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Chemical Compound Review

Uridylic acid     [(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(2,4- dioxopyrimidin-1-yl)...

Synonyms: uridylate, CHEMBL214393, SureCN157644, CHEBI:16695, UMP, ...
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Disease relevance of POLY U


High impact information on POLY U

  • Among the homopolymers of the four common ribonucleotides, activated ribonuclease L degrades at an appreciable rate only polyuridylic acid [5].
  • Differential effects of polyadenylic: polyuridylic acid and lipopolysaccharide on the generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes [6].
  • The WBC-associated RNase activity directed against polyuridylic acid decreased with the progression of neoplastic disease, though serum RNase activity remained unchanged [7].
  • Double-stranded RNA's, such as the copolymers of polyinosinic and polycytidylic acids and polyadenylic and polyuridylic acids, could not alone induce differentiation of the cells, but enhanced induction of differentiation by low concentrations of the D-factor and induced a significant amount of interferon [8].
  • Among other tested RNAs, only polyuridylic acid induced IL-12 p70 [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of POLY U


Biological context of POLY U


Anatomical context of POLY U

  • In pilot studies without tRNA, the binding constant of the initiation triplet codon adenylyl-(3' leads to 5')-uridylyl-(3' leads to 5')-guanosine to 70 S ribosome was found to be an order of magnitude larger than that of polyuridylic acid [18].
  • The extracts, prepared via spheroplasts and depleted of endogenous mRNA with nuclease, translate exogenous natural mRNA and polyuridylic acid [19].
  • A solid support radioimmunoassay has been developed to detect immunoglobulin specific circulating antibodies to polyuridylic acid (Pol U), single-stranded RNA (ss RNA), and single-stranded DNA (ss DNA) in scleroderma and other connective tissue diseases [20].
  • Polyadenylic polyuridylic acid and beryllium sulfate produced an increase in the number of lymphocytes in the T cell zones by 12 to 24 hours, but mitotic activity was unremarkable [21].
  • In contrast, supernatant fractions from the deficient spleens had a reduced ability to incorporate labeled amino acids into protein, both in the presence of endogenous mRNA and in the presence of added polyuridylic acid [22].

Associations of POLY U with other chemical compounds


Gene context of POLY U


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of POLY U


  1. Identification and localization of mutations at the Lesch-Nyhan locus by ribonuclease A cleavage. Gibbs, R.A., Caskey, C.T. Science (1987) [Pubmed]
  2. Comparative study of the interaction of polyuridylic acid with 30S subunits and 70S ribosomes of Escherichia coli. Katunin, V.I., Semenkov, Y.P., Makhno, V.I., Kirillov, S.V. Nucleic Acids Res. (1980) [Pubmed]
  3. Identification of a protein linked to nascent poliovirus RNA and to the polyuridylic acid of negative-strand RNA. Pettersson, R.F., Ambros, V., Baltimore, D. J. Virol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  4. Characterization of a 70S polyuridylic acid polymerase isolated from foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected cells. Polatnick, J., Wool, S. J. Virol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  5. Interferon action: RNA cleavage pattern of a (2'-5')oligoadenylate--dependent endonuclease. Floyd-Smith, G., Slattery, E., Lengyel, P. Science (1981) [Pubmed]
  6. Differential effects of polyadenylic: polyuridylic acid and lipopolysaccharide on the generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Narayanan, P.R., Sundharadas, G. J. Exp. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  7. A white blood cell RNase assay for the possible monitoring of malignancy. Drake, W.P., Pokorney, D.R., Ruckdeschel, J.C., Levy, C.C., Mardiney, M.R. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1975) [Pubmed]
  8. Stimulation of differentiation of mouse myeloid leukemic cells and induction of interferon in the cells by double-stranded polyribonucleotides. Yamamoto, Y., Tomida, M., Hozumi, M. Cancer Res. (1979) [Pubmed]
  9. Cutting edge: innate immune system discriminates between RNA containing bacterial versus eukaryotic structural features that prime for high-level IL-12 secretion by dendritic cells. Koski, G.K., Karikó, K., Xu, S., Weissman, D., Cohen, P.A., Czerniecki, B.J. J. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Distinctive RNA transcriptase, polyadenylic acid polymerase, and polyuridylic acid polymerase activities associated with Pichinde virus. Leung, W.C., Leung, M.F., Rawls, W.E. J. Virol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  11. Shigella toxin inhibition of binding and translation of polyuridylic acid by Escherichia coli ribosomes. Olenick, J.G., Wolfe, A.D. J. Bacteriol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  12. Antibiotic sensitivity of ribosomes from wild-type and clindamycin resistant Bacteroides vulgatus strains. Jimenez-Diaz, A., Reig, M., Baquero, F., Ballesta, J.P. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. The interaction of fusidic acid with peptidyl-transfer-ribonucleic-acid - ribosome complexes. San Millan, M.J., Vazquez, D., Modolell, J. Eur. J. Biochem. (1975) [Pubmed]
  14. Role of the 5'-terminal phosphate of tRNA for its function during protein biosynthesis elongation cycle. Sprinzl, M., Graeser, E. Nucleic Acids Res. (1980) [Pubmed]
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  16. Stoichiometry of GTP hydrolysis in a poly(U)-dependent cell-free translation system. Determination of GTP/peptide bond ratios during codon-specific elongation and misreading. Gavrilova, L.P., Kakhniashvili, D.G., Smailov, S.K. FEBS Lett. (1984) [Pubmed]
  17. Selectivity of antitemplates as inhibitors of deoxyribonucleic acid polymerases. Cavanaugh, P.F., Ho, Y.K., Hughes, R.G., Bardos, T.J. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  18. A fluorescent derivative of ribosomal protein S18 which permits direct observation of messenger RNA binding. Kang, C., Wells, B., Cantor, C.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1979) [Pubmed]
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  20. Elevated levels of antibodies to polyuridylic acid detected and quantitated in systemic scleroderma patients by solid phase radioimmunoassay. Heinzerling, R.H., Weyer, R., Dziuba, D.S., Belviso, H.M., Burnham, T.K. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  21. Early cellular responses to mitogens and adjuvants in the mouse spleen. Moatamed, F., Karnovsky, M.J., Unanue, E.R. Lab. Invest. (1975) [Pubmed]
  22. Splenic protein synthesis in magnesium deficiency: mechanism of the inhibition. Freude, K.A., Zieve, F.J., Zieve, L. J. Nutr. (1978) [Pubmed]
  23. Preparation and characterization of two monoclonal antibodies against different epitopes in Escherichia coli ribosomal protein L7/L12. Sommer, A., Etchison, J.R., Gavino, G., Zecherle, N., Casiano, C., Traut, R.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  24. Interconversion of tight and loose couple 50 S ribosomes and translocation in protein synthesis. Burma, D.P., Srivastava, A.K., Srivastava, S., Dash, D. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  25. Adenovirus type 2 late mRNA's: structural evidence for 3'-coterminal species. Ziff, E., Fraser, N. J. Virol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  26. Comparison of fortimicins with other aminoglycosides and effects on bacterial ribosome and protein synthesis. Moreau, N., Jaxel, C., Le Goffic, F. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1984) [Pubmed]
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  28. The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5, eIF-5, a protein from Zea mays, containing a zinc-finger structure, binds nucleic acids in a zinc-dependent manner. López Ribera, I., Ruiz-Avila, L., Puigdomènech, P. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1997) [Pubmed]
  29. Purification of a soluble template-dependent rhinovirus RNA polymerase and its dependence on a host cell protein for viral RNA synthesis. Morrow, C.D., Lubinski, J., Hocko, J., Gibbons, G.F., Dasgupta, A. J. Virol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  30. Antibodies against a synthetic peptide of the poliovirus replicase protein: reaction with native, virus-encoded proteins and inhibition of virus-specific polymerase activities in vitro. Baron, M.H., Baltimore, D. J. Virol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  31. Dual functions of ribosome recycling factor in protein biosynthesis: disassembling the termination complex and preventing translational errors. Janosi, L., Ricker, R., Kaji, A. Biochimie (1996) [Pubmed]
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  33. Synthesis of polyadenylic acid-containing ribonucleic acid during the germination of Neurospora crassa conidia. Mirkes, P.E., McCalley, B. J. Bacteriol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  34. Alterations in cell free brain protein synthesis following ethanol withdrawal in physically dependent rats. Tewari, S., Goldstein, M.A., Noble, E.P. Brain Res. (1977) [Pubmed]
  35. Ionic strength dependence of the hysteresis in the polyriboadenylate-polyribouridylate system. Spodheim, M., Neumann, E. Biophys. Chem. (1975) [Pubmed]
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