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Chemical Compound Review

Pectins     (2S,3R,4S,5R,6S)-3,4,5,6- tetrahydroxyoxane...

Synonyms: pectinas, pectines, Pektine, pectate, pectina, ...
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Disease relevance of D-galaturonate


High impact information on D-galaturonate


Chemical compound and disease context of D-galaturonate


Biological context of D-galaturonate


Anatomical context of D-galaturonate

  • Monoclonal antibodies to epitopes occurring in homo- galacturonan and side chains of rhamnogalacturonan I have been used in an immunolocalization study of cell wall architecture of developing pea cotyledons [16].
  • No or very little galacturonan was found in cecum, colon or feces of most of the conventional rats [17].
  • There were several polypeptides in the outer membranes of bacteria grown on polysaccharides (chondroitin sulfate, arabinogalactan, or polygalacturonic acid) which were not detected or were not as prominent in outer membranes of bacteria grown on monosaccharide components of these polysaccharides [18].
  • A minor xyloglucan fraction, which may correspond to cross-links between microfibrils, shared a lower level of rigidity with some of the pectic galacturonan [19].
  • Electrophoretic mobility of both cell lines treated with this sulfated polygalacturonic acid increased the negative charge of the cell surface [20].

Associations of D-galaturonate with other chemical compounds


Gene context of D-galaturonate

  • PPase SX1 produced by a S. cerevisiae transformant harboring the PSX1 gene degraded methoxylated polygalacturonic acid as a substrate, but not degraded unmethoxylated polygalacturonic acid [25].
  • During zygotic embryogenesis of turnip-tops (Brassica rapa L. cv. Rapa), the polygalacturonase activity (PG; EC, measured as a decrease in viscosity of polygalacturonic acid, reached a high when the desiccation process in the seeded silique was triggered and the valves had lost more than 70-75% of their moisture (45-50 DPA) [26].
  • Furthermore, the activities of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (R2=0.97), UDP-galactose epimerase (R2=0.75) and UDP-galactose dehydrogenase (R2=0.89) were well correlated with the yields of polygalacturonic acid when different sugars were used as sole carbon sources [10].
  • The presence of galacturonan on the surface of TMP and CTMP was further confirmed by immunogold localization [27].
  • The hydrophilic vehicles (hydrogels) based on synthetic polymers (polyacrylates, PEG, PVA, Pluronics, etc.), semisynthetic polymers (cellulose derivatives) and natural polymers (hyaluronic and polygalacturonic acid, alginates, etc.) are then examined [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of D-galaturonate


  1. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Periplasmic Polygalacturonic Acid Binding Protein from Yersinia enterolitica. Abbott, D.W., Hrynuik, S., Boraston, A.B. J. Mol. Biol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  2. Location and characteristics of enzymes involved in the breakdown of polygalacturonic acid by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. McCarthy, R.E., Kotarski, S.F., Salyers, A.A. J. Bacteriol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  3. Polygalacturonic acid trans-eliminase in the osmotic shock fluid of Erwinia rubrifaciens: characterization of the purified enzyme and its effect on plant cells. Gardner, J.M., Kado, C.I. J. Bacteriol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  4. Enzymatic degradation of polygalacturonic acid by Yersinia and Klebsiella species in relation to clinical laboratory procedures. Starr, M.P., Chatterjee, A.K., Starr, P.B., Buchanan, G.E. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  5. Disruption of Vi bacteriophage III and localization of its deacetylase activity. Kwiatkowski, B., Beilharz, H., Stirm, S. J. Gen. Virol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  6. Effectors of a developmental mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade revealed by expression signatures of signaling mutants. Madhani, H.D., Galitski, T., Lander, E.S., Fink, G.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Oligosaccharide signaling in plants. Specificity of oligouronide-enhanced plasma membrane protein phosphorylation. Farmer, E.E., Moloshok, T.D., Saxton, M.J., Ryan, C.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. Structural analysis of the pehA gene and characterization of its protein product, endopolygalacturonase, of Erwinia carotovora subspecies carotovora. Saarilahti, H.T., Heino, P., Pakkanen, R., Kalkkinen, N., Palva, I., Palva, E.T. Mol. Microbiol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Functional implications of the beta-helical protein fold: differences in chemical and thermal stabilities of Erwinia chrysanthemi EC16 pectate lyases B, C, and E. Hurlbert, J.C., Preston, J.F. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. A novel polygalacturonic acid bioflocculant REA-11 produced by Corynebacterium glutamicum: a proposed biosynthetic pathway and experimental confirmation. Li, Y., He, N., Guan, H., Du, G., Chen, J. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Molecular and biochemical characterization of the thermoactive family 1 pectate lyase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima. Kluskens, L.D., van Alebeek, G.J., Voragen, A.G., de Vos, W.M., van der Oost, J. Biochem. J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. pgaA and pgaB encode two constitutively expressed endopolygalacturonases of Aspergillus niger. Parenicová, L., Benen, J.A., Kester, H.C., Visser, J. Biochem. J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Marker-exchange mutagenesis of a pectate lyase isozyme gene in Erwinia chrysanthemi. Roeder, D.L., Collmer, A. J. Bacteriol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  14. Analysis of eight out genes in a cluster required for pectic enzyme secretion by Erwinia chrysanthemi: sequence comparison with secretion genes from other gram-negative bacteria. Lindeberg, M., Collmer, A. J. Bacteriol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Purification and characterization of a new bioscouring pectate lyase from Bacillus pumilus BK2. Klug-Santner, B.G., Schnitzhofer, W., Vrsanská, M., Weber, J., Agrawal, P.B., Nierstrasz, V.A., Guebitz, G.M. J. Biotechnol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Temporal and spatial regulation of pectic (1-->4)-beta-D-galactan in cell walls of developing pea cotyledons: implications for mechanical properties. McCartney, L., Ormerod, A.P., Gidley, M.J., Knox, J.P. Plant J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. The degree of methylation influences the degradation of pectin in the intestinal tract of rats and in vitro. Dongowski, G., Lorenz, A., Proll, J. J. Nutr. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Isolation and characterization of outer membranes of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron grown on different carbohydrates. Kotarski, S.F., Salyers, A.A. J. Bacteriol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  19. Polymer mobility in cell walls of cucumber hypocotyls. Fenwick, K.M., Apperley, D.C., Cosgrove, D.J., Jarvis, M.C. Phytochemistry (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Effect of a sulfated polygalacturonic acid on the proliferation of cells in culture. Tosaka, N. Gann = Gan. (1976) [Pubmed]
  21. The exuT gene of Erwinia chrysanthemi EC16: nucleotide sequence, expression, localization, and relevance of the gene product. Haseloff, B.J., Freeman, T.L., Valmeekam, V., Melkus, M.W., Oner, F., Valachovic, M.S., San Francisco, M.J. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Polyamines and pectins. II. Modulation of pectic-signal transduction. Messiaen, J., Van Cutsem, P. Planta (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. A nuclear gene encoding beta-amylase of sweet potato. Yoshida, N., Hayashi, K., Nakamura, K. Gene (1992) [Pubmed]
  24. Relationships among endo-polygalacturonase, oxalate, pH, and plant polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) in the interaction between Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and soybean. Favaron, F., Sella, L., D'Ovidio, R. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Isolation and expression of the gene which encodes a novel enzyme with polymethoxygalacturonate-degrading activity in Trichosporon penicillatum. Sakai, T., Sirasaka, N., Hirano, H., Kishida, M., Kawasaki, H. FEBS Lett. (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. Cloning and analysis of a cDNA encoding an endo-polygalacturonase expressed during the desiccation period of the silique-valves of turnip-tops (Brassica rapa L. cv. Rapa). Rodríguez-Gacio, M.d.e.l. .C., Nicolás, C., Matilla, A.J. J. Plant Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. A bioassay for methylated galacturonan on pulp-fiber surfaces. Hafrén, J., Daniel, G. Biotechnol. Lett. (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. Semisolid ophthalmic vehicles. Giannaccini, B., Alderigi, C. Bollettino chimico farmaceutico. (1989) [Pubmed]
  29. Immunochemical properties of Vi antigen from Salmonella typhi Ty2: presence of two antigenic determinants. Szewczyk, B., Taylor, A. Infect. Immun. (1980) [Pubmed]
  30. Identification of amino acid residues critical for catalysis and stability in Aspergillus niger family 1 pectin lyase A. Sánchez-Torres, P., Visser, J., Benen, J.A. Biochem. J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Differential depolymerization mechanisms of pectate lyases secreted by Erwinia chrysanthemi EC16. Preston, J.F., Rice, J.D., Ingram, L.O., Keen, N.T. J. Bacteriol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  32. Wall-associated kinase WAK1 interacts with cell wall pectins in a calcium-induced conformation. Decreux, A., Messiaen, J. Plant Cell Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. The use of high-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) as a molecular weight screening technique for polygalacturonic acid for use in pharmaceutical applications. White, G.W., Katona, T., Zodda, J.P. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis. (1999) [Pubmed]
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