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Gene Review

PTH  -  parathyroid hormone

Canis lupus familiaris

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Disease relevance of PTH


Psychiatry related information on PTH


High impact information on PTH


Chemical compound and disease context of PTH


Biological context of PTH

  • Perfusate from kidneys with lower glomerular filtration rates (GFR) contained b-PTH 1-84 for longer periods of time than kidneys with higher GFRs, and perfusate from kidneys with lower GFRs demonstrated greater accumulation of carboxyl terminal PTH fragments [11].
  • The Kact (concentration of PTH required for half-maximal enzyme activation) was unchanged [7].
  • However, the percent extraction of immunoreactive PTH was unchanged in chronic renal disease, and the observed decrease in RC was due to changes in renal plasma flow [12].
  • The results of this study suggest that target cell resistance to PTH in patients with hyperparathyroidism might occur, at least in part, due to down-regulation of PTH receptors by circulating hormone [13].
  • Phosphorylation of BBMV and PTH treatment in vivo had similar effects on BBMV phospholipid composition increasing the levels of anionic phospholipids [14].

Anatomical context of PTH

  • After 6-9 wk on the diet the animals were killed and basolateral renal cortical membranes prepared for the study of the PTH receptor-adenylate cyclase system in vitro [7].
  • To study the subcellular mechanism of this phenomenon we evaluated PTH receptors and adenylate cyclase activity in renal cortical membranes prepared before and after infusion of bovine parathyroid gland extract (PTE) into thyroparathyroidectomized dogs [13].
  • The present studies were designed to examine the consequences of chronic mild elevations of endogenous parathyroid hormone (PTH) in vivo on the PTH receptor-adenylate cyclase system of canine kidney cortex [7].
  • Sinus node maximum diastolic potential, activation voltage, and amplitude were unchanged by PTH or PTHrP (P>.05) [15].
  • The phosphaturic action of parathyroid hormone (PTH) could be mediated through the cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of specific brush-border membrane proteins [16].

Associations of PTH with chemical compounds

  • PTE infusion resulted in a 53% decrease in the number of high-affinity receptors (P less than 0.01) associated with a 66% decrease in PTH-stimulated adenylate cyclase (P less than 0.01) relative to paired base-line values [13].
  • The long-term potency of plasma calcium concentration as a modulator of calcitriol metabolism is sufficient to override opposing modulation by plasma phosphorus concentration and PTH [8].
  • The effect of infusing PTH on the urinary excretion of cyclic AMP (cAMP) and PO4= was examined in five normal dogs at two different levels of serum Mg++ [17].
  • The data show that (a) glucose intolerance does not develop with CRF in the absence of PTH, (b) PTH does not affect metabolic clearance of insulin or tissue resistance to insulin in CRF, and (c) the normalization of metabolism in CRF in the absence of PTH is due to increased insulin secretion [9].
  • Whether serum Mg++ concentrations also modify the action of PTH on its target organs has not been definitively established [17].

Physical interactions of PTH

  • These studies also provide further confirmation that PTH and PTHrP bind to a structurally indistinguishable renal receptor and validate the use of PTHrP as a ligand for studies designed to characterize and purify the PTH receptor [18].

Regulatory relationships of PTH

  • Second the endogenous secretion of PTH was stimulated by infusion of citrate into the blood supply of the thyroparathyroid glands to determine if the stimulatory effect on renin occurred with endogenous secretion of PTH [19].

Other interactions of PTH

  • Infusion of the PTE vehicle alone did not affect PTH receptor number or blunt the adenylate cyclase response to PTH [13].
  • The data are consistent with the notion that excess PTH reduces post-heparin LPL activity in plasma, which in turn results in impaired lipid removal from the circulation and consequently hyperlipidemia [20].
  • These data suggest that PTH, while acting directly on the kidney to increase phosphate and sodium excretion, does not elevate renin secretion by a direct renal action [21].
  • Erythropoietin concentration in dogs of the TRD groups was lower than that of controls, however, erythroid regenerative capacity was comparable with that of control dogs when plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentration was lowered by reduced dietary intake of phosphorus [22].
  • The Na+-gradient Pi overshoot in vesicles isolated from normal, GH-treated and thyroparathyroidectomized dogs was increased after in vivo PTH administration [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PTH


  1. Direct suppressive effect of acute metabolic and respiratory alkalosis on parathyroid hormone secretion in the dog. Lopez, I., Rodriguez, M., Felsenfeld, A.J., Estepa, J.C., Aguilera-Tejero, E. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Secondary hypoparathyroidism attributed to hypomagnesemia in a dog with protein-losing enteropathy. Bush, W.W., Kimmel, S.E., Wosar, M.A., Jackson, M.W. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Parathyroid hormone: a coronary artery vasodilator. Crass, M.F., Pang, P.K. Science (1980) [Pubmed]
  4. Aluminum-induced de novo bone formation in the beagle. A parathyroid hormone-dependent event. Quarles, L.D., Gitelman, H.J., Drezner, M.K. J. Clin. Invest. (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. Induction of de novo bone formation in the beagle. A novel effect of aluminum. Quarles, L.D., Gitelman, H.J., Drezner, M.K. J. Clin. Invest. (1988) [Pubmed]
  6. Stimulation of inositol trisphosphate and diacylglycerol production in renal tubular cells by parathyroid hormone. Hruska, K.A., Moskowitz, D., Esbrit, P., Civitelli, R., Westbrook, S., Huskey, M. J. Clin. Invest. (1987) [Pubmed]
  7. Effects of dietary-induced hyperparathyroidism on the parathyroid hormone-receptor-adenylate cyclase system of canine kidney. Evidence for postreceptor mechanism of desensitization. Tamayo, J., Bellorin-Font, E., Martin, K.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1983) [Pubmed]
  8. Long-term control of plasma calcitriol concentration in dogs and humans. Dominant role of plasma calcium concentration in experimental hyperparathyroidism. Hulter, H.N., Halloran, B.P., Toto, R.D., Peterson, J.C. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  9. Role of parathyroid hormone in the glucose intolerance of chronic renal failure. Akmal, M., Massry, S.G., Goldstein, D.A., Fanti, P., Weisz, A., DeFronzo, R.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  10. The relative roles of calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone in glucose- and tolbutamide-mediated insulin release. Harter, H.R., Santiago, J.V., Rutherford, W.E., Slatopolsky, E., Klahr, S. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
  11. Degradation of parathyroid hormone and fragment production by the isolated perfused dog kidney. The effect of glomerular filtration rate and perfusate CA++ concentrations. Hruska, K.A., Martin, K., Mennes, P., Greenwalt, A., Anderson, C., Klahr, S., Slatopolsky, E. J. Clin. Invest. (1977) [Pubmed]
  12. Metabolism in immunoreactive parathyroid hormone in the dog. The role of the kidney and the effects of chronic renal disease. Hruska, K.A., Kopelman, R., Rutherford, W.E., Klahr, S., Slatopolsky, E., Greenwalt, A., Bascom, T., Markham, J. J. Clin. Invest. (1975) [Pubmed]
  13. Canine renal receptors for parathyroid hormone. Down-regulation in vivo by exogenous parathyroid hormone. Mahoney, C.A., Nissenson, R.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1983) [Pubmed]
  14. Stimulation of calcium uptake by parathyroid hormone in renal brush-border membrane vesicles. Relationship to membrane phosphorylation. Khalifa, S., Mills, S., Hruska, K.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  15. Positive chronotropic actions of parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone-related peptide are associated with increases in the current, I(f), and the slope of the pacemaker potential. Hara, M., Liu, Y.M., Zhen, L., Cohen, I.S., Yu, H., Danilo, P., Ogino, K., Bilezikian, J.P., Rosen, M.R. Circulation (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein phosphorylation in canine renal brush-border membrane vesicles is associated with decreased phosphate transport. Hammerman, M.R., Hruska, K.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  17. Inhibitory effects of hypermagnesemia on the renal action of parathyroid hormone. Slatopolsky, E., Mercado, A., Morrison, A., Yates, J., Klahr, S. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
  18. Features of the renal parathyroid hormone-parathyroid hormone-related protein receptor derived from structural studies of receptor fragments. Karpf, D.B., Bambino, T., Alford, G., Nissenson, R.A. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Effect of parathyroid hormone on plasma renin activity and sodium excretion. Smith, J.M., Mouw, D.R., Vander, A.J. Am. J. Physiol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  20. Excess parathyroid hormone adversely affects lipid metabolism in chronic renal failure. Akmal, M., Kasim, S.E., Soliman, A.R., Massry, S.G. Kidney Int. (1990) [Pubmed]
  21. Effect of parathyroid hormone on renin secretion. Smith, J.M., Mouw, D.R., Vander, A.J. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  22. Role of parathyroid hormone in the anemia of chronic terminal renal dysfunction in dogs. Petrites-Murphy, M.B., Pierce, K.R., Lowry, S.R., Fisher, J.W. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  23. Regulation of canine renal vesicle Pi transport by growth hormone and parathyroid hormone. Hammerman, M.R., Karl, I.E., Hruska, K.A. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1980) [Pubmed]
  24. Direct effect of acute metabolic and respiratory acidosis on parathyroid hormone secretion in the dog. Lopez, I., Aguilera-Tejero, E., Felsenfeld, A.J., Estepa, J.C., Rodriguez, M. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Acute effects of parathyroid hormone on proximal bicarbonate transport in the dog. Puschett, J.B., Zurbach, P., Sylk, D. Kidney Int. (1976) [Pubmed]
  26. Parathyroid hormone does not increase nephrogenous cyclic AMP excretion by the dog. Fox, J., Heath, H. Endocrinology (1980) [Pubmed]
  27. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D maintains bone cell activity, and parathyroid hormone modulates bone cell number in dogs. Malluche, H.H., Matthews, C., Faugere, M.C., Fanti, P., Endres, D.B., Friedler, R.M. Endocrinology (1986) [Pubmed]
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