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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Systole


High impact information on Systole


Chemical compound and disease context of Systole


Biological context of Systole


Anatomical context of Systole

  • The velocity of circumferential fiber shortening and the percent change in the minor axis of the left ventricle during systole improved modestly (p less than 0.05) above baseline in the dobutamine group after 14 weeks of treatment and above the corresponding control values (p less than 0.05) after 22 weeks [21].
  • Because the titin spring is extended during diastolic stretch, it will recoil elastically during systole and potentially may influence the overall shortening behavior of cardiac muscle [22].
  • The effects on systolic time intervals in healthy subjects and patients (n = 6) with coronary artery disease were evaluated in relation to varying timolol dose schedules and plasma concentrations [23].
  • RESULTS: Obese patients presented diastolic function impairment, hyperkinetic systole, and greater aortic root and left atrium compared with normal subjects [24].
  • The origin and course of the myocyte to capillary collagen struts could account for capillary patency during systole in the presence of high ventricular wall pressures [25].

Associations of Systole with chemical compounds


Gene context of Systole

  • LV wall thickness during systole and % fractional shortening were diminished by 8-10% in Cx43-deficient v wild-type mice [31].
  • The titin-isoform shift may be beneficial for myocardial diastolic function, but could impair the contractile performance in systole [32].
  • LV mass, maximal LV wall thickness, and myocardial fractional thickening during systole were measured at cine MR imaging in 24 subjects (11 male, 13 female; mean age, 42 years; age range, 17-68 years) with the Asp175Asn mutation in TPM1 and in 17 healthy volunteers (eight men, nine women; mean age, 38 years; age range, 23-60 years) [33].
  • The fraction of ventricular filling due to atrial systole, the atrial filling fraction, was also reduced in CR (.21 +/- .04) compared to AL (.36 +/- .02; p = .007) [34].
  • A major factor responsible for the amount of calcium available during systole is loading of SR by SERCA [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Systole


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  2. Doppler studies of vena cava flows in human fetuses. Insights into normal and abnormal cardiac physiology. Reed, K.L., Appleton, C.P., Anderson, C.F., Shenker, L., Sahn, D.J. Circulation (1990) [Pubmed]
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  5. Echocardiographic diastolic abnormalities of the left ventricle in inflammatory joint disease. Rowe, I.F., Gibson, D.G., Keat, A.C., Brewerton, D.A. Ann. Rheum. Dis. (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Doxorubicin cardiotoxicity. Serial endomyocardial biopsies and systolic time intervals. Friedman, M.A., Bozdech, M.J., Billingham, M.E., Rider, A.K. JAMA (1978) [Pubmed]
  7. Diastolic dysfunction in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Effect on active force generation during systole. Gwathmey, J.K., Warren, S.E., Briggs, G.M., Copelas, L., Feldman, M.D., Phillips, P.J., Callahan, M., Schoen, F.J., Grossman, W., Morgan, J.P. J. Clin. Invest. (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. Effects of isoproterenol on regional myocardial function, electrogram, and blood flow in conscious dogs with myocardial ischemia. Vatner, S.F., Millard, R.W., Patrick, T.A., Heyndrickx, G.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
  9. Negative effects of famotidine on cardiac performance assessed by noninvasive hemodynamic measurements. Kirch, W., Halabi, A., Linde, M., Santos, S.R., Ohnhaus, E.E. Gastroenterology (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. Systolic time interval to predict doxorubicin cardiotoxicity. Al-Ismail, S.A., Whittaker, J.A. Lancet (1978) [Pubmed]
  11. Effect of repeated episodes of drug-induced ventricular dyskinesia on subsequent regional function in the dog: comparison with myocardial stunning produced by repeated coronary occlusions. Stahl, L.D., Aversano, T., Ambrosio, G., Becker, L.C. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  12. Acute cardiac toxicity in patients after doxorubicin treatment and the effect of combined tocopherol and nifedipine pretreatment. Lenzhofer, R., Ganzinger, U., Rameis, H., Moser, K. J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  13. The effect of glyceryl trinitrate ointment on heart rate--corrected systolic time intervals in angina pectoris. Struthers, A.D., Whiting, B., Hillis, W.S., Kelman, A.W. British journal of clinical pharmacology. (1982) [Pubmed]
  14. Negative inotropic effect of lidocaine in patients with coronary arterial disease and normal subjects. Boudoulas, H., Schaal, S.F., Lewis, R.P., Welch, T.G., DeGreen, P., Kates, R.E. Chest (1977) [Pubmed]
  15. Pindolol in the treatment of hypertension: systolic time intervals as a predictor of response to beta receptor blockade. Plotnick, G.D., Fisher, M.L., Hamilton, J.H., Robinson, M., Carliner, N.H., Janowski, A.H., Hamilton, B.P. Am. J. Cardiol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  16. Assessment of coronary artery distensibility by intravascular ultrasound. Application of simultaneous measurements of luminal area and pressure. Nakatani, S., Yamagishi, M., Tamai, J., Goto, Y., Umeno, T., Kawaguchi, A., Yutani, C., Miyatake, K. Circulation (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. The physiologic effects of digoxin under steady-state drug conditions in newborn and adult sheep. Berman, W., Musselman, J., Shortencarrier, R. Circulation (1980) [Pubmed]
  18. Cardiac beta-adrenoceptors in chronic uremia: studies in humans and rats. Dhein, S., Röhnert, P., Markau, S., Kotchi-Kotchi, E., Becker, K., Poller, U., Osten, B., Brodde, O.E. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Age-dependent changes in cardiac muscarinic receptor function in healthy volunteers. Poller, U., Nedelka, G., Radke, J., Pönicke, K., Brodde, O.E. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Effects of captopril on cold pressor test responses in normotensive and hypertensive subjects. Zoppi, A., Sudano, S., Bosco, L., Spata, M., Fogari, R. Am. J. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  21. Drug-induced conditioning in congestive heart failure. Leier, C.V., Huss, P., Lewis, R.P., Unverferth, D.V. Circulation (1982) [Pubmed]
  22. Damped elastic recoil of the titin spring in myofibrils of human myocardium. Opitz, C.A., Kulke, M., Leake, M.C., Neagoe, C., Hinssen, H., Hajjar, R.J., Linke, W.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Plasma timolol levels and systolic time intervals. Singh, B.N., Williams, F.M., Whitlock, R.M., Collett, J., Chew, C. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1980) [Pubmed]
  24. Influence of excess fat on cardiac morphology and function: study in uncomplicated obesity. Iacobellis, G., Ribaudo, M.C., Leto, G., Zappaterreno, A., Vecci, E., Di Mario, U., Leonetti, F. Obes. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. The collagen network of the heart. Caulfield, J.B., Borg, T.K. Lab. Invest. (1979) [Pubmed]
  26. L-Thyroxine therapy in subclinical hypothyroidism. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Cooper, D.S., Halpern, R., Wood, L.C., Levin, A.A., Ridgway, E.C. Ann. Intern. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  27. Effect of increased adrenergic activity on the relationship between electrical and mechanical systole. Boudoulas, H., Geleris, P., Lewis, R.P., Leier, C.V. Circulation (1981) [Pubmed]
  28. Left ventricular contractile effects of inducible nitric oxide synthase in the human allograft. Paulus, W.J., Kästner, S., Pujadas, P., Shah, A.M., Drexler, H., Vanderheyden, M. Circulation (1997) [Pubmed]
  29. The basis for differences in ethanol-induced myocardial depression in normal subjects. Timmis, G.C., Ramos, R.C., Gordon, S., Gangadharan, V. Circulation (1975) [Pubmed]
  30. Energy levels at systole vs. diastole in normal hamster hearts vs. myopathic hamster hearts. Sievers, R., Parmley, W.W., James, T., Wikman-Coffelt, J. Circ. Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  31. Cardiac structure and function in young and senescent mice heterozygous for a connexin43 null mutation. Betsuyaku, T., Kovacs, A., Saffitz, J.E., Yamada, K.A. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. Passive stiffness changes caused by upregulation of compliant titin isoforms in human dilated cardiomyopathy hearts. Makarenko, I., Opitz, C.A., Leake, M.C., Neagoe, C., Kulke, M., Gwathmey, J.K., del Monte, F., Hajjar, R.J., Linke, W.A. Circ. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  33. Cine MR imaging of myocardial contractile impairment in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy attributable to Asp175Asn mutation in the alpha-tropomyosin gene. Sipola, P., Lauerma, K., Jääskeläinen, P., Laakso, M., Peuhkurinen, K., Manninen, H., Aronen, H.J., Kuusisto, J. Radiology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. The age-associated alterations in late diastolic function in mice are improved by caloric restriction. Taffet, G.E., Pham, T.T., Hartley, C.J. J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  35. Main systems involved in calcium regulation in cardiac muscle cells and their functional relationship. Wrzosek, A. Polish journal of pharmacology. (1999) [Pubmed]
  36. Evidence of hyperthyroidism in apparently euthyroid patients treated with levothyroxine. Banovac, K., Papic, M., Bilsker, M.S., Zakarija, M., McKenzie, J.M. Arch. Intern. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  37. Reduction of digoxin-induced inotropism during quinidine administration. Steiness, E., Waldorff, S., Hansen, P.B., Kjaergård, H., Buch, J., Egeblad, H. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1980) [Pubmed]
  38. Effect of calcium antagonists on basal and digitalis-dependent changes in splanchnic and systemic hemodynamics. Gasić, S., Eichler, H.G., Korn, A. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1987) [Pubmed]
  39. Carbamazepine, serum thyroid hormones and myocardial function in epileptic patients. Isojärvi, J.I., Airaksinen, K.E., Repo, M., Pakarinen, A.J., Salmela, P., Myllylä, V.V. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (1993) [Pubmed]
  40. Atrial systole and left ventricular filling in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: effect of verapamil. Bonow, R.O., Frederick, T.M., Bacharach, S.L., Green, M.V., Goose, P.W., Maron, B.J., Rosing, D.R. Am. J. Cardiol. (1983) [Pubmed]
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