive contractions (GIC), gastric motor activity, and plasma somatostatin-like immunoreactivity (SLI) concentration were determined simultaneously in four conscious dogs, each of which was studied on two separate occasions [6].
  • Decreased somatostatin in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease has led to an investigation of the efficacy of neurotransmitter replacement therapy [7].

High impact information on SST


Chemical compound and disease context of SST


Biological context of SST


Anatomical context of SST

  • It is suggested that the principal mode of action of SST on bile flow is indirect by inhibiting the release of choleretic hormones, whereas SP is suggested to act directly on the hepatocytes [22].
  • These results suggest that oral administration of SST shows anti-influenza virus activity in the nasal cavity by activation of T-cell in Peyer's patch lymphocyte and stimulation of production of anti-influenza virus IgA antibody in nasal lymphocyte [23].
  • Contribution of the pancreas to circulating somatostatin-like immunoreactivity in the normal dog [24].
  • Biosynthesis of somatostatin in canine fundic D cells [25].
  • We have measured the contents of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity in the effluent of canine thyroid glands perfused without recirculation with a synthetic buffer medium [26].

Associations of SST with chemical compounds

  • The basal serum growth hormone (GH) concentration was markedly elevated (23microg/l) and did not decrease during a glucose tolerance test or after somatostatin administration [27].
  • The SST infusion was associated with a pronounced decrease in bile flow and in bile acid secretion and with an increase in bile cholesterol saturation [5].
  • Methyl N-[3-[(14 beta-hydroxybufa-4,20,22-trienolid-3 beta-yl)oxy-carbonyl] propanoyl]-L-[3',5'-125I2] diiodotyrosinate ([125I] SST) was used as a radioactive ligand [28].
  • After overnight incubation, the antibody-bound and free [125I] SST were separated using polyethylene glycol [28].
  • The effect of SST, glucagon, calcitonin and PGE1 on exocrine pancreatic secretion in the unrestrained dog in long-term experiments [29].

Regulatory relationships of SST

  • Modulation of motilin-induced somatostatin release in dogs by naloxone [30].
  • Somatostatin secretion was inhibited by galanin (p less than 0.001), but not by any of the other investigated peptides [31].
  • In an in vitro study, the addition of somatostatin in doses of 0.01 and 0.05 microgram suppressed the renin release in dog renal cortical cell suspension by 74.3% and 53.6%, respectively [32].

Other interactions of SST


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of SST

  • Because the described neuropathologic changes could also be cancer-related or result from chemotherapy or radiation therapy we suggest that further judicious use of SST is justified in this category of patients, if their pain remains unrelieved despite large doses of opioid analgesics [2].
  • Intravenous glucose tolerance tests, with or without a background infusion of somatostatin (SST; 400 ng/kg/min) were performed on all animals preoperatively and postoperatively [36].
  • Oral administration of SST (2 g/kg, 18 times) from 7 days before to 13 days after vaccination also significantly augmented serum hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody by nasal inoculation of influenza HA vaccine (5 micrograms/mouse) that was insufficient to induce antiviral antibody [4].
  • Secretion at a concentration of 0.3 U/ml and gastric inhibitory polypeptide concentration of 58 ng/ml produced a prompt two- to threefold rise in mean somatostatin release, which persisted throughout the perfusion period [37].
  • The somatostatin-like immunoreactivity was studied in dilution experiments and by gel-filtration chromatography, and found to have properties identical to those of synthetic cyclic somatostatin, which was also recovered quantitatively when added to sampling tubes [26].


  1. Effect of sepsis on VLDL kinetics: responses in basal state and during glucose infusion. Wolfe, R.R., Shaw, J.H., Durkot, M.J. Am. J. Physiol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  2. Intrathecal and epidural somatostatin for patients with cancer. Analgesic effects and postmortem neuropathologic investigations of spinal cord and nerve roots. Mollenholt, P., Rawal, N., Gordh, T., Olsson, Y. Anesthesiology (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Surgical alterations of the pancreas and insulin-independent glucose disposal. Krusch, D.A., Pruett, T.L., Cornett, G., Hanks, J.B. J. Surg. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. In vivo anti-influenza virus activity of kampo (Japanese herbal) medicine "sho-seiryu-to" and its mode of action. Nagai, T., Yamada, H. Int. J. Immunopharmacol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Pharmacological effect of somatostatin on bile secretion in man. Marteau, P., Chrétien, Y., Calmus, Y., Parc, R., Poupon, R. Digestion (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. Plasma somatostatin-like immunoreactivity during the interdigestive period in the dog. Aizawa, I., Itoh, Z., Harris, V., Unger, R.H. J. Clin. Invest. (1981) [Pubmed]
  7. Distribution of a somatostatin analog after continuous intraventricular administration. Kroin, J.S., O'Dorisio, T.M., Penn, R.D., Haklin, M.F., Howe, B.A. Neurosurgery (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. Circulating somatostatin acts on the islets of Langerhans by way of a somatostatin-poor compartment. Kawai, K., Ipp, E., Orci, L., Perrelet, A., Unger, R.H. Science (1982) [Pubmed]
  9. Splanchnic somatostatin: a hormonal regulator of nutrient homeostasis. Schusdziarra, V., Zyznar, E., Rouiller, D., Boden, G., Brown, J.C., Arimura, A., Unger, R.H. Science (1980) [Pubmed]
  10. Somatostatin suppresses secretin and pancreatic exocrine secretion. Boden, G., Sivitz, M.C., Owen, O.E., Essa-Koumar, N., Landor, J.H. Science (1975) [Pubmed]
  11. Intra-islet insulin permits glucose to directly suppress pancreatic A cell function. Greenbaum, C.J., Havel, P.J., Taborsky, G.J., Klaff, L.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Glucagon: role in the hyperglycemia of diabetes mellitus. Dobbs, R., Sakurai, H., Sasaki, H., Faloona, G., Valverde, I., Baetens, D., Orci, L., Unger, R. Science (1975) [Pubmed]
  13. Relationship of glucagon suppression by insulin and somatostatin to the ambient glucose concentration. Starke, A., Imamura, T., Unger, R.H. J. Clin. Invest. (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. Effect of glucose, independent of changes in insulin and glucagon secretion, on alanine metabolism in the conscious dog. Shulman, G.I., Lacy, W.W., Liljenquist, J.E., Keller, U., Williams, P.E., Cherrington, A.D. J. Clin. Invest. (1980) [Pubmed]
  15. Mechanisms for direct inhibition of canine gastric parietal cells by somatostatin. Park, J., Chiba, T., Yamada, T. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. Divergent stimulatory and inhibitory actions of carbamoylcholine on gastric D-cells. Chiba, T., Raffoul, K., Yamada, T. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  17. Effects of morphine on glucose homeostasis in the conscious dog. Radosevich, P.M., Williams, P.E., Lacy, D.B., McRae, J.R., Steiner, K.E., Cherrington, A.D., Lacy, W.W., Abumrad, N.N. J. Clin. Invest. (1984) [Pubmed]
  18. Effects of corticotropin-releasing factor on plasma motilin and somatostatin levels and gastrointestinal motility in dogs. Bueno, L., Fargeas, M.J., Gue, M., Peeters, T.L., Bormans, V., Fioramonti, J. Gastroenterology (1986) [Pubmed]
  19. Somatostatin induces ectopic activity fronts of the migrating motor complex via a local intestinal mechanism. Hostein, J., Janssens, J., Vantrappen, G., Peeters, T.L., Vandeweerd, M., Leman, G. Gastroenterology (1984) [Pubmed]
  20. Stress-induced changes in gastric emptying, postprandial motility, and plasma gut hormone levels in dogs. Gué, M., Peeters, T., Depoortere, I., Vantrappen, G., Buéno, L. Gastroenterology (1989) [Pubmed]
  21. Plasma levels of gastrin, somatostatin, and cholecystokinin immunoreactivity during pregnancy and lactation in dogs. Linden, A., Eriksson, M., Carlquist, M., Uvnäs-Moberg, K. Gastroenterology (1987) [Pubmed]
  22. Effects of substance P and somatostatin on taurocholate-stabilized and CCK- or secretin-induced choleresis in the anesthetized dog. Magnusson, I., Thulin, L., Einarsson, K., Bergström, K. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  23. In vivo anti-influenza virus activity of Kampo (Japanese herbal) medicine "sho-seiryu-to"--stimulation of mucosal immune system and effect on allergic pulmonary inflammation model mice. Nagai, T., Yamada, H. Immunopharmacology and immunotoxicology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Contribution of the pancreas to circulating somatostatin-like immunoreactivity in the normal dog. Taborsky, G.J., Ensinck, J.W. J. Clin. Invest. (1984) [Pubmed]
  25. Biosynthesis of somatostatin in canine fundic D cells. Chiba, T., Park, J., Yamada, T. J. Clin. Invest. (1988) [Pubmed]
  26. Release of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity from the perfused canine thyroid. Selective stimulatory effect of calcium ions. Laurberg, P., Orskov, H. J. Clin. Invest. (1981) [Pubmed]
  27. Acromegaly due to a somatroph adenoma in a dog. Fracassi, F., Gandini, G., Diana, A., Preziosi, R., Ingh, T.S., Famigli-Bergamini, P., Kooistra, H.S. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  28. Determination of proscillaridin in plasma by radioimmunoassay. Kojima, K., Yamamoto, K., Terauchi, Y., Kagemoto, A., Naruto, S., Nakanishi, Y. J. Pharmacobio-dyn. (1986) [Pubmed]
  29. The effect of SST, glucagon, calcitonin and PGE1 on exocrine pancreatic secretion in the unrestrained dog in long-term experiments. Funovics, J., Hölbling, N., Rauhs, R., Pointner, H., Niebauer, G., Walde, I., Kopf, N. European surgical research. Europäische chirurgische Forschung. Recherches chirurgicales européennes. (1981) [Pubmed]
  30. Modulation of motilin-induced somatostatin release in dogs by naloxone. Schick, R., Schusdziarra, V. Peptides (1985) [Pubmed]
  31. On the nature of the galanin action on the endocrine pancreas: studies with six galanin fragments in the perfused dog pancreas. Hermansen, K., Yanaihara, N., Ahrén, B. Acta Endocrinol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  32. Effect of somatostatin on plasma renin activity. Izumi, Y., Honda, M., Hatano, M. Endocrinol. Jpn. (1979) [Pubmed]
  33. Effect of transforming growth factor alpha and interleukin 8 on somatostatin release from canine fundic D cells. Beales, I., Calam, J., Post, L., Srinivasan, S., Yamada, T., DelValle, J. Gastroenterology (1997) [Pubmed]
  34. Glucagon-like peptide-1-(7-36) amide and peptide YY mediate intraduodenal fat-induced inhibition of acid secretion in dogs. Fung, L.C., Chisholm, C., Greenberg, G.R. Endocrinology (1998) [Pubmed]
  35. Galanin induces opposite effects via different intracellular pathways in smooth muscle cells from dog colon. Botella, A., Delvaux, M., Fioramonti, J., Frexinos, J., Bueno, L. Peptides (1994) [Pubmed]
  36. Insulin-dependent and insulin-independent effects after surgical alterations of the pancreas. Krusch, D.A., Brown, K.B., Cornett, G., Freedlender, A.E., Kaiser, D.L., Hanks, J.B. Surgery (1989) [Pubmed]
  37. The effects of gastrin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, secretin, and the octapeptide of cholecystokinin upon immunoreactive somatostatin release by the perfused canine pancreas. Ipp, E., Dobbs, R.E., Harris, V., Arimura, A., Vale, W., Unger, R.H. J. Clin. Invest. (1977) [Pubmed]
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