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MeSH Review

Renal Veins

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Disease relevance of Renal Veins

  • Thrombosis of the renal veins and vena cava. Occurrence in morbid obesity [1].
  • The diagnostic usefulness of the timed intravenous pyelogram (IVP), isotopic renal flow study (renal flow), stimulated plasma renin activity (SPRA), saralasin infusion test, and renal vein renins (RVR) in detecting possible renal vascular hypertension was studied in relation to age [2].
  • Inactive renin seems likely to be a form in which the enzyme is secreted since in a patient with renal-artery stenosis its concentration was greater in the renal-vein blood coming from the affected kidney [3].
  • In 32 patients P-113 infusion reversibly reduced blood pressure, and almost all of these "P-113 responders" had elevated renal vein and/or peripheral PRA levels, together with evidence of renal ischemia [4].
  • Hypotension increased the renal vein plasma concentrations of norepinephrine from 380 +/- 59 to 608 +/- 106 pg/ml (mean +/- SEM; P less than 0.01) and of PGE2 from 55 +/- 7 to 81 +/- 41 pg/ml (P less than 0.05) [5].

High impact information on Renal Veins


Chemical compound and disease context of Renal Veins


Biological context of Renal Veins


Anatomical context of Renal Veins


Associations of Renal Veins with chemical compounds

  • Performed with a serum potassium measurement, this now reliable test is useful for primary screening and then, in conjunction with renal vein renin studies or an aldosterone profile, for diagnosis or exclusion of surgically curable renovascular or adrenocortical hypertensions [26].
  • Left renal vein insulin concentration increased from 41 +/- 8 to 92 +/- 23 pmol/l (P < 0.05) in the insulin group, but there was no change in either arterial insulin, (approximately 50 pmol/l), glucose concentrations (approximately 5.4 mmol/l), or glucose appearance (approximately 18 [7].
  • Eleven of 12 patients with a depressor response to angiotensin II blockade had significant renovascular or renal disease, and nine of 10 had renal vein renin measurements that lateralized to the abnormal kidney [27].
  • Comparison of the level of LA-PF4/beta TG antigen and of creatinine in aorta and in renal vein showed 25%-30% extraction of these compounds by the kidney [28].
  • In dogs pretreated with indomethacin, blood from the right renal vein also showed vasoconstrictor activity [29].

Gene context of Renal Veins


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Renal Veins

  • Since unilateral hypersecretion of renin with a completely normal contralateral kidney is rare in this group, abnormal renal-vein and peripheral renin values should be a prerequisite for advising nephrectomy, especially when the suspected kidney shows considerable excretory function [35].
  • Phlebography of the inferior vena cava with selective study of the renal veins was performed in 43 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) [36].
  • All study subjects had their renal vein catheterized under fluoroscopy, and net renal glucose balance and renal glucose production and utilization rates were measured using a combination of arteriovenous concentration difference with stable isotope dilution technique [37].
  • To characterize the role of the liver and kidney in the metabolic response to injury and infection, selective catheterization of the hepatic (42 veins) and renal veins (21 veins) was performed in 31 burn patients (mean burn size: 51% TBS), studied 4-129 days postinjury [38].
  • These data support the usefulness and define the limitations of peripheral and renal vein renin measurements in selecting patients for treatment by renal angioplasty [39].


  1. Thrombosis of the renal veins and vena cava. Occurrence in morbid obesity. Luft, F.C., Walker, P.D., Hamburger, R.J., Kleit, S.A. JAMA (1975) [Pubmed]
  2. Effect of age on diagnostic usefulness of stimulated plasma renin activity and saralasin test in detection of renovascular hypertension. Anderson, G.H., Springer, J., Randall, P., Streeten, D.H., Blakeman, N. Lancet (1980) [Pubmed]
  3. An inactive higher-molecular-weight renin in normal subjects and hypertensive patients. Boyd, G.W. Lancet (1977) [Pubmed]
  4. Identification of angiotensinogenic hypertension in man using 1-sar-8-ala-angiotensin II (Saralasin, P-113). Streeten, D.H., Freiberg, J.M., Anderson, G.H., Dalakos, T.G. Circ. Res. (1975) [Pubmed]
  5. Role of the prostaglandin in norepinephrine release during augmented renal sympathetic nerve activity in the dog. Oliver, J.A., Sciacca, R.R., Pinto, J., Cannon, P.J. Circ. Res. (1981) [Pubmed]
  6. Role of the renin-angiotensin system in post-transplantation hypertension in patients with multiple kidneys. Linas, S.L., Miller, P.D., McDonald, K.M., Stables, D.P., Katz, F., Weil, R., Schrier, R.W. N. Engl. J. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  7. Insulin regulation of renal glucose metabolism in conscious dogs. Cersosimo, E., Judd, R.L., Miles, J.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Angiotensin and thromboxane in the enhanced renal adrenergic nerve sensitivity of acute renal failure. Robinette, J.B., Conger, J.D. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Hepatic extraction and renal production of 3,3'-diiodothyronine and 3',5'-diiodothyronine in man. Faber, J., Faber, O.K., Lund, B., Kirkegaard, C., Wahren, J. J. Clin. Invest. (1980) [Pubmed]
  10. Renal vein thrombosis, nephrotic syndrome, and systemic lupus erythematosus: an association in four cases. Appel, G.B., Williams, G.S., Meltzer, J.I., Pirani, C.L. Ann. Intern. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  11. Renal artery stenosis and ischemia. Effect on renal blood flow and extraction fraction. Taylor, A., Eshima, D. Hypertension (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Hydralazine and the tourniquet test in renal vein renin sampling: a comparison. Gomes, A.S., Sinaiko, A.R., Tobian, L., Cohn, J.N., Formanek, G., Amplatz, K. Radiology. (1983) [Pubmed]
  13. Suppression of renal vein renin profiles by mannitol prophylaxis: implications in the evaluation of renovascular hypertension. Benz, R.L., Teehan, B.P., Sigler, M.H., Gilgore, G.S., Schleifer, C.R. Am. J. Kidney Dis. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Spontaneous rupture of renal allografts: the importance of renal vein thrombosis in the cyclosporin era. Richardson, A.J., Higgins, R.M., Jaskowski, A.J., Murie, J.A., Dunnill, M.S., Ting, A., Morris, P.J. The British journal of surgery. (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. Renal artery stenosis and hypertension after abdominal irradiation for Hodgkin disease. Successful treatment with nephrectomy. Salvi, S., Green, D.M., Brecher, M.L., Magoos, I., Gamboa, L.N., Fisher, J.E., Baliah, T., Afshani, E. Urology (1983) [Pubmed]
  16. Renal substrate exchange in human diabetes mellitus. Wahren, J., Felig, P. Diabetes (1975) [Pubmed]
  17. Evidence for increased renal norepinephrine overflow during sodium restriction in humans. Friberg, P., Meredith, I., Jennings, G., Lambert, G., Fazio, V., Esler, M. Hypertension (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Renal cell carcinoma: comparison of morphological and flow cytometric parameters of primary tumour and invasive tumour lying within the renal vein. Novelli, M.R., MacIver, A.G. J. Pathol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Renal acid-base metabolism after ischemia. Holloway, J.C., Phifer, T., Henderson, R., Welbourne, T.C. Kidney Int. (1986) [Pubmed]
  20. Regional variation of postjunctional alpha-adrenoceptor responses in the developing renal vascular bed of sheep. Matherne, G.P., Nakamura, K.T., Alden, B.M., Rusch, N.J., Robillard, J.E. Pediatr. Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  21. Effect of oral propranolol administration on azygos, renal and hepatic uptake and output of catecholamines in cirrhosis. Bendtsen, F., Christensen, N.J., Sørensen, T.I., Henriksen, J.H. Hepatology (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. Congenital absence of the portal vein. Nakasaki, H., Tanaka, Y., Ohta, M., Kanemoto, T., Mitomi, T., Iwata, Y., Ozawa, A. Ann. Surg. (1989) [Pubmed]
  23. Renal extraction of atrial natriuretic peptide in hypertensive patients with or without renal artery stenosis. Schreij, G., van Es, P.N., Schiffers, P.M., de Leeuw, P.W. Hypertension (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Noninvasive measurement of extraction fraction and single-kidney glomerular filtration rate with MR imaging in swine with surgically created renal arterial stenoses. Coulam, C.H., Lee, J.H., Wedding, K.L., Spielman, D.M., Pelc, N.J., Kee, S.T., Hill, B.B., Bouley, D.M., Derby, G.C., Myers, B.D., Sawyer-Glover, A.M., Sommer, F.G. Radiology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Cortical and vascular prostaglandin synthesis during renal allograft rejection in the rat. Gibbons, C.P., Wiley, K.N., Lindsey, N.J., Fox, M., Beck, S., Slater, D.N., Preston, F.E., Brown, C.B., Raftery, A.T. Transplantation (1987) [Pubmed]
  26. Renin profiling for diagnosis and treatment of hypertension. Laragh, J.H., Letcher, R.L., Pickering, T.G. JAMA (1979) [Pubmed]
  27. Detection of renovascular hypertension with angiotensin II blockade. Baer, L., Parra-Carrilo, J.Z., Radichevich, I., Williams, G.S. Ann. Intern. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  28. Role of kidney in the catabolic clearance of human platelet antiheparin proteins from rat circulation. Bastl, C.P., Musial, J., Kloczewiak, M., Guzzo, J., Berman, I., Niewiarowski, S. Blood (1981) [Pubmed]
  29. Bioassay in vivo for circulating vasoactive agents after renal artery constriction in dogs. Pamnani, M.B., Simon, G., Overbeck, H.W. Circ. Res. (1976) [Pubmed]
  30. Hypoxanthine as a graft ischemia marker stimulates catalase activity in the renal vein during reperfusion in humans. Domański, L., Safranow, K., Dołegowska, B., Rózański, J., Myślak, M., Ciechanowski, K., Jakubowska, K., Dziedziejko, V., Romanowski, M., Sulikowski, T., Sieńko, J., Kamiński, M., Ostrowski, M., Domański, M., Pawlik, A., Rać, M.E., Chlubek, D. Transplant. Proc. (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Small interfering RNA targeting Fas protects mice against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Hamar, P., Song, E., Kökény, G., Chen, A., Ouyang, N., Lieberman, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. Increased renal production of transforming growth factor-beta1 in patients with type II diabetes. Sharma, K., Ziyadeh, F.N., Alzahabi, B., McGowan, T.A., Kapoor, S., Kurnik, B.R., Kurnik, P.B., Weisberg, L.S. Diabetes (1997) [Pubmed]
  33. Kinin B1 and B2 receptors in pig vessels: characterization of two monoreceptor systems. Rizzi, A., Calò, G., Amadesi, S., Regoli, D. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  34. Gene expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 in transplant kidneys complicated by renal vein thrombosis: a combined study by in-situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Wang, Y., Turner, N., An, S.F., Fleming, K.A., Thompson, E.M. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. (1994) [Pubmed]
  35. Hypertension and unilateral parenchymal renal disease. Evidence for abnormal vasoconstriction-volume interaction. Vaughan, E.D., Bühler, F.R., Laragh, J.H., Sealey, J.E., Gavras, H., Baer, L. JAMA (1975) [Pubmed]
  36. Renal vein thrombosis and inferior vena cava thrombosis in systemic lupus erythematosus. Frequency and risk factors. Mintz, G., Acevedo-Vázquez, E., Gutiérrez-Espinosa, G., Avelar-Garnica, F. Arthritis Rheum. (1984) [Pubmed]
  37. Abnormal glucose handling by the kidney in response to hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes. Cersosimo, E., Garlick, P., Ferretti, J. Diabetes (2001) [Pubmed]
  38. Effect of injury and infection on visceral metabolism and circulation. Wilmore, D.W., Goodwin, C.W., Aulick, L.H., Powanda, M.C., Mason, A.D., Pruitt, B.A. Ann. Surg. (1980) [Pubmed]
  39. Predictive value and changes of renin secretion in hypertensive patients with unilateral renovascular disease undergoing successful renal angioplasty. Pickering, T.G., Sos, T.A., Vaughan, E.D., Case, D.B., Sealey, J.E., Harshfield, G.A., Laragh, J.H. Am. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
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