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Chemical Compound Review

Chrysotile     trimagnesium hydroxy-trioxido-silane hydrate

Synonyms: Metaxite, Sylodex, Chrysotile A, Avibest C, Plastibest 20, ...
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Disease relevance of Chrysotile


Psychiatry related information on Chrysotile

  • Pleural mesothelioma is a malignant neoplasm which is specifically associated with asbestos exposure: the risk is linked with the cubic power of time since first exposure, after allowing for a latency period of 10 years, and depends on the fibre type, as the risk is about three times higher for amphiboles as compared to chrysotile [7].

High impact information on Chrysotile

  • Rhapidosomers (cylindrical nucleoprotein rods of bacterial origin) show great structural similarity to the microfibrils of chrysotile asbestos when negatively stained and observed with the electron microscope [8].
  • To determine whether asbestos inhalation induces the formation of reactive nitrogen species, three groups of rats were exposed intermittently over 2 wk to either filtered room air (sham-exposed) or to chrysotile or crocidolite asbestos fibers [9].
  • Pleural mesothelial cells (rabbit or human) were exposed to asbestos (crocidolite, amosite, or chrysotile) or control particles at moderate doses (1-10 microg/cm2) over 24 h and evaluated for oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation, loss of membrane phospholipid asymmetry, and nuclear condensation [10].
  • IL-1 beta and TNF alpha mRNA transcript expression as well as IGF-1 protein synthesis were also stimulated by chrysotile asbestos [11].
  • We have studied the interaction of chrysotile asbestos fibers with rat lung fibroblasts (RLF) in vitro and the consequent changes in PDGF receptor mRNA expression, PDGF binding, and mitogenic activity of PDGF isoforms [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of Chrysotile


Biological context of Chrysotile


Anatomical context of Chrysotile

  • Four weeks after the start of DMBA exposure (when all carcinogen had been released from the pellets), the spent pellets were removed, and 200 micrograms chrysotile, a nontumorigenic dose of asbestos, was introduced into the lumina of the preexposed tracheas [4].
  • To investigate the mechanisms of asbestos-induced carcinogenesis, expression of c-fos and c-jun protooncogenes was examined in rat pleural mesothelial cells and hamster tracheal epithelial cells after exposure to crocidolite or chrysotile asbestos [20].
  • Although xrs-5 cells did not show any increase in sensitivity to chrysotile fibers in short-term (4-h) treatment when compared with wild-type CHO cells, longer-term exposure (24 h) gave significantly lower cell survival accompanied by a cell growth delay as well as a higher DNA DSB induction in this mutant cell line [21].
  • These results demonstrate that a brief exposure to chrysotile asbestos causes a rapid response that involves an influx of macrophages to the first alveolar duct bifurcations and alterations in the alveolar epithelium [22].
  • Pleural mesothelial cells (PMC) from the parietal pleura of rats were incubated in culture with UICC A chrysotile fibers [23].

Associations of Chrysotile with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Chrysotile

  • We have investigated the mitogenic and chemotactic role of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in pulmonary fibrogenesis induced by chrysotile asbestos [28].
  • Suspensions of amosite, chrysotile, or crocidolite asbestos in concentrations as low as 5 micrograms/ml enhanced release of IL-8 from HPMC during 6 h of incubation at 37 degrees C. Electron microscopy of asbestos-treated HPMC showed that the cells avidly engulfed each of the different types of asbestos fibers [29].
  • The effects of crocidolite, amosite, and chrysotile on the EGFR phosphorylation state appeared to be directly related to the amount of iron mobilized from these fibers [30].
  • The expression of IL-1 alpha by fibers (crocidolite, chrysotile, TW, and RCF) may be a good indicator of the pathologic potential of fibers [31].
  • Rats exposed by inhalation to either chrysotile or crocidolite asbestos fibers also had greater amounts of MCP-1 protein in their pleural lavage fluid than did sham-exposed rats [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Chrysotile

  • The intrathoracic administrations of pulverized chrysotile, of cigarette smoke condensate and crocidolite, and of coarse cotton lint, and of intravenous injections of air particulate extract were associated with endocardial tumor in 1 of 15 rats each [33].
  • Here, we show that inhaled chrysotile asbestos fibers cause increased myeloperoxidase activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) and myeloperoxidase immunoreactivity in epithelial cells lining distal bronchioles and alveolar ducts, sites of initial lung deposition of asbestos fibers [34].
  • Rat pleural mesothelial cells (PMCs) in culture at the exponential growing phase were exposed to 5 micrograms/ml of chrysotile (CH) or crocidolite (CR) asbestos fibers: the cells and their chromosomes were studied 48 hours thereafter by light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy (LM, SEM, TEM) [35].
  • The total number of fibers/per gram wet lung in the plaque group (114 x 10(3)) was similar to that in the control group (99 x 10(3), as was the number of chrysotile fibers (51 x 10(3) versus 29 x 10(3)) [36].
  • An extensive review of the epidemiological cohort studies was undertaken to evaluate the extent of the evidence related to free chrysotile fibers, with particular attention to confounding by other fiber types, job exposure concentrations, and consistency of findings [37].


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  11. Hyaluronate activation of CD44 induces insulin-like growth factor-1 expression by a tumor necrosis factor-alpha-dependent mechanism in murine macrophages. Noble, P.W., Lake, F.R., Henson, P.M., Riches, D.W. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Chrysotile asbestos upregulates gene expression and production of alpha-receptors for platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-AA) on rat lung fibroblasts. Bonner, J.C., Goodell, A.L., Coin, P.G., Brody, A.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Selective differences in macrophage populations and monokine production in resolving pulmonary granuloma and fibrosis. Lemaire, I. Am. J. Pathol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Chrysotile asbestos inhalation induces tritiated thymidine incorporation by epithelial cells of distal bronchioles. McGavran, P.D., Brody, A.R. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  15. Influence of metal ions on flavonoid protection against asbestos-induced cell injury. Kostyuk, V.A., Potapovich, A.I., Vladykovskaya, E.N., Korkina, L.G., Afanas'ev, I.B. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Effect of poly-2-vinylpyridine-N-oxide and sucrose on silicate-induced hemolysis of erythrocytes. Oscarson, D.W., Van Scoyoc, G.E., Ahlrichs, J.L. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences. (1981) [Pubmed]
  17. Asbestos fibers induce release of collagenase by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Hedenborg, M., Sorsa, T., Lauhio, A., Klockars, M. Immunol. Lett. (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Sister chromatid exchange frequency in asbestos workers. Rom, W.N., Livingston, G.K., Casey, K.R., Wood, S.D., Egger, M.J., Chiu, G.L., Jerominski, L. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1983) [Pubmed]
  19. Correlation of asbestos-induced cytogenetic effects with cell transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells in culture. Oshimura, M., Hesterberg, T.W., Tsutsui, T., Barrett, J.C. Cancer Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  20. Persistent induction of c-fos and c-jun expression by asbestos. Heintz, N.H., Janssen, Y.M., Mossman, B.T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. Asbestos and DNA double strand breaks. Okayasu, R., Takahashi, S., Yamada, S., Hei, T.K., Ullrich, R.L. Cancer Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. Progressive lung cell reactions and extracellular matrix production after a brief exposure to asbestos. Chang, L.Y., Overby, L.H., Brody, A.R., Crapo, J.D. Am. J. Pathol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  23. Phagocytosis of chrysotile fibers by pleural mesothelial cells in culture. Jaurand, M.C., Kaplan, H., Thiollet, J., Pinchon, M.C., Bernaudin, J.F., Bignon, J. Am. J. Pathol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  24. Sensitivity of hamster tracheal epithelial cells to asbestiform minerals modulated by serum and by transforming growth factor beta 1. Sesko, A.M., Mossman, B.T. Cancer Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  25. Cell type-specific effects of asbestos on intracellular ROS levels, DNA oxidation and G1 cell cycle checkpoint. Kopnin, P.B., Kravchenko, I.V., Furalyov, V.A., Pylev, L.N., Kopnin, B.P. Oncogene (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Alveolar macrophages stimulated with titanium dioxide, chrysotile asbestos, and residual oil fly ash upregulate the PDGF receptor-alpha on lung fibroblasts through an IL-1beta-dependent mechanism. Lindroos, P.M., Coin, P.G., Badgett, A., Morgan, D.L., Bonner, J.C. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Asbestos exposure stimulates pleural mesothelial cells to secrete the fibroblast chemoattractant, fibronectin. Kuwahara, M., Kuwahara, M., Verma, K., Ando, T., Hemenway, D.R., Kagan, E. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Chrysotile asbestos stimulates platelet-derived growth factor-AA production by rat lung fibroblasts in vitro: evidence for an autocrine loop. Lasky, J.A., Coin, P.G., Lindroos, P.M., Ostrowski, L.E., Brody, A.R., Bonner, J.C. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  29. Interleukin-1-mediated release of interleukin-8 by asbestos-stimulated human pleural mesothelial cells. Griffith, D.E., Miller, E.J., Gray, L.D., Idell, S., Johnson, A.R. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  30. Role of iron in inactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor after asbestos treatment of human lung and pleural target cells. Baldys, A., Aust, A.E. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. Effects of mineral fibers on the expression of genes whose product may play a role in fiber pathogenesis. Tsuda, T., Morimoto, Y., Yamato, H., Nakamura, H., Hori, H., Nagata, N., Kido, M., Higashi, T., Tanaka, I. Environ. Health Perspect. (1997) [Pubmed]
  32. Asbestos exposure induces MCP-1 secretion by pleural mesothelial cells. Tanaka, S., Choe, N., Iwagaki, A., Hemenway, D.R., Kagan, E. Exp. Lung Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. Endocardial tumors in rats exposed to durable fibrous materials. Hoch-Ligeti, C., Sass, B., Sobel, H.J., Stewart, H.L. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1983) [Pubmed]
  34. Asbestos-induced lung inflammation and epithelial cell proliferation are altered in myeloperoxidase-null mice. Haegens, A., van der Vliet, A., Butnor, K.J., Heintz, N., Taatjes, D., Hemenway, D., Vacek, P., Freeman, B.A., Hazen, S.L., Brennan, M.L., Mossman, B.T. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. The interactions between asbestos fibers and metaphase chromosomes of rat pleural mesothelial cells in culture. A scanning and transmission electron microscopic study. Wang, N.S., Jaurand, M.C., Magne, L., Kheuang, L., Pinchon, M.C., Bignon, J. Am. J. Pathol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  36. Asbestos fibers and pleural plaques in a general autopsy population. Churg, A. Am. J. Pathol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  37. Chrysotile as a cause of mesothelioma: an assessment based on epidemiology. Yarborough, C.M. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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