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MeSH Review

Anemia, Pernicious

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Disease relevance of Anemia, Pernicious

  • The murine disease is similar to human autoimmune gastritis and pernicious anemia, and is characterized by parietal and chief cell loss, submucosal mononuclear cell infiltrates, and autoantibodies to the alpha and beta subunits of the gastric H/K ATPase [1].
  • Antibodies to a membrane-bound antigen, localized to the canalicular structures of the parietal cell, are found in most sera of patients with chronic atrophic gastritis and pernicious anemia [2].
  • The mechanism of hypergastrinemia in achlorhydria. Effect of food, acid, and calcitonin on serum gastrin concentrations and component pattern in pernicious anemia, with correlation to endogenous secretin concentrations in plasma [3].
  • In the patients with pernicious anemia, the lowest ESF levels were found 1 day after administration of vitamin B12, whereas in the patients with iron-deficiency anemia, the lowest ESF levels were reached in the second week of oral iron therapy [4].
  • We treated a case of thymoma with immunodeficiency (Good's syndrome) associated with a rare combination of other parathymic syndromes including myasthenia gravis, benign IgG lambda M component, pernicious anemia, and diabetes [5].

Psychiatry related information on Anemia, Pernicious

  • We describe a subcortical dementia, and after a review of the literature, we support the causalty of B12 hypovitaminosis (pernicious anemia) in the genesis of this dementia, in the absence of other organic causes of mental syndromes and in the presence of a positive and well-maintained response to vitamin B12 administration [6].

High impact information on Anemia, Pernicious

  • Autoantibody to the gastrin receptor in pernicious anemia [7].
  • In part because humans cannot synthesize vitamin B12 and must obtain it from organisms that produce it and because B12 deficiency leads to pernicious anemia, it has been important to understand how microorganisms build this quite complex substance [8].
  • Moreover, the actual bilirubin level changes caused by pernicious anemia were themselves smaller among blacks [9].
  • Landmark article (JAMA 1926). Treatment of pernicious anemia by a special diet. By George R. Minot and William P. Murphy [10].
  • Some patients with pernicious anemia who were intermittently treated with cyanocobalamin were found to have elevated serum levels of total homocysteine while they were free of hematologic and neurologic abnormalities [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Anemia, Pernicious


Biological context of Anemia, Pernicious


Anatomical context of Anemia, Pernicious


Gene context of Anemia, Pernicious


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Anemia, Pernicious


  1. An autoimmune disease with multiple molecular targets abrogated by the transgenic expression of a single autoantigen in the thymus. Alderuccio, F., Toh, B.H., Tan, S.S., Gleeson, P.A., van Driel, I.R. J. Exp. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Parietal cell antibodies in pernicious anemia inhibit H+, K+-adenosine triphosphatase, the proton pump of the stomach. Burman, P., Mårdh, S., Norberg, L., Karlsson, F.A. Gastroenterology (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. The mechanism of hypergastrinemia in achlorhydria. Effect of food, acid, and calcitonin on serum gastrin concentrations and component pattern in pernicious anemia, with correlation to endogenous secretin concentrations in plasma. Fahrenkrug, J., Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, O.B., Hornum, I., Rehfeld, J.F. Gastroenterology (1976) [Pubmed]
  4. Serum erythropoietin (EST) titers in anemia. de Klerk, G., Rosengarten, P.C., Vet, R.J., Goudsmit, R. Blood (1981) [Pubmed]
  5. Thymoma with immunodeficiency (Good's syndrome) associated with myasthenia gravis and benign IgG gammopathy. Soppi, E., Eskola, J., Röyttä, M., Veromaa, T., Panelius, M., Lehtonen, A. Arch. Intern. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  6. An association between subcortical dementia and pernicious anemia--a psychiatric mask. Saracaceanu, E., Tramoni, A.V., Henry, J.M. Comprehensive psychiatry. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Autoantibody to the gastrin receptor in pernicious anemia. de Aizpurua, H.J., Ungar, B., Toh, B.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  8. How nature builds the pigments of life: the conquest of vitamin B12. Battersby, A.R. Science (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Racial differences in serum total bilirubin levels in health and in disease (pernicious anemia). Carmel, R., Wong, E.T., Weiner, J.M., Johnson, C.S. JAMA (1985) [Pubmed]
  10. Landmark article (JAMA 1926). Treatment of pernicious anemia by a special diet. By George R. Minot and William P. Murphy. Minot, G.R., Murphy, W.P. JAMA (1983) [Pubmed]
  11. Elevation of total homocysteine in the serum of patients with cobalamin or folate deficiency detected by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Stabler, S.P., Marcell, P.D., Podell, E.R., Allen, R.H., Savage, D.G., Lindenbaum, J. J. Clin. Invest. (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. Assay of methylmalonic acid in the serum of patients with cobalamin deficiency using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Stabler, S.P., Marcell, P.D., Podell, E.R., Allen, R.H., Lindenbaum, J. J. Clin. Invest. (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. Disturbed islet-cell function related to endogenous gastrin release. Studies on insulin secretion and glucose tolerance in pernicious anemia. Rehfeld, J.F. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
  14. Purification of hog gastric intrinsic factor by a simple two-step procedure based on affinity chromatography and a selective guanidine hydrochloride gradient. Francis, G.L., Smith, G.W., Toskes, P.P., Sanders, E.G. Gastroenterology (1977) [Pubmed]
  15. The role of intraluminal junction potentials in the generation of the gastric potential difference in man. Read, N.W., Fordtran, J.S. Gastroenterology (1979) [Pubmed]
  16. Reliability of the dual-isotope Schilling test for the diagnosis of pernicious anemia or malabsorption syndrome. Domstad, P.A., Choy, Y.C., Kim, E.E., DeLand, F.H. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  17. Images in clinical medicine. Vitiligo and pernicious anemia. Egli, F., Walter, R. N. Engl. J. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Pernicious anemia in a patient with hypogammaglobulinemia. Moriuchi, H., Takayanagi, T., Yamasaki, S., Yasui, M., Mori, K., Yanai, M., Yanagi, T., Tsuji, Y. Acta paediatrica Japonica; Overseas edition. (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. Thymidylate synthetase activity in bone marrow cells in pernicious anemia. Sakamoto, S., Niina, M., Takaku, F. Blood (1975) [Pubmed]
  20. A soluble adenosine triphosphate-dependent proteolytic system in human peripheral red blood cells. Rieder, R.F., Ibrahim, A., Etlinger, J.D. Blood (1986) [Pubmed]
  21. Unusual morphologic abnormalities of megaloblasts in pernicious anemia and folate deficiency. Kass, L. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  22. Increased risk for type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes in relatives of patients with alopecia areata (AA). Wang, S.J., Shohat, T., Vadheim, C., Shellow, W., Edwards, J., Rotter, J.I. Am. J. Med. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Association of pernicious anemia and intrinsic factor antibody with HLA-D. Thomsen, M., Jørgensen, F., Brandsborg, M., Gimsing, P., Nielsen, J.L., Ryder, L.P., Svejgaard, A. Tissue Antigens (1981) [Pubmed]
  24. Gastrin and somatostatin in plasma and gastric biopsy specimens in pernicious anemia. Magnusson, I., Cho, J.W., Ihre, T., Olsson, J.E., Posloncek, B., Uvnäs-Moberg, K., Ost, A. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  25. Erythropoiesis in primary (idiopathic) osteomyelofibrosis: quantification, PCNA-reactivity, and prognostic impact. Thiele, J., Windecker, R., Kvasnicka, H.M., Titius, B.R., Zankovich, R., Fischer, R. Am. J. Hematol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  26. Familial occurrence of thymoma and autoimmune diseases with the constitutional translocation t(14;20)(q24.1;p12.3). Nicodème, F., Geffroy, S., Conti, M., Delobel, B., Soenen, V., Grardel, N., Porte, H., Copin, M.C., Laï, J.L., Andrieux, J. Genes Chromosomes Cancer (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Increased serum CA-15.3 levels in patients with megaloblastic anemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency. Symeonidis, A., Kouraklis-Symeonidis, A., Apostolopoulos, D., Arvanitopoulou, E., Giannakoulas, N., Vassilakos, P., Zoumbos, N. Oncology (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Reciprocal changes in antral gastrin and somatostatin mRNA in pernicious anemia. Moss, S.F., Legon, S., Calam, J. Dig. Dis. Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. Myasthenia gravis, pernicious anemia, and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Krol, T.C. Arch. Neurol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  30. Diagnosis of cobalamin deficiency: II. Relative sensitivities of serum cobalamin, methylmalonic acid, and total homocysteine concentrations. Lindenbaum, J., Savage, D.G., Stabler, S.P., Allen, R.H. Am. J. Hematol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  31. Pure red cell aplasia following pernicious anemia. Dan, K., Ito, T., Nomura, T. Am. J. Hematol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  32. Turnover in humans of iodine- and cobalamin-labeled transcobalamin I and of iodine-labeled albumin. Nexö, E., Gimsing, P. Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. (1975) [Pubmed]
  33. The effect of intravenous theophylline ethylenediamine on serum gastrin concentration in control subjects and patients with duodenal ulcers and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Feurle, G., Arnold, R., Helmstädter, V., Creutzfeldt, W. Digestion (1976) [Pubmed]
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