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Chemical Compound Review

BENTASON     8,8-dioxo-9-propan-2-yl- 8$l^{6}-thia-7,9...

Synonyms: Basagran, Basamais, Bazargan, bentazon, Bentazone, ...
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Disease relevance of Herbatox

  • Sendai virus (SeV) leader (le) and trailer (tr) RNAs are short transcripts generated during abortive antigenome and genome synthesis, respectively [1].
  • Picornaviruses in the cardiovirus genus express a unique 67-aa Leader protein (L), known to alter the subcellular distribution of IFN regulatory proteins targeted to the nucleus [2].
  • A 5' Leader of Rbm3, a Cold Stress-induced mRNA, Mediates Internal Initiation of Translation with Increased Efficiency under Conditions of Mild Hypothermia [3].
  • The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) leader (L) protein is involved in autocatalytic cleavage at the L/P1 junction and in the cleavage of translation initiation factor p220, a subunit of the cap-binding protein complex [4].
  • This report provides evidence that targeting Leader sequence using siRNA could be a powerful tool in inhibiting SARS-CoV replication [5].

Psychiatry related information on Herbatox

  • The program, designed for middle and senior managers, comprises seven educational modules- Living Our Values; Valuing Individual Differences; Leader as Servant; Leader as Visionary; Leader as Catalyst; Leader as Mentor; Formative Leadership; and Leader as Mentor; Motivational Coaching [6].

High impact information on Herbatox

  • The embryonic DNA clone Ig 99lambda contains two protein-encoding segments, one for the majority of the hydrophobic leader (L) and the other for the rest of the leader and the variable (V) region of the lambda0 chain (Cohn et al., 1974); these segments are separated by a 93 base pair (bp) intervening sequence (I-small) [7].
  • Jonathon 'Joe' Howard (Fig. 1) is Group Leader and Director at the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics; he and his research group moved to Dresden, Germany, in July 2001 [8].
  • Duplication of this AU-rich sequence alone within the le RNA confers TIAR binding on this le* RNA and a non-cytopathic phenotype to these rSeV in cell culture [1].
  • Transgenic overexpression of TIAR during SeV infection promotes apoptosis and reverses the anti-apoptotic effects of le* RNA expression [1].
  • The DNA base sequence of NL-1-H-5 clone revealed that the VH region gene of NL-1 cells used the identical or closely related leader (L) and VH gene to those of the myeloma cell line MOPC-21 [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Herbatox


Biological context of Herbatox

  • We have characterized a retrotransposon in Trypanosoma brucei gambiense uniquely associated with the spliced-leader (SL) RNA gene cluster (Spliced Leader Associated Conserved Sequence, SLACS) [11].
  • The H110L mutant cleaved the L/P1 junction almost as well as the wild-type enzyme, and virus recovered from transfected cells retained the mutation and displayed wild-type viral protein synthesis and host shut-off kinetics [4].
  • Consistent with these results, within cells infected with a mutant FMDV lacking the L protease or within cells containing an FMDV replicon lacking L-P1 coding sequences it was again shown that eIF4A and eIF4G were cleaved [12].
  • We further demonstrated, via transient transfection experiments, that the siRNA targeting the Leader sequence had a much stronger inhibitory effect on SARS-CoV replication than the siRNAs targeting the Spike gene or the antisense oligodeoxynucleotides did [5].
  • To study the function of the two putative proteases 3C and leader (L) in processing, we constructed several cDNA plasmids encoding various regions of the FMDV type A12 genome [13].

Anatomical context of Herbatox

  • We have also shown that another unique feature of FMDV L, the stimulation of enterovirus internal ribosome entry site (IRES) activity, is also shared by the ERAV L proteinase but not by ERBV L [14].
  • Polyclonal mouse sera, raised against rL, immunoprecipitated Leader-containing precursors from infected HeLa cell extracts, but did not detect significant pools of the mature Leader. However, additional reactions with antiphosphotyrosine antibodies show that the mature Leader, but not its precursors, is phosphorylated during viral infection [15].
  • In vitro hydroxylation of bentazon by microsomes from naphthalic anhydride-treated corn shoots [16].
  • In vitro metabolism of the herbicide bentazon was studied in microsomal membranes isolated from 6-day-old etiolated corn shoots [16].
  • Pesticides atrazine, bentazone and MCPA influenced the mitogenic activation of lymphocytes and chloridazone showed a significant cytotoxic effect [17].

Associations of Herbatox with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Herbatox

  • We show that transcription of yciT (here denoted deoT for deoR-Type) initiates from a promoter located upstream of a putative open reading frame (denoted deoL for deoT Leader) [22].
  • Here, sequential cleavage of eIF4GI by the L and 3C proteases was demonstrated in FMDV-infected BHK cells [23].
  • Cytochrome P450-dependent enzymes from wheat catalyze the oxidation of endogenous compounds (lauric and oleic acids) and of several herbicides (diclofop, chlortoluron, bentazon) [24].
  • Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus Leader Protein Amino Acid Residue 57 Regulates Subgroup-Specific Virus Growth on BHK-21 Cells [25].
  • The foot-and-mouth disease virus Leader proteinase (L(pro)) frees itself from the growing viral polyprotein by self-processing between its own C-terminus and the N-terminus of the subsequent protein VP4 [26].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Herbatox

  • A strategy based on the hybridization of labeled nucleoplasmic RNA to a short cloned cDNA probe was devised to study the ligation of the three first leader sequences (Le1, Le2, Le3) of the major late adenovirus-2 transcript [27].
  • Northern blot and 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends analysis of antigenome RNA indicated that antigenome initiation occurred at the first position of Le, irrespective of the terminal extension [28].
  • Determination of bentazon residues in water by high-performance liquid chromatography. Validation of the method [29].
  • Likewise, the PCR-RFLP profile of Hha I repeat genes and PCR amplification of Trans-Spliced Leader Exon I (SLX) demonstrated that 15 samples the feline B. malayi were the same as those of human B. malayi [30].
  • A Canadian National Opinion Leader Symposium was held in November 1995 to review the results of the major ACE inhibitor clinical trials and to discuss key issues and controversies surrounding their use in acute MI [31].


  1. Sendai virus trailer RNA binds TIAR, a cellular protein involved in virus-induced apoptosis. Iseni, F., Garcin, D., Nishio, M., Kedersha, N., Anderson, P., Kolakofsky, D. EMBO J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. A picornavirus protein interacts with Ran-GTPase and disrupts nucleocytoplasmic transport. Porter, F.W., Bochkov, Y.A., Albee, A.J., Wiese, C., Palmenberg, A.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. A 5' Leader of Rbm3, a Cold Stress-induced mRNA, Mediates Internal Initiation of Translation with Increased Efficiency under Conditions of Mild Hypothermia. Chappell, S.A., Owens, G.C., Mauro, V.P. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Identification of the active-site residues of the L proteinase of foot-and-mouth disease virus. Piccone, M.E., Zellner, M., Kumosinski, T.F., Mason, P.W., Grubman, M.J. J. Virol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. siRNA targeting the leader sequence of SARS-CoV inhibits virus replication. Li, T., Zhang, Y., Fu, L., Yu, C., Li, X., Li, Y., Zhang, X., Rong, Z., Wang, Y., Ning, H., Liang, R., Chen, W., Babiuk, L.A., Chang, Z. Gene Ther. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. A commitment to values. A system integrates core values with leadership development. Maxfield, M.M. Health progress (Saint Louis, Mo.) (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Sequences of mouse immunoglobulin light chain genes before and after somatic changes. Bernard, O., Hozumi, N., Tonegawa, S. Cell (1978) [Pubmed]
  8. Jonathon Howard. Howard, J. Trends Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. The antibody molecule to common acute lymphocytic leukemia (cALL) antigen used the identical or closely related VH gene segment as that of MOPC-21 immunoglobulin heavy chain. Kudo, A., Nishimura, Y., Watanabe, T. J. Immunol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  10. In vitro studies on the effects of herbicides on the growth of rhizobia. Singh, G., Wright, D. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. SLACS retrotransposon from Trypanosoma brucei gambiense is similar to mammalian LINEs. Aksoy, S., Williams, S., Chang, S., Richards, F.F. Nucleic Acids Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  12. Foot-and-mouth disease virus 3C protease induces cleavage of translation initiation factors eIF4A and eIF4G within infected cells. Belsham, G.J., McInerney, G.M., Ross-Smith, N. J. Virol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Proteolytic processing of foot-and-mouth disease virus polyproteins expressed in a cell-free system from clone-derived transcripts. Vakharia, V.N., Devaney, M.A., Moore, D.M., Dunn, J.J., Grubman, M.J. J. Virol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. Conservation of L and 3C proteinase activities across distantly related aphthoviruses. Hinton, T.M., Ross-Smith, N., Warner, S., Belsham, G.J., Crabb, B.S. J. Gen. Virol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Leader protein of encephalomyocarditis virus binds zinc, is phosphorylated during viral infection, and affects the efficiency of genome translation. Dvorak, C.M., Hall, D.J., Hill, M., Riddle, M., Pranter, A., Dillman, J., Deibel, M., Palmenberg, A.C. Virology (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. In vitro hydroxylation of bentazon by microsomes from naphthalic anhydride-treated corn shoots. McFadden, J.J., Gronwald, J.W., Eberlein, C.V. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. Determination of the immunotoxic potential of pesticides on functional activity of sheep leukocytes in vitro. Pistl, J., Kovalkovicová, N., Holovská, V., Legáth, J., Mikula, I. Toxicology (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Map-based cloning of a novel rice cytochrome P450 gene CYP81A6 that confers resistance to two different classes of herbicides. Pan, G., Zhang, X., Liu, K., Zhang, J., Wu, X., Zhu, J., Tu, J. Plant Mol. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Apical Na+ permeability of frog skin during serosal Cl- replacement. Leibowich, S., DeLong, J., Civan, M.M. J. Membr. Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  20. Direct and indirect effects of the herbicides Glyphosate, Bentazone and MCPA on eelgrass (Zostera marina). Nielsen, L.W., Dahllöf, I. Aquat. Toxicol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  21. Fate of seven pesticides in an aerobic aquifer studied in column experiments. Tuxen, N., Tüchsen, P.L., Rügge, K., Albrechtsen, H.J., Bjerg, P.L. Chemosphere (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. DeoT, a DeoR-type transcriptional regulator of multiple target genes. Elgrably-Weiss, M., Schlosser-Silverman, E., Rosenshine, I., Altuvia, S. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Sequential modification of translation initiation factor eIF4GI by two different foot-and-mouth disease virus proteases within infected baby hamster kidney cells: identification of the 3Cpro cleavage site. Strong, R., Belsham, G.J. J. Gen. Virol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Induction and inactivation of a cytochrome P450 confering herbicide resistance in wheat seedlings. Forthoffer, N., Helvig, C., Dillon, N., Benveniste, I., Zimmerlin, A., Tardif, F., Salaün, J.P. European journal of drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics. (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus Leader Protein Amino Acid Residue 57 Regulates Subgroup-Specific Virus Growth on BHK-21 Cells. Takano-Maruyama, M., Ohara, Y., Asakura, K., Okuwa, T. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. Foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase: specificity at the P2 and P3 positions and comparison with other papain-like enzymes. Kuehnel, E., Cencic, R., Foeger, N., Skern, T. Biochemistry (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. The orderly splicing of the first three leaders of the adenovirus-2 major late transcript. Keohavong, P., Gattoni, R., LeMoullec, J.M., Jacob, M., Stévenin, J. Nucleic Acids Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  28. Evidence that the respiratory syncytial virus polymerase is recruited to nucleotides 1 to 11 at the 3' end of the nucleocapsid and can scan to access internal signals. Cowton, V.M., Fearns, R. J. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  29. Determination of bentazon residues in water by high-performance liquid chromatography. Validation of the method. Pinto, G.M., Jardim, I.C. Journal of chromatography. A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  30. PCR based method for identification of zoonostic Brugia malayi microfilariae in domestic cats. Chansiri, K., Tejangkura, T., Kwaosak, P., Sarataphan, N., Phantana, S., Sukhumsirichart, W. Mol. Cell. Probes (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition in myocardial infarction--Part 1: Clinical data. Huckell, V.F., Bernstein, V., Cairns, J.A., Crowell, R., Dagenais, G.R., Higginson, L.A., Isserow, S., Laramée, P., Liu, P., McCans, J.L., Orchard, R.C., Prewitt, R., Quinn, B.P., Samson, M., Turazza, F., Warnica, J.W., Wielgosz, A. The Canadian journal of cardiology. (1997) [Pubmed]
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