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Chemical Compound Review

CYANAMIDE     cyanamide

Synonyms: Alzogur, Carbimide, Deurbraak, carbimidn, Cyanoamine, ...
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Disease relevance of Carbimide

  • In a previously published U.S. clinic-based study, a polymorphism in the ER gene (codon 325, CCC --> CCG) was found to be more common in 34 case subjects with a family history of breast cancer than in 154 case subjects without such a history (mean allele frequencies +/- standard error = 0.28+/-0.05 versus 0.11+/-0.02; P<.001) [1].
  • In crosses between distantly related genera such as E. coli and Proteus, all the donor DNA remained as CCC, with no detectable integration into the chromosome [2].
  • In 25 E. coli proteins analyzed the codons AUA, UCG, CCU, CCC, ACG, CAA, AAT, and AGG are infrequently used, occurring as 4% of the total codons in the reading frame and 11% and 10% in the nonreading frames [3].
  • Analysis of alkaptonuria (AKU) mutations and polymorphisms reveals that the CCC sequence motif is a mutational hot spot in the homogentisate 1,2 dioxygenase gene (HGO) [4].
  • The carbodiimide EDCI-HCl has also been found to increase the complement-dependent lysis of cultured TA3 carcinoma cells by serum antibodies from isogeneic LAF1/J mice bearing ascites tumors in advanced stages of growth [5].

Psychiatry related information on Carbimide

  • Optimal conjugation conditions were identified as a carbodiimide-to-toxin ratio of 10:1 by weight, an initial molar ratio of ST to LT of 100:1, and a conjugation reaction time of 96 h [6].
  • Background: The Copenhagen Child Cohort, CCC 2000, was established to investigate developmental psychopathology prospectively from birth in a general population [7].
  • BACKGROUND: The Children's Communication Checklist (CCC 1998) was revised in 2003 (CCC-2) to provide a general screen for communication disorder and to identify pragmatic/social interaction deficits [8].

High impact information on Carbimide

  • Four independent mutations change the same CAC codon in the mnt gene to CCT or CCC [9].
  • The topography of the rigor complex between F-actin and myosin heads (S1) has been investigated by carbodiimide zero-length cross-linking [10].
  • Observed DNA sequence changes were greater than 99% C----T transitions in the hisG46 (CCC) target codon, consistent with a cytosine-deamination mechanism [11].
  • Treatment of the tissue with a water-soluble carbodiimide enhanced anion selectivity at higher pH; carbenoxolone, a weak acid, resulted in maintained cation selectivity at lower pH [12].
  • We show that overexpression of AXI 4 or another member of the CCC family, the Na+/K+/2Cl--co-transporter from shark, triggers auxin-independent growth of tobacco protoplasts [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of Carbimide

  • More importantly, induction of myelin-specific tolerance to relapse-associated epitopes, by i.v. injection of ethylene carbodiimide-fixed peptide-pulsed APCs, either before disease initiation or during remission from acute disease effectively blocks the expression of the initial disease relapse [14].
  • A carbodiimide with a photoactivatable diazirine substituent was synthesized and incubated with the Na(+)-translocating F(1)F(0) ATP synthase from both Propionigenium modestum and Ilyobacter tartaricus [15].
  • The secondary structure of mouse Ehrlich ascites 18S, 5.8S and 28S ribosomal RNA in situ was investigated by chemical modification using dimethyl sulphate and 1-cyclohexyl-3-(morpholinoethyl) carbodiimide metho-p-toluene sulphonate [16].
  • The spin labels anhydride (ASL), bromoacetamide (BSL) and carbodiimide (CSL) were used to label selectively tRNAGlu, tRNA fMet and tRNAPhe from E. coli [17].
  • In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study involving five male alcoholic volunteers, oral administration of 0.7 mg/kg of calcium carbimide (CC) 12 hr before ingestion of ethanol (0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 gm/kg) produced an interaction consisting of increased blood acetaldehyde level, tachycardia, and decreased diastolic blood pressure [18].

Biological context of Carbimide

  • Second, the at-risk CCC haplotype (P=.00058 and .0018 in case-control and TDT studies, respectively) revealed lower transcriptional activity (P=2.2x10-7) and was associated with lower expression (P=3.1x10-5) compared with neutral and protective haplotypes [19].
  • The majority of EPM1 alleles contain large expansions of a dodecamer repeat, CCC CGC CCC GCG, located upstream of the 5' transcription start site of the cystatin B gene; normal alleles contain two or three copies of this repeat [20].
  • Third, we found that an allele of SNP4 (rs4950928), the tagging SNP of CCC, impaired the MYC/MAX-regulated transcriptional activation of CHI3L1 by altering the transcriptional-factor consensus sequences, and this may be responsible for the decreased expression of the CCC haplotype [19].
  • A point mutation (C to T transition at nucleotide position 19,297) that results in coding for serine (TCC) in place of proline (CCC) at amino acid position 343 was found [21].
  • Biotinylation of erythropoietin at carboxylate groups using biotin-amidocaproyl hydrazide plus 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide led to substantial biological inactivation, although biotinylated molecules retained detectable activity when prepared at low stoichiometries [22].

Anatomical context of Carbimide


Associations of Carbimide with other chemical compounds

  • Other ALDH inhibitors, such as disulfiram (Antabuse) and calcium citrate carbimide (Temposil), have also been shown to suppress ethanol intake of laboratory animals and are thought to act by inhibiting the metabolism of acetaldehyde produced from ingested ethanol [28].
  • The mechanism of morphological phase transitions was studied for rod-shaped supramolecular assemblies comprised of a poly(acrylic acid)-block-poly(methyl acrylate)-block-polystyrene (PAA(90)-b-PMA(80)-b-PS(100)) triblock copolymer in 33% tetrahydrofuran/water after perturbation by reaction with a positively charged water-soluble carbodiimide [29].
  • The mutation (CTC: leucine, wild-type to CCC: proline, mutant) eliminates a Sac I restriction site, facilitating analysis of the mutation in the propositi (both homozygotes), unaffected family members (8 heterozygotes and 8 wild-type), and 58 normal controls (116 wild-type alleles) [30].
  • DNA sequencing analysis showed compound heterozygosity for two independent single nucleotide substitutions: from Tyr (TAC) to Cys (TGC) at residue 88, and from Ala (GCC) to Pro (CCC) at residue 108 in her GPIb beta gene [31].
  • Polystyrene (PS) labware products (microtiter plates, test tubes, etc.) show radiation (gamma) dose-dependent carbodiimide (EDC)-mediated uptake of carboxyl-containing molecules such as DNP-[3H]Gly [32].

Gene context of Carbimide

  • Mutation was detected by sequence analysis of the p53 gene at codon 155: ACC [Thr] --> CCC [Pro] [33].
  • Carboxyl groups of bovine RNase A were amidated with ethylenediamine (to convert negative charges of carboxylate anions to positive ones), 2-aminoethanol (to eliminate negative charges), and taurine (to keep negative charges), respectively, by a carbodiimide reaction [34].
  • In addition, nucleotide changes at positions 350-351 (GG to CC) and 497-499 (GGG to CCC) of the NAT1 gene were not found in the alleles of the populations studied [35].
  • It is shown that fixation of the AC with carbodiimide or treatment of the AC with UV light greatly reduces their capacity to induce (in combination with IL2) the synthesis of IFN-gamma by T cells [36].
  • We analyzed 3 polymorphisms, from codons 10 (TCT to TCC), 325 (CCC to CCG) and 594 (ACA to ACG) of ESRalpha, and a highly polymorphic dinucleotide repeat, D5S207, located within 200 kb of the GRL [37].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Carbimide

  • In order to test this hypothesis, we studied covalent modification of carboxyl groups with carbodiimides using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and demonstrate that substrate protects the permease against carbodiimide reactivity [38].
  • Site-directed mutagenesis has been used to change the nucleotide C in the wobble position of tRNA(1Gly) (CCC) to U [39].
  • After treatment with a carbodiimide and exogenous nucleophile the Na,K-ATPase has modified carboxyl residues but is not inhibited [40].
  • Electron microscopy studies have shown that the structure of the complex of myosin subfragment 1 (S-1) cross-linked to actin with 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethyl-amino) propyl] carbodiimide is very different in the presence and absence of ATP (Craig, R., Greene, L. E., and Eisenberg, E. (1985) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 82, 3247-3251) [41].
  • To address this deficiency, MMOH and MMOR were cross-linked by a carbodiimide reagent and analyzed by specific proteolysis, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and capillary high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry [42].


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