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MeSH Review

Peroneal Nerve

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Disease relevance of Peroneal Nerve

  • We measured RR intervals and finger arterial pressures and in 15 patients, peroneal nerve muscle sympathetic activity before and during passive 60 degree head-up tilt, with low-dose intravenous isoproterenol if presyncope did not develop by 15 minutes [1].
  • We investigated the pathological appearance of acute inflammation and its role in the development of demyelination in reperfused rat sciatic, tibial, and peroneal nerves after a 5-hour period of near-complete ischemia [2].
  • Burning pain was induced in healthy human subjects by intracutaneous injections of capsaicin (20 microl, 0.1%) in the innervation territory of the cutaneous branch of the peroneal nerve and the pain responses were compared with the activation patterns of afferent C-fibres recorded by microneurography [3].
  • Recordings of multiunit sympathetic activity were made from muscle branches of the peroneal nerve in eight previously untreated subjects with essential hypertension during intravenous administration of the cardioselective beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, metoprolol [4].
  • To search for evidence of sympathetic dysregulation during cluster headache attacks, microneurographic recordings of muscle nerve sympathetic activity (MSA) were obtained from the peroneal nerve [5].

Psychiatry related information on Peroneal Nerve

  • Still others had variable locomotor activity but reflexes that were consistent (flexor digitorum longus) or variable for only peroneal nerve stimulation (peroneus longus), only plantar nerve stimulation (peroneus tertius), or the two (flexor digitorum brevis) [6].

High impact information on Peroneal Nerve

  • Six additional control patients underwent microneurography of the peroneal nerve to compare the sympathomimetic effects during bolus administration of adenosine and continuous infusion of isoproterenol [7].
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: We recorded sympathetic nerve activity to muscle circulation from the peroneal nerve of 12 chronic heart failure patients while the patients were breathing room air and during deactivation of the chemoreceptors while the patients were breathing a 100% O2 gas mixture [8].
  • To test these hypotheses, we recorded muscle sympathetic nerve activity from the peroneal nerve in seven borderline hypertensive subjects and seven age-, sex-, and weight-matched normotensive subjects during three levels of nonhypotensive LBNP and infusions of phenylephrine and nitroprusside [9].
  • To determine the effect of diabetes on the development of axonal degeneration after acute nerve compression, the mobilized peroneal nerves of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes and of control rats were compressed at 150 mmHg (1 mmHg = 133 Pa) for 30 min by using specially devised cuffs [10].
  • We used microneurography (peroneal nerve) to directly record sympathetic nerve activity to muscle (mSNA) and also measured plasma norepinephrine levels in patients with heart failure and in normal control subjects [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Peroneal Nerve


Biological context of Peroneal Nerve

  • Nerve conduction findings were consistent with a demyelinating neuropathy in 77% of patients reactive to myelin-associated glycoprotein and 24% with unknown reactivity (p < 0.0001) and the mean conduction velocity of peroneal nerve was lower in the former group (22.9 m/sec) than in the latter group (39.6 m/sec) (p < 0.000001) [14].
  • We recorded muscle sympathetic nerve activity (microneurography, peroneal nerve), forearm blood flow, heart rate, and blood pressure in 13 borderline hypertensive subjects during a 1-hour insulin infusion (38 microunits/m2/min) while holding blood glucose constant [15].
  • In nine sedentary subjects (16.5 +/- 0.4 years, mean +/- SEM) we measured blood pressure (Finapres device), heart rate (electrocardiogram), and postganglionic muscle sympathetic nerve activity (microneurography from the peroneal nerve) at rest and during intravenous infusion of phenylephrine and nitroprusside [16].
  • 1. The axonal transport of acetylcholine (ACh), choline acetyltransferase (ChAc) and cholinesterase (ChE) was estimated in the peroneal nerves of rabbits by measuring the accumulation of each against a nerve crush over a period of 20 hr [17].
  • Specifically, we investigated the actions of group I synergistic and antagonistic muscle afferents (e.g. common peroneal nerve, CPN; medial gastrocnemius, MG) and tactile plantar cutaneous afferents on the soleus H-reflex during controlled hip angle variations in 11 motor incomplete spinal cord injured (SCI) subjects [18].

Anatomical context of Peroneal Nerve


Associations of Peroneal Nerve with chemical compounds

  • To determine whether this response is related to sympathetic activation, we studied the cardiovascular and respiratory effects of adenosine in normal subjects while measuring muscle sympathetic nerve traffic through direct recordings from a peroneal nerve [24].
  • Peripheral muscle sympathetic nerve activity was measured from both multiunit bursts (MSNA) and single unit (s-MSNA) vasoconstrictor impulses via the peroneal nerve [25].
  • Leg blood flow was measured by thermodilution, leg glucose uptake by the balance technique, arterial pressure by invasive monitoring and MSNA by microneurography of the peroneal nerve [26].
  • In a morphometric study of isolated fibres of the common peroneal nerve in short-term diabetic rats reduced fibre calibre was observed [27].
  • Resting muscle sympathetic nerve activity was measured in the peroneal nerve by tungsten microelectrodes and expressed as bursts per minute [28].

Gene context of Peroneal Nerve

  • This technique consisted of suturing the sectioned peripheral end of the common peroneal nerve of a normal mouse, strain 129 ReJ +/+ to that of the distal stump remaining after sectioning that same nerve in a dystrophic mouse, strain 129 ReJ dy/dy [29].
  • Histopathology of the peroneal nerves in Igf1-/- mice demonstrates a shift to smaller axonal diameters but maintains the same total number of myelinated fibers as Igf1+/+ mice [30].
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Using two monoclonal antibodies that detect VE-cadherin (TEA1.31 and 7B4) an immunohistochemical study of VE-cadherin expression in five common peroneal nerve biopsies and five skin specimens containing small peripheal nerves was performed [31].
  • Bipolar recordings were obtained from electrode pairs at the L4-L2 spinous process level and T12-T10 spinous process level via peroneal nerve stimulation at the popliteal fossa [32].
  • The amplitude (AMP) of sural and peroneal nerves in healthy and DP1 subjects was similar [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Peroneal Nerve

  • Microelectrode recordings of skin nerve sympathetic activity, consisting of sudomotor and vasoconstrictor signals, were performed in the peroneal nerve in seven healthy subjects during insulin-induced hypoglycaemia [34].
  • 4. Direct electrical stimulation of the denervated soleus muscle caused plaques of true AChE, as determined by inhibitor studies, to appear in muscles where the fibular nerve had been cut 2-4 days after the soleus nerve but not in muscles where the two nerves had been cut at the same time [35].
  • In each subject, over a 10 min supine period, we measured mean arterial pressure (Finapres), heart rate (electrocardiogram), venous plasma norepinephrine (high-performance liquid chromatography) and efferent postganglionic muscle sympathetic nerve activity (microneurography at a peroneal nerve) [36].
  • Denervation of the EDL muscle by section of the peroneal nerve 10-20 mm from its entrance to the muscle caused G6PD activity to increase to 170% of control by day 1 and to 200% and 180% of control by days 2 and 4, respectively [37].
  • METHODS: In 14 healthy, young (age 20-31 yr) volunteers, arterial pressure was measured from the radial artery, forearm blood flow was derived by strain gauge plethysmography, and sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) directed to skeletal muscle blood vessels was recorded from a tungsten needle placed percutaneously into the peroneal nerve [38].


  1. Vagal and sympathetic mechanisms in patients with orthostatic vasovagal syncope. Morillo, C.A., Eckberg, D.L., Ellenbogen, K.A., Beightol, L.A., Hoag, J.B., Tahvanainen, K.U., Kuusela, T.A., Diedrich, A.M. Circulation (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Acute inflammatory demyelination in reperfusion nerve injury. Nukada, H., McMorran, P.D., Shimizu, J. Ann. Neurol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Encoding of burning pain from capsaicin-treated human skin in two categories of unmyelinated nerve fibres. Schmelz, M., Schmid, R., Handwerker, H.O., Torebjörk, H.E. Brain (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Acute effects of metoprolol on muscle sympathetic activity in hypertensive humans. Sundlöf, G., Wallin, B.G., Strömgren, E., Nerhed, C. Hypertension (1983) [Pubmed]
  5. Sympathetic vasoconstrictor outflow to extremity muscles in cluster headache. Recordings during spontaneous and nitroglycerin-induced attacks. Nordin, M., Fagius, J., Waldenlind, E. Headache. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. The distal hindlimb musculature of the cat: interanimal variability of locomotor activity and cutaneous reflexes. Loeb, G.E. Experimental brain research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation cérébrale. (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Induction of neurally mediated syncope with adenosine. Mittal, S., Stein, K.M., Markowitz, S.M., Slotwiner, D.J., Rohatgi, S., Lerman, B.B. Circulation (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Tonic chemoreflex activation does not contribute to elevated muscle sympathetic nerve activity in heart failure. van de Borne, P., Oren, R., Anderson, E.A., Mark, A.L., Somers, V.K. Circulation (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Baroreflex control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity in borderline hypertension. Rea, R.F., Hamdan, M. Circulation (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Resistance to axonal degeneration after nerve compression in experimental diabetes. Dyck, P.J., Engelstad, J.K., Giannini, C., Lais, A.C., Minnerath, S.R., Karnes, J.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Direct evidence from intraneural recordings for increased central sympathetic outflow in patients with heart failure. Leimbach, W.N., Wallin, B.G., Victor, R.G., Aylward, P.E., Sundlöf, G., Mark, A.L. Circulation (1986) [Pubmed]
  12. The steroid treatment of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy. Prensky, A.L., Dodson, W.E. Neuropediatrics. (1984) [Pubmed]
  13. Relation of plasma norepinephrine and sympathetic traffic during hypotension in humans. Rea, R.F., Eckberg, D.L., Fritsch, J.M., Goldstein, D.S. Am. J. Physiol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Frequency and clinical correlates of anti-neural IgM antibodies in neuropathy associated with IgM monoclonal gammopathy. Nobile-Orazio, E., Manfredini, E., Carpo, M., Meucci, N., Monaco, S., Ferrari, S., Bonetti, B., Cavaletti, G., Gemignani, F., Durelli, L. Ann. Neurol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Insulin increases sympathetic activity but not blood pressure in borderline hypertensive humans. Anderson, E.A., Balon, T.W., Hoffman, R.P., Sinkey, C.A., Mark, A.L. Hypertension (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Physical training and baroreceptor control of sympathetic nerve activity in humans. Grassi, G., Seravalle, G., Calhoun, D.A., Mancia, G. Hypertension (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Axonal transport of acetylcholine, choline acetyltransferase and cholinesterase in regenerating peripheral nerve. O'Brien, R.A. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1978) [Pubmed]
  18. Effects of hip joint angle changes on intersegmental spinal coupling in human spinal cord injury. Knikou, M. Experimental brain research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation cérébrale. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Targeting of the EphA4 tyrosine kinase receptor affects dorsal/ventral pathfinding of limb motor axons. Helmbacher, F., Schneider-Maunoury, S., Topilko, P., Tiret, L., Charnay, P. Development (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Asymptomatic peripheral nerve dysfunction and vascular reactivity in IDDM patients with and without microalbuminuria. Bodmer, C.W., Masson, E.A., Savage, M.W., Benbow, S., Patrick, A.W., Williams, G. Diabetologia (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Endoneurial localisation of microvascular damage in human diabetic neuropathy. Malik, R.A., Tesfaye, S., Thompson, S.D., Veves, A., Sharma, A.K., Boulton, A.J., Ward, J.D. Diabetologia (1993) [Pubmed]
  22. Visualization of denervated muscle by gadolinium-enhanced MRI. Bendszus, M., Koltzenburg, M. Neurology (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Studies to improve fixation of human nerves. IV. Effect of time elapsed between death and glutaraldehyde fixation on density of microtubules and neurofilaments. Ohnishi, A., O'Brien, P.C., Dyck, P.J. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  24. Adenosine increases sympathetic nerve traffic in humans. Biaggioni, I., Killian, T.J., Mosqueda-Garcia, R., Robertson, R.M., Robertson, D. Circulation (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. Hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy: relation to peripheral sympathetic drive. Greenwood, J.P., Scott, E.M., Stoker, J.B., Mary, D.A. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Lack of relationship between muscle sympathetic nerve activity and skeletal muscle vasodilation in response to insulin infusion. Spraul, M., Ravussin, E., Baron, A.D. Diabetologia (1996) [Pubmed]
  27. Axonal dwindling in early experimental diabetes. II. A study of isolated nerve fibres. Jakobsen, J. Diabetologia (1976) [Pubmed]
  28. Effect of energy-restricted diet on sympathetic muscle nerve activity in obese women. Andersson, B., Elam, M., Wallin, B.G., Björntorp, P., Andersson, O.K. Hypertension (1991) [Pubmed]
  29. Parabiotic reinnervation in normal and dystrophic mice. Part 1. Muscle weight and physiological studies. Montgomery, A. J. Neurol. Sci. (1975) [Pubmed]
  30. IGF-I deficient mice show reduced peripheral nerve conduction velocities and decreased axonal diameters and respond to exogenous IGF-I treatment. Gao, W.Q., Shinsky, N., Ingle, G., Beck, K., Elias, K.A., Powell-Braxton, L. J. Neurobiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Vascular endothelial cadherin is expressed by perineurial cells of peripheral nerve. Smith, M.E., Jones, T.A., Hilton, D. Histopathology (1998) [Pubmed]
  32. Spinal cord responses to peripheral nerve stimulation in man. Baran, E.M. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. (1980) [Pubmed]
  33. Diabetic polyneuropathy. Axonal or demyelinating? Valls-Canals, J., Povedano, M., Montero, J., Pradas, J. Electromyography and clinical neurophysiology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  34. Skin nerve sympathetic activity during insulin-induced hypoglycaemia. Berne, C., Fagius, J. Diabetologia (1986) [Pubmed]
  35. Control of junctional acetylcholinesterase by neural and muscular influences in the rat. Lømo, T., Slater, C.R. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1980) [Pubmed]
  36. Heart rate as marker of sympathetic activity. Grassi, G., Vailati, S., Bertinieri, G., Seravalle, G., Stella, M.L., Dell'Oro, R., Mancia, G. J. Hypertens. (1998) [Pubmed]
  37. Neural regulation of muscle glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase: effect of batrachotoxin and tetrodotoxin. Max, S.R., Deshpande, S.S., Albuquerque, E.X. J. Neurochem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  38. Sympathetic hyperactivity during desflurane anesthesia in healthy volunteers. A comparison with isoflurane. Ebert, T.J., Muzi, M. Anesthesiology (1993) [Pubmed]
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